View of the monastery from the east, the Ratgar Basilica in the middle, 1655
|location||Eduard-Schick-Platz, 36039 Fulda|
|Lies in the diocese||Diocese of Fulda|
|founding year||744 under Abbot Sturmius by Benedictines|
|Year of dissolution /
|1803 through secularization|
It was founded in 744 by Sturmius on behalf of Winfried Bonifatius in a Fulda floodplain and was the nucleus of the later city of Fulda . It was dedicated to the Most Holy Redeemer ( Salvator ). Boniface appointed Sturmius the first abbot of the monastery .
In the course of its history as the bishopric of Fulda , the abbey and its possessions were also a spiritual principality in the Holy Roman Empire ; the Fulda abbots were titled one from 1220 Prince Abbot . The territorial abbey was raised to a prince-bishopric by Pope Benedict XIV in 1752 , before it was dissolved in 1803 with the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss .
The monastery goes back to the foundation by Bonifatius in a Fulda floodplain in the year 744. Bonifatius commissioned Sturmius in the summer of 742 to look for a place for the new monastery. Sturmius moved up the Fulda from his hermitage in Hersfeld and found the place that Bonifatius had given him. Boniface had probably heard of this place at a ford , where there was probably a derelict manor from Merovingian times. In the Vita Sturmi of Abbot Eigil the area is called Eichloha; possibly a centmark or a hundred in the Altgauen Grabfeldgau or Buchonia . In 743 the caretaker Karlmann gave Bonifatius a closed estate of four miles around the monastery (the Karlmann donation ). Sturmius and his seven companions from Hersfeld began building the monastery on March 12, 744. From this point on, the place is called Fulda. Boniface made Sturmius the first abbot of the monastery, the legal status of which is disputed in research, and established the rule of St. Benedict of Nursia for monastic life. An ascetic, remote life should be realized in the wilderness. In some areas the strictness went beyond the requirements of the Benedictine Rule. Sturmius was specially sent to Montecassino to get to know supposedly Urbenedictine life there.
In 751 Lullus (Lul) traveled to Rome on behalf of Boniface to clarify some matters with Pope Zacharias . Among them was the request to submit the monastery directly to the Holy See . On November 4, 751, Zacharias decreed that no church official, including the responsible diocesan bishop , was allowed to exercise ordination or jurisdiction or intervene in property relations in the monastery . Whether this was already an exemption in the later legal sense and whether the monastery was completely and exclusively under the jurisdiction of the Holy See through this so-called " Zachariasprivileg " from this point in time is disputed. The monastery and its properties were probably still integrated into the respective dioceses , with the restriction that the responsible diocesan bishop could not act on his own initiative, but required an invitation (invitatio) by the abbot and the convent beforehand. The Zacharias privilege, however, was the basis for the later development towards the exempt status of the Fulda main monastery and its daughter monasteries and finally for the elevation to the diocese. In this context, the question of diocesan membership of the main monastery located in the border area between Mainz and Würzburg, which seems to have recently been resolved in favor of Mainz, was at times controversial and also intensely discussed in research since the 18th century. Since the later Middle Ages it was, however, as an exemte exclave, in the small archdeaconate Fulda of the diocese of Würzburg, which included the parishes of Fulda, Kämmerzell and Florenberg .
Development as an imperial monastery
After his murder on June 5, 754 in Dokkum , Bonifatius was transferred to Mainz . At this point in time the first tensions between the diocese of Mainz and the monastery of Fulda became apparent. The Mainz clergy tried to have Boniface buried in Mainz. To prevent this, Sturmius traveled to Mainz with some monks. He pointed out Boniface's wish to find his burial place in his own monastery . Even the mighty diocese could not shut itself off from this, so that the corpse was transferred to Fulda, where it was buried in front of the cross altar of the Salvator Basilica.
