|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||422 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||141.62 km 2|
|Residents:||36,789 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||260 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||03681, 036845, 036846, 036782|
|License plate :||SHL|
|Community key :||16 0 54 000|
|LOCODE :||DE SUL|
|City structure:||Center and 10 districts|
City administration address :
|Am Marktplatz 1
|Mayor :||André Knapp ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Suhl in Thuringia|
Suhl is a county- Mittelstadt in Franconia dominated south of the Free State of Thuringia . It is located on the southern slope of the Thuringian Forest in the valley of Lauter and Hasel . Suhl is set by the state planning as a middle center with partial functions of a regional center .
Due to its history as the location of armaments factories, the elected representatives of the city council declared Suhl a city of peace on February 14, 1991 . Nevertheless, due to the long tradition of manufacturing hunting weapons, the city calls itself the arms city of Suhl in accordance with a city council resolution from 2005 .
Over the centuries, Suhl was a town shaped by mining. In 1952 it became the district town of the Suhl district . The decision to redesign and enlarge the city followed. So within a few years Suhl grew from around 25,000 inhabitants to over 56,000. During the renovation process, extensive old buildings in the city center were torn down and replaced with modern, prefabricated architecture.
In the past, Suhl was known both for its centuries-old arms manufacture and for the automobile and two-wheeler manufacturer Simson . Many people associate Suhl with the work of the composer and interpreter of folk music Herbert Roth . Today there are also well-known winter sports enthusiasts and sports clubs such as VfB 91 Suhl or the SWV Goldlauter-Heidersbach ski club.
- In the northeast, the urban area includes the Rennsteig , as well as the summits of the Großer Beerberg (983 m), the Schneekopf (978 m), the Großer Finsterberg (944 m), the Großer Eisenberg (907 m) and the Sachsenstein (915 m) . Finally, with the Gehlberg district, it borders the northern part of the Thuringian Forest and the Wild Gera Valley .
- In the east, the city center area is bordered by peaks that belong to the Adlersberg massif ( Großer Erleshügel 839 m, Ringberg 746 m, Beerberg 808 m, Großer Dröhberg about 730 m). Furthermore, the urban area extends here over the Vesser district including the upper Vessertal to the Schmiedefeld district on Rennsteig .
- To the south joins the 671 m high Schleusinger Berg (or its Suhler Vor-peaks Steinsburg and Sommerberg ) on the Schneeberg up to 692 m high Small Thuringian Forest , which is already part of the Thuringian Forest-Buntsandstein-Vorland and in the west Suhls merges into significantly lower peaks.
- Within the city, the Domberg (674.8 m), the mountain Hohe Loh (529 m) with the equally high secondary summit Hainberg and the Döllberg (760 m) are important.
Neighboring communities are the immediately adjoining town of Zella-Mehlis in the north ( district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen ), the community of Dillstädt in the west, Geratal , Elgersburg and Ilmenau (all three Ilm districts ) in the east and the towns and communities of Schleusingen , Schmeheim and Oberstadt ( Hildburghausen district ) in the south.
|Great Beerberg||983 m||Gehlberg|
|Snow head||978 m||Gehlberg|
|Great Finsterberg||944 m||Schmiedefeld am Rennsteig|
|Great Eisenberg||907 m||Schmiedefeld am Rennsteig|
- Iron ores : Red iron ore , brown iron ore , magnetic iron ore in vein and sedimentary deposits almost throughout the city
- Copper ores : copper pebbles , copper pecher ore , malachite in vein deposits, but also in acanthodes slate near Suhl- Goldlauter
- Silver ores : pale ores and rarely solid silver in acanthodes slate; Silver grades of gang copper ores
- Manganese ores : brown stone , black glass head in corridors
- Uranium ores : Enrichment of uranium mica and pitchblende in Latvian layers of the red sandstone
- Bituminous coal : coal- bearing shale in Permian sediments
- Spat : violet fluorite , barite , calcite
- Salt : highly enriched calcium chloride spring "Ottilienquelle", redebored in 2003
All mineral resources were mined until the middle / end of the 19th century, iron ores and spar until the beginning of the 20th century. Today they no longer play an economic role.
Suhl includes ten incorporated villages and the prefabricated housing complexes built in GDR times on the outskirts and the city center in the valley in the middle. They are listed in the list of districts of Suhl .
The towns of Dietzhausen, Wichtshausen and Vesser, which were incorporated in 1994, have their own postcodes and phone numbers:
- Dietzhausen and Wichtshausen the postcode 98529 and the area code 036846,
- Vesser the zip code 98528 and the area code 036782.
Archaeological finds in the area of today's city of Suhl prove that people lived there as early as 2000 BC. Around 500 BC. With the immigration of Celtic tribes people settled in the Suhl area. It is assumed that a single farm in the area of the main church, located on the Rimbach, was the first settlement. The salt springs and the iron ore found were probably the reason for the settlement. The initial farm expanded into a village and gradually developed into a town over the following centuries.
Documents from the Fulda monastery repeatedly name a place between 900 and 1155 as "Sulaha". From around 1100 the area belonged to the Counts of Henneberg . The first secure documentary mention dates from the year 1300. The oldest iron hammers in Suhl were mentioned between 1363 and 1365: the Niederhammer and the Lauterhammer. This documents a previous tradition of iron ore mining that goes back to the middle of the 13th century. Reports of negotiations at the Berggericht zu Suhl have been handed down as early as 1474.
In place of an earlier building, the main church of St. Mary was built on the Kirchberg, the oldest settlement center in the city, from 1487 to 1491. After city fires in 1590, 1634 and 1753, the church was rebuilt, most recently in 1761 in the Rococo style.
Early modern age
In 1527 the prince counts of Henneberg-Schleusingen confirmed Suhl's municipal rights and statutes that had already existed before. In 1553 Suhl was designated as a mining town , which grants the town rights and duties as the seat of the mining administration and the mountain jurisdiction. In the same year, gunsmiths from Nuremberg and Augsburg set up shop, and handgun production has been documented since 1535.
Iron ore mining formed the basis for the development of pipe forging and gunsmithing . The manufacture of sickles and chariots is documented in 1155 and of armor , armor and swords in 1499. In 1548 the Barchent and Linen Weavers' Guild was formed, and in 1555 the pipe and gunsmiths guild was founded. In 1563, Count Georg Ernst von Henneberg granted the “locks, gunsmiths, spearers and winch makers” guild privileges . At the end of the 16th century, over 20,000 rifle barrels were manufactured annually. In 1555, the construction of the Gottesackerkirche / Heiligkreuzkapelle located in front of the city gates began. The three main rivers Steina, Lauter and Hasel supplied the drive energy for 37 mills identified in the city area.
After the death of Georg Ernst von Henneberg in 1583, the town fell to the Saxon Wettins as joint property . The first major fire in the city is documented in 1590. Imperial Croatian troops under Field Marshal Count Johann Ludwig Hektor von Isolani looted and destroyed Suhl in the Thirty Years' War in 1634 , after arms production and trade had peaked two years earlier. The troops of the Swedish King Gustav Adolf of Sweden were also supplied with weapons, so Suhl repeatedly appeared to the warring parties as a worthwhile target. Iron and arms production fell into a crisis. Mining has not been able to recover since then.
Suhl was hit by the witch hunt from 1553 to 1699 . In the entire current urban area with the districts of Albrechts , Dietzhausen , Goldlauter , Heinrichs (Suhl) , Mäbendorf , Neundorf (Suhl) , Vesser (Suhl) and Wichtshausen there were 116 witch trials with 74 executions. Four defendants died under torture. On June 26, 2011, the victims of the Suhl witch trials were posthumously rehabilitated.
Organ building has been located in Suhl since the middle of the 17th century. Caspar Lehmann , also known as Kaspar Lochmann, ran an organ building company with Johann Heinrich Mann that is recognized in southern Thuringia. Tested are Suhl instruments u. a. in Steinbach ( Steinbach-Hallenberg ), Ohrdruf and Rohr .
In the 1690s, Duke Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Zeitz tried to revitalize the mining industry. After an appraisal by JM Paräus, mining director, a concept was developed, as a result of which a blast furnace was built in Suhl and numerous mines were reopened or reopened - some with the most modern mining technology, such as a water art (1696 at the Moritz Wilhelm shaft).
On May 28, 1702, 150 dragoons marched into the city under the orders of the Electorate Colonel Roland and confiscated 620 rifles that were to be delivered to the Swedish general Baron Gyldenstein. The order for this was given by the Saxon Elector August the Strong , who wanted to set an example against the flourishing arms trade of the Suhl people with war opponents like Sweden. The occupation troops left Suhl with the hint that they would also pick up those weapons that had been ordered by other foreign potentates. The mobilization of the land militia proclaimed by Duke Moritz Wilhelm was not lifted until July 15, 1702.
Although already uncommon in many German areas, there is a case in Suhl for 1712 in which the executioner Glaser publicly branded two men and four women . He had a gallows burned on their backs for the person called gypsies .
In 1713 Johann Bernhard Bach (the Elder) , a cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach , inaugurated the new organ in the main church of St. Mary. The Bach family was connected to the city, part of this branching family had his musical training with the Suhl town musician and town piper Johannes Christoph Hoffmann senior. received, so Johann Bach (1604–1673), the great uncle, and Christoph Bach (1613–1661), the grandfather of Johann Sebastian Bach, furthermore Heinrich Bach (1615–1692) and Johannes Bach (1604–1673). Georg Christoph Bach (1642–1697) was cantor and schoolmaster in Heinrichs near Suhl from 1661 to 1668. Even in later years, Suhl was considered a good address for musical training. The composer Johann Peter Kellner (1705–1772) learned composition and typesetting technique there from Hieronymus Florentinus Quehl . Kellner was later the teacher of the Suhl-born composer and organist Johann Ernst Rembt (1749-1810). Johann Friedrich Kessel, who was cathedral cantor in Freiberg from 1756 to 1798, and Johann Friedrich Fasch (1688–1755), whose father was cantor and rector of the Latin school in Suhl, also received their training there .
After the Sachsen-Zeitz line had expired, Suhl became part of Kursachsen in 1718 . In addition to the Gothic Heiligkreuzkapelle / Gottesackerkirche, the baroque Kreuzkirche was built from 1731 to 1739 "in front of the city gates". From the last big city fire on May 1, 1753, only the building ensemble around the former lower malt house (today the weapon museum), the Kreuzkirche, two mills and a few houses, including some pipe smiths and hammer mills on the outskirts, were spared. The fire broke out shortly after 10 a.m. in what is now Stadelstrasse in the center of the village and spread through all the streets in the city center through Steinweg. A total of 542 private houses with 220 outbuildings, 490 stables and 161 barns burned down in addition to the public buildings. So that the rifle and barch manufacturers did not migrate after the fire, they received a state construction advance. Several well-known master builders were involved in the reconstruction of the city, such as Gottfried Heinrich Krohne from Weimar , who designed Schlegelmilch's corner house on the market in 1754.
In 1746 the mining industry was almost completely ruined, so that the existence of the rifle factory was threatened due to a lack of iron ore. The ores that could be imported from Schmalkalden or Saalfeld were either too inferior or too expensive. Only two mines were still in operation in Suhl: God's blessing and the Red Crux. The Suhl council asked the supervisory office in Schleusingen for tax concessions and wood allotments for the "inclusion of a demigen Gebürges auf Eisen-Stein" on the Ringberg. The negotiations dragged on for ten years without success.
A city fire on May 1, 1753 caused great damage in the city center, from which the city only gradually recovered.
In 1765, Kursachsen sent the mining officer Wilhelm Gottlob Gläser and his son Friedrich Gottlob Gläser to take over the mining office in Suhl, in order to remedy the grievances that had existed since the 1740s. Supported by the knowledge of the Gläsers and motivated by the orderly conditions, there were a number of people willing to mine, miners and unions. Dozens of mines were opened. The "Henneberg mountain fever" broke out, but only lasted a few years. As early as 1775, more than half of the new mines had ceased operations.
In 1803 the first mechanical printing machine was designed by Friedrich Koenig in Suhl . After his defeat in the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , Napoleon I is said to have stayed in the Lauterer inn.
After the Congress of Vienna , Suhl fell to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815, as did the entire Saxon share in the former county of Henneberg . The office of Suhl was finally dissolved in 1821 and was part of the Schleusingen district in the Erfurt administrative district in the Prussian province of Saxony until 1945 , with the district office being relocated from Schleusingen to Suhl from July 1, 1929.
Although there were still a few mines in Suhl at the beginning of the 19th century, this was not enough to keep the mining authority in Suhl. In 1838 it was moved to Kamsdorf near Saalfeld.
With the industrialization of the gunsmithing trade in the 19th century, important arms factories such as J. P. Sauer & Sohn, C. G. Haenel and Simson & Co. developed in Suhl. In 1840 a training institute for military gunsmiths was opened in Suhl.