When the martyrdom of Boniface became known in the Franconian Empire , the Fulda Monastery quickly developed into a heavily frequented place of pilgrimage . Sturmius took advantage of this. He maintained the cult of the martyr and his grave in Fulda, which brought the monastery significant land donations. The importance of the new martyr for the monastery is evident in the rapid change in the monastery patronage. While the monastery was mentioned in 751 as " monasterium sancti Salvatoris ", the name " monasterium sancti Bonifatii " appears before 761 .
Since Bonifatius had only personally assumed the rank of archbishop after the failure of his plan to establish a metropolitan constitution , but his diocese Mainz had not been elevated to the metropolis of an archbishopric and his successor Lul had initially only been ordained bishop of Mainz - only in 780/2 the elevation to archbishop of a Mainz archbishopric took place - Lul began to expand his bishopric from 754 . He incorporated the dioceses of Erfurt and Büraburg into his diocese, but failed in the attempt to bring the Fulda monastery, privileged by the Pope, under his suzerainty. Above all, Lul hindered the Zacharias privilege, which he had been instrumental in establishing only three years earlier. Lul succeeded, however, with some monks of the Fulda convent, to discredit Abbot Sturmius with King Pippin . This exiled Sturmius in 763 to the Abbey of Jumièges , and the papal exemption for the monastery was drafted. Lul installed his follower Markus as abbot. But both met with considerable resistance in the convent of the monastery, so that Lullus finally allowed the free election of abbot. The Sturmius supporter Prezzold was elected, who administered the monastery until Sturmius returned to Fulda in 765, again recognized as abbot by Pippin. The monastery received the Zacharias privilege back and was placed under royal protection at the same time; thus the dispute over the uncertain legal status of the monastery was put to an end, as it was now given the legally unambiguous status of an imperial monastery. Lul responded by founding his own monastery, the Hersfeld Abbey , based on the Bonifatian model .
Due to the royal protection, the imperial abbey of Fulda was tied more closely to the Franconian kingdom and received many donations from the kings. The most important donations in 766 were the royal court Umstadt von Pippin and 777 the royal fiscus Hammelburg from Charlemagne . This also gave the abbey in 774 ecclesiastical immunity .
Fulda Monastery in the Saxon Wars
The Saxon campaign of Charlemagne from 772 was followed by violent retribution by the Saxons. In 773 the Fritzlar monastery was overrun, and in 778 the Fulda monastery was also threatened. The monks fled south with the remains of Boniface. Nevertheless, from 775 to 777, the Christianization of Saxon areas began from Fulda . The old Saxon tribal leader Hessi († 804), who had submitted to Charlemagne in 775, later entered the monastery as a monk and gave him two goods. Under the leadership of Sturmius, preachers and clergy went to the area of the upper Weser and the Leine . The focus here was on Hamelin and Brunshausen near Gandersheim , where the abbey owned daughter monasteries until the 10th century, which were consecrated to St. Boniface. Another proof of the influence of the Fulda abbey in this area is the elevation of Erkanbert, a monk from Fulda, to the first bishop of Minden . Sturmius was on the Eresburg during the Saxon campaign in 779 , where he fell seriously ill. He returned to Fulda. In his farewell speech he warned the monks to maintain their order of life ("in proposito vestro perseverate"). Sturmius died around December 17, 779 and was buried in the choir of the monastery church he had built.
Growth and beginnings of the crisis
Sturmi's successor was Baugulf, a brother of the Minden bishop Erkanbert. Baugulf was in close contact with the royal court and with Charlemagne, who visited the main monastery in July 782. In his “Epistola de litteris colendis” he asked the monks to do more for education. This set in motion the development of a well-known convent school. As early as 798, the talented students Hrabanus Maurus and Hatto were sent to Tours for further studies with Alcuin . Other Fulda monks completed their education under Baugulf's successor Ratger (or Ratgar) at the court school of Charlemagne. Baugulf began building new buildings in the monastery in 791. During this time, construction work began on the new monastery church, the Ratgar basilica . The abbey had grown rapidly through many donations and donations. As early as 781, a list of names of the abbey showed 364 monks, but most of them were spread over the many churches and areas of the abbey. However, this growth, the imperial political demands on the abbey and the construction work that had just begun in the monastery led to disputes between the monks and the abbot. Although the abbot had influential advocates (e.g. Alcuin), Baugulf was unable to unite the convent behind him . He resigned his office in June 802 and retired to Wolfsmünster near Hammelburg, where he died in 815.