In the 1840s and 1850s, as part of the first efforts to open up railways in northern Franconia by Joseph Meyer and later the Hennebergischer Glashüttenverein (Hennebergia AG), several iron ore mines were muted in Suhl and sometimes operated with good yields, but the economic conditions of the operators were not permanently cheap.
In 1861 an important porcelain production started. In the three factories founded in Suhl and Mäbendorf in 1861, 1868 and 1882, over 1000 workers were employed at times. In the first years fired porcelain and later decorative porcelain were produced. Porcelain production was stopped around 1930.
In 1882 Suhl was connected to the German railway network to the south, and after the completion of the Brandleitetunnel in 1884 to the north. In 1893 a shooting station was opened in Suhl , the first and therefore the oldest in Germany. As early as 1896 the production of bicycles was started in the Simson works. In 1906 car production began in Suhl. Racing cars and luxury cars from Simson-Werke, such as the Simson Supra , quickly gained an excellent reputation.
20th and 21st centuries
During the Kapp Putsch , Suhl was occupied by troops. The inscription on the town hall, “In the green forest, the red city that had a town hall shot to pieces” commemorates the expulsion of the militias by the workers' services. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Reichswehr was equipped with Suhl weapons.
With the beginning of the Nazi era , the persecution of political opponents and undesirable parts of the population was responded to by the formation of resistance groups: since 1933 the Domberg Round, which was shaped by social democracy, the communist Regenberg community and since 1936 the Friedberg group. The FAUD local anarcho-syndicalist group also joined forces with the communist KAPD / AAU from Ruhla to form a black crowd .
In 1935 the " Aryanization " of Jewish property took place. This affected u. a. the department store on the market and the Simson works, which were initially transferred to the Wilhelm Gustloff Foundation . The Suhl synagogue in the former Hohenlohestrasse (today the Strasse der Victims of Fascism), built from 1904 to 1906, fell victim to the November pogroms in 1938 . A memorial stone has been commemorating the destruction since November 1985. Among the Suhl victims of the Holocaust are the 27 Jewish citizens who were deported to Poland in May 1942, and another 14 who were transported to Theresienstadt in September 1942.
In 1940 an aviation school was opened, in the buildings of which from 1951 to 1989 the district administration of the Ministry of State Security was housed.
As in most German cities, the industry was completely converted to arms and war production during World War II . There were around 10,000 forced laborers for every 20,000 inhabitants . Submachine guns and machine guns as well as measuring control devices for V-weapon production were manufactured in large numbers . Suhl was spared major air raids , as the existing war weapon production facilities in the city had been classified as insignificant by the Allies. But 25 American B-17 flying fortresses got rid of their bombs on March 26, 1945 over the Fröhlicher Mann settlement in the north of Suhl and over an open field (Dörrenbachtal) from a height of 7200 meters. The target was the - not hit - track body. 31 (34?) Deaths were to be lamented, the Fröhlicher Mann restaurant and 16 other houses were destroyed. Since dispersed SS units did not surrender to the US troops without a fight, war damage occurred in the city in early April 1945.
On April 3, 1945, units of the 3rd US Armored Division under the command of General George S. Patton occupied the city. With the dissolution of the Prussian district government in Erfurt , Suhl was assigned to the state of Thuringia on July 1, 1945 . On July 3, 1945, units of the Red Army took over the city based on the 1st London Zone Protocol of 1944 and the decisions of the Yalta Conference . Suhl became part of the Soviet zone of occupation . In 1947, important works in the armaments industry were blown up (including Krieghoff ) or transported to the Soviet Union as reparations (such as the Simson works). Important experts and skilled workers such as the designer Hugo Schmeisser ( MP18 , assault rifle 44 ) had already been brought to the Soviet Union the year before.
With the start of motorcycle production ( AWO 425 ) in the Simson works, vehicle production experienced a revival in 1950. The Simson-Werke initially produced as a SMAD company under Soviet management, from 1952 on as the vehicle and equipment factory Simson Suhl, from 1968 as the vehicle and hunting weapons factory "Ernst Thälmann" and later incorporated into the IFA combine.
In 1952, after the dissolution of the states in the GDR , Suhl became the district capital and remained so until reunification in 1990. The city center, which had grown over time, was largely demolished and redesigned in a socialist manner under the leadership of the GDR Building Academy under Hermann Henselmann . A new city center was built with a cultural center, town hall, high-rise buildings, expressway, a department store center and administrative buildings. The State Symphony Orchestra Suhl was founded in 1953 (from 1979: Thuringian Philharmonic Suhl ).
Since May 12, 1967, Suhl has been an independent city .
In 1972 a sports airfield was inaugurated in Suhl- Goldlauter , and the first major air day took place in the same year. In 1978 the city attracted international attention as the venue for the European shooting championships.
In 1984 an officers' college for the GDR border troops opened on the Suhler Friedberg (after 1990 an industrial park and part of the Technical University of Ilmenau ). In 1986 Suhl was the venue for the 8th European Volleyball Championships and the 44th World Shooting Championships.
From September 1989 onwards, more and more people gathered in the Kreuzkirche and Marienkirche and demanded democratic rights and freedoms. The first large-scale demonstration on November 4, 1989 was a milestone in the democratic upheaval in Suhl. Since 1990 Suhl has belonged to the re-established Free State of Thuringia. The turnaround led to economic restructuring, unemployment, emigration and population decline.
The vocational school for gunsmiths opened in 1992 as the only school of its kind in Germany. Engravers have also been trained there since 1998 . In 2001 the SRH Institute for Health Professions (IfG) started its work as a technical school for professions in the health sector.
In 1995 the Congress Centrum Suhl (CCS) was opened after the reconstruction of the former town hall . With the hall that can hold up to 5000 visitors and its range of events, the CCS plays an important role in the cultural offerings in Suhl and South Thuringia.
In 1996 a vehicle museum opened its doors in the former Simson factory. The Suhl Vehicle Museum, which reflects the over 100-year tradition of vehicle construction in Suhl, has been located in the Suhl Congress Center since 2007.
In view of the high level of debt (70 million euros, as of 2010) and the steady decline in population of the city, the status of district freedom has been publicly discussed for a long time, but there has not yet been any concrete alternative.
On April 1, 1994 Albrechts , Dietzhausen , Vesser and Wichtshausen were incorporated. These places, which are spatially separated from the urban area, have their own local council , just like the places Goldlauter-Heidersbach , Heinrichs and Mäbendorf , which were incorporated earlier . On January 1, 2019, Gehlberg and Schmiedefeld were incorporated into the Rennsteig .
In 1989 the population of the city of Suhl reached its historical high of over 56,000. In the meantime, however, the population has decreased again. Since the fall of the Wall , Suhl has struggled with considerable emigration, which is why Suhl's residential area is subject to severe dismantling . This applies in particular to prefabricated buildings on the city periphery and in the Suhl-Nord district.
The Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR) published an estimate in 2012 according to which Suhl could only have 27,400 inhabitants in 2030.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. The numbers is census results (¹) or official updates of the respective statistical offices or the City Council itself. The data relate from 1843 to the "local attendees population," from 1925 to the resident population and since 1966 on the "population at the site the main residence ".
¹ census result
As the district capital of the GDR, Suhl was an administrative center. In addition to the district management of the SED and the “Council of the District”, offices of the State Security , the NVA and the officers' college “ Rosa Luxemburg ” of the border troops of the GDR were employers.
The city is the seat of numerous regional authorities and institutions.
|Parties and constituencies||
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||43.6||19th||25.5||9||23.0||8th||25.1||9||29.5||11|
|FW||Free voters Suhl||-||-||-||-||8.8||3||23.4||8th||19.3||7th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||12.1||4th|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||22.6||10||10.6||4th||17.4||6th||15.2||6th||11.9||4th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||2.4||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||5.7||2|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||-||-||3.3||-||6.9||3||3.4||1||3.3||1|
|AfS||Active for Suhl||-||-||28.8||11||12.8||5||-||-||-||-|
|Voter turnout in%||54.1||47.5||47.3||45.0||54.7|
- List of Lord Mayors (since 1990)
coat of arms
|Blazon : “In silver, a tinned, black-jointed red city wall with swiveled, black-studded golden gate wings and a golden gate opening, in it a black hen with a red comb on a green three-hill, growing behind two tinned towers with four black windows each and gold-studded blue conical roofs, between for them a floating, inclined golden ore trough, crossed by a slanted left gold-handled blue hoe. "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: A “SIGILLVM CIVITATIS SVLAE” from the 17th century shows the gate with the hen in it and the hoe and sole crossed diagonally one above the other. The main livelihood of the former Henneberg town was originally iron ore mining. This explains why a mountain hoe, crossed with an ore trough, was placed in the seal image; the latter was later thought to be a sole, corresponding to the word sound of the city name. The battlements and towers symbolize the town charter and the hen standing on the Dreiberg is the symbol of the former ruling Counts of Henneberg.|
The city of Suhl maintains official city partnerships with the following seven cities:
- Bègles ( France ), since 1962
- Kaluga ( Russia ), since 1969
- České Budějovice ( Czech Republic ), since 1979
- Leszno ( Poland ), since 1984
- Lahti ( Finland ), since 1988
- Würzburg ( Germany ), since 1988
- Smolyan ( Bulgaria ), since 1998
Culture and sights
- Suhler Knabenchor under the direction of Robert Grunert
- Suhl Singakademie under the direction of Robert Grunert
- Male choir “Ars Musica” under the direction of Maik Gruchenberg
- Young high school choir under the direction of Nina Hanf
- High school choir under the direction of Ralf Jarkusch
- 1. Jugendblasmusikverein Suhl eV under the direction of Uwe Gutberlet
- Suhler Kantorei under the direction of Philipp Christ
- AWASO (Alfred Wagner Symphony Orchestra of the Suhl Music School) under the direction of Jörg Matthes
- The weapon museum in the city center is located in the historic Malzhaus, a half-timbered building from the 17th century. It exhibits exhibits from the 600-year history of weapons manufacturing in Suhl on 3 floors.
- The vehicle museum in the Congress Centrum Suhl presents around 220 exhibits from all areas of vehicle construction, especially motorcycles from the Simson brand .
- Around the city there are several hiking trails , such as the 25-kilometer Herbert Roth - Panorama -Wanderweg or four different mining trails with visible mine entrances .
- Constantly changing events, concerts and exhibitions take place in the Suhl Congress Center . For example, you can visit the Köstritzer Schwarzbiernacht or the Tattoo Convention every year .
- Congress Centrum Suhl (CCS) with Ottilienbad (adventure pool)
- School and public observatory with Zeiss planetarium
- Outdoor swimming pools in Suhl-Dietzhausen and Suhl-Goldlauter-Heidersbach (Waldbad)
- Glider airfield in Suhl-Goldlauter-Heidersbach
- Cultural construction site in Suhl
- The main church of St. Mary (built 1487–1491) was rebuilt in 1590, 1634 and 1753 after several city fires. With its Rococo interior from 1761, it is considered to be the largest preserved Rococo church in East Germany. The organ is by Johann Michael Wagner , the wall paintings in the sacristy are from the first half of the 17th century.
- Kreuzkirche (built 1731–1739) with a large organ by Eilert Köhler in the main aisle and a small cargo organ in the chapel
- The new construction of the Ottilien chapel from 1843 instead of a pilgrimage chapel
- The Gothic Kreuzkapelle / Gottesackerkirche from 1555 with a choir extension from 1618
- Parish church of St. Ulrich in the Heinrichs district from 1503 (mentioned for the first time in 1116, with a late Gothic sacrament house that is important in art history)
- Town hall (neo-baroque reconstruction 1910, previous building from 1590)
- Weapons Museum in the historic Malzhaus from 1663 (part of a former half-timbered house ensemble)
- Half-timbered ensemble in the Heinrichs district with town hall from 1657 (ground floor 1515; showpiece of the Henneberg half-timbered style )
- Armorer monument on the market square from 1903, symbol of the city
- Half-timbered houses in the Neundorf district
- Rococo house in the Steinweg pedestrian zone (other rococo houses fell victim to the socialist redesign)
- Alte Schmiede, first factory building of the arms company CG Haenel, founded in 1840
- Philharmonic from 1956 (former culture house, was partially replaced by a new IHK building, the portal structure was retained)
- New construction of the city library from 2004 (Weingart-Bauer-Bracke-Hoffmann architects)
- The Congress Centrum Suhl was created in the 1990s through the renovation of the old “City Hall of Friendship”, which was designed based on the model of the Leningrad Ice Palace.
- Ringberghaus , a hotel visible from afar on the Ringberg above Suhl
- The Centrum department store was one of the most influential building of modern Suhler townscape for many years. The department store was built from 1966 to 1969 according to designs by Heinz Luther (collective), Ulrich Möckel and Fritz Popp and is considered one of the most important examples of post-war modern European department store architecture. Since 1990 it has operated as the Kaufhof department store and was closed in 2000. The metal-plastic structural facade by Fritz Kühn and the constructivist fan-shaped staircase made of reinforced concrete by Waldo Dörsch were characteristic of the building . From October 2006 it was dismantled, rebuilt and a parking garage added according to investor plans. The construction of a new shopping center was completed in March 2008.