Conflicts about the building of the Ratgar basilica and the monastic self-image
Between 791 and 819, the Ratgar basilica (named after Abbot Ratgar ) was built as a double-choir complex with a western transept based on the Roman model (Romano more), at that time one of the largest and most innovative church buildings north of the Alps. Under its builder, Abbot Ratgar, Fulda gained on the one hand connection to the Carolingian Renaissance , but on the other hand the overexertion of the convent due to the ambitious building program as well as Abbot Ratgar's authoritarian management style and his interventions in the traditional way of life (consuetudines) of the monastery led to serious internal disputes which culminated in the flight of some of the monks and finally ended in the second attempt with the removal of the abbot by Emperor Ludwig the Pious . The overburdening of the convention and unresolved questions about the monastic self-image, which was shaken by the rapid advancement of the imperial abbey from the ascetic beginnings of a solitary monastery in the age of the Carolingian Renaissance, had led to a deep crisis. Now the monastery reform of Benedict von Aniane in Fulda was carried out by Missi Ludwigs , before permission was given to elect a successor. After long and bitter conflicts it finally fell on one of the main opponents of Ratgar, a relative of the founder abbot Sturmi, Eigil (818-822). According to his biographer Brun Candidus, he succeeded in restoring the unity of the divided convention through a regiment that heeded the advice of the brothers on all important issues. In addition to two crypts in the Salvator Basilica, he built the still-preserved Michael’s Church as a cemetery church , a central building over eight columns with vaults or dome and crypt, the vault of which is supported by a central column. Before completion of the new construction of the convent building, which was against his wishes in the west (near Boniface's grave) instead of in the south (near the storm grave), he died after he himself had his grave in the crypt of St. Michael's Church, following the example of Benedict of Nursia dug out and confessed his sin and asked forgiveness from the confreres. He promoted Sturmi's cult, reorganized its Anniversar celebration and probably caused Hrabanus Maurus to create an illuminated sacramentary that combined the Gelasian and Gregorian traditions and is to be regarded as the forerunner of the famous Fulda sacramentary of the Lower Saxony State and University Library in Göttingen (approx. 975) . Fulda deviations from the principles of the Anian reform can also be observed under him and later.
Turning away from monastic discipline and attempting reform
Even during the crisis under Abbot Ratgar, questions of monastic self-image and rule observation had been raised. Again and again in the history of the monastery, as in the other Benedictine monasteries, after phases of loosening the observance of religious rules and consuetudines , often also the neglect of administration and the alienation of monastic property, efforts to reorganize and reform, so among the Abbots Eigil, Sigehard, Huoggi, Poppo , Richard, Ruothart, Aleholf, Markward , Markward II. Von Bickenbach , Heinrich V. von Weilnau , Heinrich VII. Von Kranlucken , Johann I. von Merlau , Johann II. Von Henneberg-Schleusingen , Philipp Schenk zu Schweinsberg and Balthasar von Dernbach . Mostly they responded to impulses of the monstrous reform movements, such as the Anian reform , the monastery reform of Gorze as well as the Hirsau reform and the Bursfeld congregation as well as finally counter-reformatory efforts with the help of Jesuits . Even Pope Benedict XII. and the Council of Constance and the Council of Basel had campaigned for monastery reform. Even so, the gradual decline of intellectual, cultural and spiritual life could not be stopped. Numerous feuds and wars, conflicts with the surrounding aristocratic families, economic difficulties due to the indebtedness and pledging of monastery property as well as the expensive tasks of the abbots in the imperial service combined with their frequent and long absence and their need for representation did the rest. The monastery developed more and more into a supply institution for its noble conventuals and the abbots and provosts. Corresponding to this was the separation of income, which dates back to the 9th century and has been consistently applied since the 11th century, into the mensa abbatis (“table of the abbot”) and the mensa fratrum (“table of the Brothers ”) as well as the outsourcing of more and more benefices for the functionaries. The number of conventuals steadily decreased and was limited by a numerus clausus since the 13th century. The position of the numerically narrowly limited chapter became more and more dominant; there could hardly be any talk of an actual convention. The offices and provosts were increasingly divided into benefices for the conventuals of the main monastery. Life became more and more similar to that of canons or canons, and hardly anything remained of the original ideals of the Benedictines and the Regula Benedicti , strict asceticism , loneliness, lack of property, community life, manual labor, prayer and the search for God.