- near the Kreuzkirche is the small city park with beech trees
- Animal park
Suhl has numerous cultural monuments. They are listed in the list of cultural monuments in Suhl .
The urban area of Suhl is located in a designated nature reserve (as of January 2017) with the name Vessertal.
- Suhl's local mountain is the 675 m high Domberg with a view from the Bismarck Tower. The Ottilien Chapel is located on its slope
- Steinsburg near Suhl-Heinrichs: legendary place that reminds of the remains of an old castle. The rock formation has natural causes and goes back to a magma breakthrough.
- Erletor dam near Hirschbach
- UNESCO biosphere reserve Vessertal , in it lies z. B. the Adlersberg
- Rennsteig in the immediate vicinity of the city
- Pochwerkgrund near Suhl-Goldlauter
- Bismarck tower on the Domberg, a 21 m high observation tower inaugurated in 1896
- Memorial stone from 1947 for the Nazi victims of the district in the Albrechts cemetery
- Memorial from 1975 in the cemetery of Goldlauter for "victims and fighters against fascism", since 1999 "victims of tyranny"
- Soviet memorial for the Red Army with the inscription "Honor the glorious heroes of the Soviet Army - Thank you to the peoples of the Soviet Union " in the Aue II district
- Memorial from 1979 for the victims of fascism with a relief "Stations of the Labor Movement " in the city park
- Memorial plaque from 1998 on the town hall on the market square for 51 victims of National Socialism - the names of the murdered Sinti and Roma are missing
- Stele commemorating the synagogue destroyed in 1938 , since 1985 in the street of the victims of fascism
- Memorial stone from 1994 for Italian military internees who died in the municipal cemetery
- Memorial stone for slave laborers who perished in the RAD camp at the Dietzhausen cemetery
- Stumbling blocks for deported Jewish citizens
- Volleyball: women, 1st Bundesliga VfB 91 Suhl
- American Football: Suhl Gunslingers eV
- Soccer: 1. Suhler SV
- Handball: HSG Suhl
- Shooting center Suhl-Friedberg
- Weightlifting: AC-Suhl eV
- Basketball club Suhl e. V.
- Tennis Club Suhl eV
- Boxing ring 90
- Sports acrobatics club Suhl
- Badminton: SG Feinmess Suhl
- Winter sports: SWV Goldlauter-Heidersbach
- Flugsportclub Suhl eV
- Provincial Cry (cultural festival)
- History fair
- Suhl street theater festival
Economy and Infrastructure
The city lies on the Neudietendorf – Ritschenhausen railway line . Before the Second World War , the station was a stop for trains running from Berlin to Saarbrücken and Tübingen, as well as for a night train from Berlin to Rome (timetable 1935: D 13/14). The city express train pair 150/157 Rennsteig to Berlin-Lichtenberg stopped here until 1991 , in order to make a direct connection to the capital of the GDR on weekdays .
|Erfurt Hbf –Arnstadt Hbf– Suhl –Grimmenthal – Bad Neustadt– Schweinfurt Hbf - Würzburg Hbf||Two-hour intervals|
|Suhl –Zella-Mehlis – Schmalkalden – Wernshausen||two pairs of trains|
|Erfurt Hbf – Arnstadt Hbf– Suhl –Grimmenthal – Meiningen||Two-hour intervals|
|Erfurt Hbf – Arnstadt Hbf– Suhl –Grimmenthal – Meiningen||six pairs of trains|
At the Suhl station, the Friedbergbahn branches off to Schleusingen, which is one of the steepest standard-gauge railway lines in Germany. This route has been closed since 1997, but an association is planning to set up museum traffic between Suhl and Schleusingen.
The Gehlberg train station and the Rennsteig train station are located in the urban area of Suhl, which was expanded in 2019 through incorporation . Through the latter, Suhl also has a connection to the Rennsteigbahn .
Local public transport within the city is offered by the Suhl / Zella-Mehlis municipal transport company (SNG) with several bus routes. In addition, the Suhl trolleybus was supposed to go into operation in 1989, but the project could not be implemented in times of political upheaval. In regional bus traffic, Suhl is integrated into the WerraBus (Hildburghausen district), Meiningen bus companies (Schmalkalden-Meiningen district) and IOV Omnibusverkehr Ilmenau (Ilmkreis) network. For example, the winter sports resorts of Oberhof , Frauenwald and Masserberg can be reached.
Before the Second World War , the arms, vehicle and tool companies in particular enjoyed great international renown.
|Company name||founding year||Today's location||Name at the time of the GDR|
|JP Sauer & Son||1751||Isny in the Allgäu|
|Remo Gewehrfabrik Gebr. Rempt Suhl|
|CG Haenel weapons u. Bicycle factory Suhl||1840|
|Heinrich Krieghoff Suhl||1886||Ulm|
|Fritz Kiess & Co. Suhl|
|Company Luch & Wagner Suhl|
|Walther Steiner Iron Constructions Suhl|
|Selve-Kornbiegel-Dornheim AG Suhl|
|Metal factory Wilhelm Kober||EGS electrical and household appliances|
|Measuring tool factory Friedrich Keilpart and Co.||1878||Feinmeß Suhl|
|Weapons factory Merkel Brothers Suhl||1898|
Important weapons factories in the neighboring town of Zella-Mehlis are worth mentioning , for example Carl Walther GmbH (founded in 1886), JG Anschütz or Reitz & Recknagel in today's Suhl district of Albrechts, which was rebuilt in Schweinfurt after 1945 .
After the Second World War, the Ernst-Thälmann-Werk and the Simson Suhl vehicle and equipment factory were the city's largest employers. These companies were combined in the early 1970s to form the VEB vehicle and hunting weapons factory "Ernst Thälmann". While hunting weapons , sport and air rifles, but also in large numbers Kalashnikovs were manufactured in the weapon production , after the end of motorcycle production AWO 425 light motorcycles were manufactured at Simson , u. a. Simson SR2 , Simson Star , Sperber, Simson Schwalbe , Simson S50 , Simson S51 . With the residential construction combine WBK Suhl (with production lines in the twin town Kaluga and in Berlin-Marzahn), the Elektrogerätewerk Suhl (hot water storage tank, mixer, bread and food slicer, hair clippers), the precision tool factory FMS (most recently part of the Carl Zeiss Jena combine), the VEB MLW Medizinmechanik (today Aesculap) and the Fleischkombinat (today Zimbo ) existed further large and medium-sized companies. Most of the companies organized in state combines were not economically viable after unification.
Significant companies after 1990 include the CD / DVD pressing plant Compact Disc Suhl-Albrechts, paragon AG, Merkel Jagd- und Sportwaffen GmbH (until 1945 Gebrüder Merkel Suhl), the Zimbo-Werk (until 1990 Fleischkombinat Suhl) and the Gramss large bakery. In 2002 Simson Motorrad GmbH filed for bankruptcy, despite the introduction of new models such as Schikra, SC and TS and the manufacture of motor and electric scooters. Lifting equipment, medical instruments, parts for the automotive industry, machine and tool construction products as well as electrical engineering and measurement technology are also manufactured in Suhl.
In 2016, Suhl achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 1,088 billion within the city limits, making it the smallest GDP of all urban districts. The GDP per capita in the same year was € 30,053 (Thuringia: € 27,674 / Germany € 38,180) and thus above the Thuringian but below the national average. In 2017 there were around 21,200 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.7% and thus below the average for Thuringia of 5.2%. In addition to regional employment promotion under the slogan Meer Arbeit , the Suhl Employment Agency specializes in providing jobs on the high seas .
The SRH Central Clinic Suhl, the largest clinic in South Thuringia, is located in Suhl . The house of specialty care comprises 22 medical specialties and sub-areas. Connected to the clinic are the Suhl Medical Care Center, which currently has eight specialist areas for outpatient care, and the emergency service center of the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians.
There are two large housing construction companies in Suhl: the municipal "Gemeinnützige Wohnungsbaugesellschaft mbH" (GeWo) and the workers' housing cooperative (AWG) "Rennsteig" eG. In addition, KLS and many private providers provide housing supplies in Suhl. Housing construction in Suhl had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s, which is why the average price per square meter for rental apartments is around € 5.30. Large new development areas are the Aue, the Friedbergsiedlung, Suhl-Nord, the residential area around the Ilmenauer-Straße and the settlement on Himmelreich or on the Döllberg. From 2001 to 2013 5,729 apartments were demolished in Suhl. In 2001, the Suhl-Nord development area still had a total of 5358 apartments. The plan is to demolish almost all of the district by 2025. 530 private apartments are to remain. For a number of years, Suhl has been striving for high-quality living space. B. through the AWG with the project: Habitat Auengrund. The first apartments were occupied in October 2015.
Suhl has various educational institutions at the primary and secondary level. So z. B. through various primary schools, a support center, two secondary schools, a grammar school (Friedrich-König-Gymnasium) and some vocational schools. Including z. B. the private college for economics and social affairs .
Public safety and fire protection
In Suhl, the Suhl fire brigade ensures fire protection. It is divided into a professional fire department and eight volunteer fire departments . The guard of the professional fire brigade has been located in the hazard prevention center in Zella-Mehlis since July 2006 and houses the former full-time fire brigade in the city center and the tunnel fire brigade for the federal highway 71 . In addition, the Suhl fire brigade is subdivided into the eight volunteer fire brigades Suhl-Zentrum (formerly Hauptwache), Oberland-Lauter, Haselgrund, Goldlauter-Heidersbach, Albrechts, Vesser, Schmiedefeld and Gehlberg.
The Thuringian police are based in Suhl with several offices. As the highest police authority for the whole of southern Thuringia, the State Police Inspectorate Suhl is responsible for the districts of Hildburghausen and Schmalkalden-Meiningen, the southern Wartburg district and the city of Suhl. This includes around 600 police officers who are responsible for around 340,000 residents in an area of 2,890 km². Subordinate to this are several police inspections and offices in southern Thuringia, including the Suhl Inspection Service based in downtown Suhl. The Goldlauter correctional facility is also located in the Goldlauter district of Suhl .
On the Suhler Friedberg, there has been an initial reception center for asylum seekers since July 2014 in the buildings of the former officers' college of the GDR border troops. The facility is designed for around 1200 people, but was temporarily (late 2015 to early 2016) inhabited by more than 1600 people. From January 2015 to December 2015 there were several protests against the home by the right-wing extremist group Sügida, which saw itself as an offshoot of Pegida , as well as numerous left-wing demonstrations against Sügida. Since the spring of 2016, the initial reception center within Thuringia has been classified as a "procedural portal" where asylum seekers wait for their decision. This means that the number of residents and their length of stay have decreased significantly.
sons and daughters of the town
- Friedrich Wilhelm Adami (1816–1893), writer
- Jenny Adler (* 1983), biathlete
- Fredi Albrecht (* 1947), wrestler and referee,
- Ronny Amm (* 1977), racing driver
- Ernst Anschütz (1780–1861), teacher and composer ( O Tannenbaum , the mill rattles on the rushing brook , Fox you stole the goose , every year again )
- Hugo Bästlein (1868–?), Member of the consumer cooperative
- Christian Baude (* 1982), luge rider
- Romy Beer (* 1981), biathlete
- Christian Beetz (* 1984), Nordic combined athlete
- Tom Beetz (* 1986), Nordic combined athlete
- Susanne Beyer (* 1961), athlete
- Thomas Bieberbach (* 1966), motorcycle athlete and enduro world champion
- Constanze Blum (* 1972), cross-country skier
- Sabrina Buchholz (* 1980), biathlete
- Marc de Clarq (* 1967), musician and producer
- Wilhelm Cuno (1876–1933), Reich Chancellor
- Sebastian Döhrer (* 1985), cyclist
- Johann Veit Döll (1750–1835), artist, stone cutter and engraver
- Toni Eggert (* 1988), luge rider
- Wilhelm Endemann (1902–?), Tobacco grower.
- Jens Filbrich (* 1979), cross-country skier
- Michael Fleischmann (* 1986), basketball player
- Johann Flittner (1618–1678), Lutheran clergyman, hymn poet and composer
- Lucas Fratzscher (* 1994), biathlete
- Alexander Gerbig (1878–1948), painter, was a friend of Max Pechstein and was part of the expressionist artist group KG Brücke
- Harry Gerlach (1927–1995), writer and local history researcher
- Alfred Gerngroß (1896–1944), resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Rudolf Gerngroß (1898–1945), social democratic resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Ze'ev Fritz Goldmann (1905–2010), archaeologist, excavator of the Johanniter Coming Acre, museum director
- Franz Göring (* 1984), cross-country skier
- Paul Greifzu (1902–1952), racing driver
- Loni Günther (* 1928), politician (SED)
- Corinna Harfouch (* 1954), actress
- Sebastian Haseney (* 1978), Nordic combined athlete
- Christoph Heyder (* 1974), bobsledder
- Guido Heym (1882–1945), socialist politician
- Karl Heym (1902–1981), party functionary (SPD / SED), persecuted by the Nazi regime and local politician
- Stephan Hocke (* 1983), ski jumper, gold medalist at the 2002 Olympic Games in Salt Lake City
- Johannes Christoph Hoffmann senior, town musician, teacher of Johann Bach (1604–1673) and Heinrich Bach (1615–1692), who married Hoffmann's daughters, and Christoph Bach (1613–1661), the grandfather of Johann Sebastian Bach
- Sandra Hüller (* 1978), actress
- Christiane Huth (* 1980), skull rower, silver medalist at the 2008 Olympic Games
- Horst Kessler (* 1940), chemist and university professor
- Johann Daniel Klette (1632–1700), merchant and councilor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck
- Julius Kober (1894–1970), local historian, writer, head of the Rennsteig Association
- Thomas Koch (* 1984), actor
- Fritz Köhler (1895–1944), communist resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Andreas Koziol (* 1957), writer
- Günther Kraft (1907–1977), musicologist and university professor
- Rüdiger Krause (* 1970), jazz musician, guitarist and composer
- Erich Krempel (1913–1992), marksman, Olympic silver medal in 1936, world championship gold medal in 1939
- Mario Kummer (* 1962), cyclist
- Andi Langenhan (* 1984), luge rider
- Caspar Lehmann (also Kaspar Lochmann), organ builder in Suhl in the middle of the 17th century
- Erik Lesser (* 1988), biathlete
- Max Levy-Suhl (1876–1947), neurologist and psychoanalyst
- Heinrich Philipp List (1906–1942), resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Norman Loose (born 1980), soccer player
- Jörg Lützelberger (* 1985), handball player
- Johannes Ludwig (* 1986), tobogganist
- Matthias Menz (* 1981), Nordic combined athlete
- Tino Mohaupt (* 1983), marksman
- Julian Musiol (* 1986), ski jumper
- Dagmar Neubauer (* 1962), track and field athlete, double world champion in the 4 × 400 m relay in 1983 and 1987
- Marcel Oster (* 1989), luge rider
- Emil Recknagel (1880–1945), socialist resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Minna Recknagel (1882–1945), communist resistance fighter against the Nazi regime
- Johann Ernst Rembt (1749–1810), composer, organist and music historian (including chronicler of Bach's work)
- Lisa Rexhäuser (* 1990), ski jumper
- Irmintraut Richarz (1927–2012), budget scientist and university professor
- Monique Riekewald (* 1978), skeleton pilot, European champion 2003
- Jörg Ritzerfeld (* 1983), ski jumper
- Frank Rommel (* 1984), skeleton driver
- Herbert Roth (1926–1983), composer and interpreter
- Siegfried Schmiedt (around 1756–1799), composer, music editor and proofreader
- Wilhelm Schmuck (1575–1634), legal scholar
- Andreas Schlütter (* 1972), cross-country skier
- Albert Siebelist (1885–1947), social democratic resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Jens Triebel (* 1969), Lord Mayor of Suhl, mountaineer
- Max Urich (1890–1968), politician, resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Albrecht Wagner (1850–1909), English studies in Halle
- Jörg Westphal (* 1968), actor
- Robert Wick (* 1984), biathlete
- Jörn Wollschläger (* 1978), biathlete
- Rolf Anschütz (1932–2008), restaurateur, founder of the first Japanese restaurant in the GDR
- Erich Wurzer (1913–1986) sculptor, artist
- Christoph Bach (1613–1661), composer and grandfather of Johann Sebastian Bach, received his musical training from the Suhl town musician Johannes Christoph Hoffmann senior.
- Georg Christoph Bach (1642–1697), composer, progenitor of the Franconian Bach line, cantor and schoolmaster in Heinrichs near Suhl from 1661 to 1668
- Heinrich Bach (1615–1692), composer, progenitor of the Arnstadt Bach line, received his musical training from the Suhl town musician Johannes Christoph Hoffmann senior.
- Johann Bach (1604–1673), composer and great-uncle of Johann Sebastian Bach , founder of the Erfurt Bach line, received his musical training from the Suhl town musician Johannes Christoph Hoffmann senior.
- Johann Philipp Deisler (1634–1665), physician, doctor in Suhl
- Johann Friedrich Fasch (1688–1758), composer and organist, contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach, received his musical training in Suhl
- Claus Peter Flor (* 1953), 1981–1984 chief conductor of the Suhl Philharmonic, then general music director of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra and conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic
- Johann Friedrich Glaser (1707–1789), physician, doctor and mountain in Suhl
- Johann Wilhelm Grötzsch (1688–1752), Evangelical Lutheran theologian and hymn poet
- Paul Hagemeister (1868–1941), first mayor in Suhl / Thuringia and later district president.
- Mark Hauptmann (* 1984), member of the German Bundestag since 2013
- Reinhard Heß (1945–2007), national ski jumping coach
- Nadja Jenzewski (* 1986), national volleyball player
- Johann Peter Kellner (1705–1772), composer and organ builder
- Friedrich Koenig (1774–1833), as the inventor of the high-speed press, made a decisive contribution to the development of the printing industry and worked for some time in Suhl
- André Lange (* 1973), bobsleigh athlete, multiple Olympic champion and world champion
- Hieronymus Florentinus Quehl (1694–1739), composer and organist, teacher of Johann Peter Kellner
- Karin Roth , Thuringian folk music singer, daughter of folk music singer Herbert Roth
- Hugo Schmeisser (1884–1953), weapons designer
- Louis Schmeisser (1848–1917), weapons designer
- Emil Zehner (1845–1919) factory owner, weapons designer
- Ralf Schumann (* 1962), marksman, multiple Olympic champion and world champion
- Moses Simson (1808–1868) and Löb Simson (1806–1862), founders of the Simson works
- Johann Georg Tinius (1764–1846), pastor to Heinrichs from 1798 to 1809, went down in history as the “book murderer”
- Frank Ullrich (* 1958), national biathlon coach
- Fritz Wagner (* 1999), singer
Under the direction of Rolf Anschütz , the first Japanese restaurant in the GDR was opened in Suhl in 1966 as the Japan department of the HO-Restaurant "Waffenschmied". The story of the most exclusive Japanese pub in Europe, which was expanded in 1977 and equipped with a small Sento bathroom, is told in the 2012 feature film Sushi in Suhl .
Suhl became known on the Internet mainly because the city authorities forgot to pay the fees for their domain in 2001 . The ex-police officer Norbert Suhl from Lübeck then secured the domain, which was automatically canceled. The ensuing legal battle was followed by the media and set a precedent. The city administration has tried unsuccessfully to sue the domain.
A history fair has been held annually in Suhl since 2008. The three-day event is a forum for "providers" and "buyers" of historical-political educational work in the Federal Republic. It is aimed at institutions and representatives from the federal, state and local governments as well as anyone who is interested in recent history.
- Contributions to the history of the city of Suhl. Multi-volume series. Published by the city administration of Suhl 1991 ff., .
- Herbert Bauer: Suhl. City and country in the Thuringian Forest. Council of the district of Suhl, Suhl 1955, p. 288.
- Ulrich Brunzel, Werner Hertlein: Contributions to the mining history of the district town of Suhl. Volume 1. Kulturbund der DDR - Suhl district management, Suhl 1978.
- Hans-Jürgen Fritze (Red.): Historical model of the city of Suhl (= Kleine Suhler series. 10). Authors Association Chronik Suhl, Suhl 2004, .
- Gerhard Hopf, Klaus Dieter Müller: Suhl. 2nd Edition. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1988, ISBN 3-325-00000-2 (city guide).
- Gerd Manig, Dieter Schellenberger: 475 years Suhl. Sutton, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 3-89702-371-7 .
- Herbert Mesch: Suhl. Diamond in the mountains of Thuringia. Jung, Zella-Mehlis et al. 2006, ISBN 3-930588-65-X .
- Hans Nothnagel, Ewald Dähn: Jews in Suhl. A historical overview. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 1995, ISBN 3-89191-742-2 .
- Sven Ostritz (Ed.): City of Suhl (= Archaeological Hiking Guide Thuringia. H. 3). Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2004, ISBN 3-937517-13-8 .
- Ferdinand Werther: Seven books from the chronicle of the city of Suhl in the princes of Henneberg. 2 volumes. Manitius, Suhl 1846–1947, ( digitized volume 1 , digitized volume 2 ).
- Official website of the city of Suhl
- Suhl online information portal for the city of Suhl
- Link catalog on Suhl at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics ( help on this ).
- Gehlberg am Schneekopf. City of Suhl, accessed on January 28, 2020 .
- Schmiedefeld on the Rennsteig. City of Suhl, accessed on January 28, 2020 .
- Werther, Ferdinand: Chronicle of the city of Suhl in the princes of Henneberg . Suhl 1846, p. 79 .
- History. City of Suhl, accessed on January 28, 2020 .
- This view was rejected by Karl Grübner in 1940 in the yearbook of the Hennebergisch-Franconian History Association and favored in 1623/24 as the date of Suhl becoming a town.
- William rectly: The population of the circle Schleusingen, especially in the 17th century , 1914, pages 42-46 ( online at archive.org )
- Udo Jacobs: Mühlen an Steina, Lauter and Hasel (= Suhler Heimat. 1). Erfurt Printing and Publishing House, Erfurt 1994, , p. 72.
- References to Suhl (for the districts see there): Kai Lehmann : Exhibition "Luther and the witches". Suhl area, Library Museum Schloss Wilhelmsburg Schmalkalden, 2012; Ronald Füssel: The persecution of witches in the Thuringian area (= publications of the working group for historical witchcraft and crime research in Northern Germany. Volume 2). DOBU-Verlag, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-934632-03-3 , pp. 246 and 254, (also: Marburg, Universität, Dissertation, 2000); Manfred Wilde : The sorcery and witch trials in Saxony. Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2003, ISBN 3-412-10602-X , pp. 597–617, (at the same time: Chemnitz, Technical University, habilitation paper).
- Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933–1945 (Ed.): Local history guide to sites of resistance and persecution 1933–1945. Volume 8: Thuringia. VAS - Verlag für Akademische Schriften, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-88864-343-0 , p. 239.
- Hartmut Rübner: Freedom and bread. The Free Workers' Union of Germany. A study on the history of anarcho-syndicalism (= archive for social and cultural history. 5). Libertad-Verlag Berlin et al. 1994, ISBN 3-922226-21-3 , pp. 202, 208, (At the same time: Bremen, University, diploma thesis, 1992: History and theory of anarcho-syndicalism in Germany. ).
- Hans Vieregg: What do the children and grandchildren who are still alive say? Thoughts on the "Reichskristallnacht" . In: Free Word . Suhl November 9, 1996, p. 22 .
- Lothar Günther: Missions and Fates. In the air war over southwest Thuringia in 1944/45. Wehry-Verlag, Untermaßfeld 2014, ISBN 978-3-9815307-6-6 , pp. 342-348.
- Development of traditional industrial areas in southern Thuringia until 1990. In: Norbert Moczarski et al.: Thuringian State Archive Meiningen, Department Regional Economic Archive South Thuringia in Suhl. A brief inventory overview. Thüringisches Staatsarchiv, Suhl 1994, pp. 16–24.
- Renate Müller-Leich: Festschrift of the Thuringia Philharmonic Gotha-Suhl: 50 Years Suhl Symphony Orchestra . Rhön-Rennsteig-Verlag, Suhl 2003.
- Thuringian Law and Ordinance Gazette No. 14/2018 p. 795 ff. , Accessed on January 1, 2019
- Tobias Dorfer: Lonely in Suhl. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . December 28, 2012, accessed January 28, 2020 .
- City council election in Suhl 2019 In: wahlen.thueringen.de .
- Election of the district administrators and mayors of the urban districts 2018: District-free city 054 City of Suhl. State Returning Officer Thuringia, accessed on July 1, 2018 .
- News from the twin cities. City of Suhl, accessed on January 28, 2020 .
- Monument - Sights. In: stadtmarketing-suhl.de. Retrieved April 23, 2016 .
- Vehicle Museum Suhl. In: fahrzeug-museum-suhl.de. Retrieved April 23, 2016 .
- Mining earths and huts. In: stadtmarketing-suhl.de. Retrieved April 23, 2016 .
- References from our company. Congress Centrum Suhl (CCS), accessed on January 29, 2020 .
- Bomber hit Bismarck Tower - The Bismarck Tower in Suhl. In: bismarcktuerme.de. February 9, 2014, accessed November 21, 2014 .
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal State of Thuringia. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Project sea work. ( Memento from July 22, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) on the website of the Federal Employment Agency Suhl
- building area Suhl-Nord will disappear by 2025. In: Thüringer Allgemeine. February 18, 2011.
- Vocational training institutions. City of Suhl, accessed on January 29, 2020 .
- Stefan Locke: Sukiyaki in Suhl. Japanese cuisine in the GDR. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . September 11, 2012.
- Film recording of the attempt to land in a storm by the Airbus “Suhl” at Hamburg Airport
- Information on the 4th History Fair 2011 "Divided Land - Common History"