Under Eigil, the Fulda literary business, whose only well-known representative had been his later successor Hrabanus Maurus , first reached a certain breadth. Eigil himself wrote the programmatic biography of the founding abbot Sturmi, which also included the history of the founding of the monastery and propagated its monastic orientation towards the ideal of an ascetic solitary monastery of Benedictine tradition. He commissioned the priest monk Brun Candidus to write the biography of the second abbot Baugulf from Fulda , who was later to write Eigil's own biography at the suggestion of Abbot Hrabanus Maurus. The Fulda literary business then reached its heyday under Eigil's successor Abbot Hrabanus Maurus, who had probably been designated as early as 818, through his writings and those of his numerous students. The monastery, comprising more than 600 monks, grew into the scientific center of the empire, attracting students and scholars from all parts of the empire. The monastery library , which was significantly built up by Rabanus Maurus and Rudolf von Fulda , the head of the monastery school, comprised around 2000 manuscripts, making it one of the largest of its time. These included copies of several rare ancient works, including by Tacitus , Frontinus and Ammianus Marcellinus .
Painting and writing school
In addition to the scriptorium of the Abbey of Fulda, which was still influenced by Anglo - Saxon until around 840 and then finally changed to Carolingian minuscule , there was also an efficient center for illuminating in the Carolingian and Ottonian times and in the 12th century . There are also literary references and scant remnants of monumental wall paintings from the Carolingian ( St. Salvator , St. Peter (Petersberg) ) and late Ttonian periods ( St. Andrew ). Mainly illuminated Gospels have survived from the Carolingian period. In addition, there are copies of the figure poetry cycle De laudibus sanctae crucis by Hrabanus Maurus as well as initiatives for the development of illustrated literature. In the Ottonian period, the emphasis seems to have shifted to the production of sacramentaries . The main works of Ottonian book illumination around 970–980 were the Codex Wittekindeus , a splendid gospel book and one of the most important works of Ottonian book art , as well as the similarly important Fulda sacramentary from Göttingen.
The monastery gained more and more influence in the following centuries through donations. In Maingau , too, it gained rich property due to donations from the Franconian nobility. Numerous side monasteries emerged, especially since the 9th century: Abterode / Abbetesrode , St. Andreas (Rome), Baugolfsmünster , Brachau , Frauenberg (Fulda) , Holzkirchen (Lower Franconia) , Johannesberg (Fulda) , Michaelsberg (Fulda) , Neuenberg (Fulda ) , Johannisberg (Rheingau) , Petersberg (Fulda) , Sala , Sannerz , Solnhofen , including women's monasteries: Allendorf , Blankenau , Höchst , Kapellendorf , Karsbach St. Maria (Fulda) , Mattenzell, Milz , Mühlhausen (Thuringia) , Rodenbach near Hanau , Rohr monastery (Thuringia) , Teutleben (Hörsel) , Tauberbischofsheim , Thulba , Wenkheim , Propstei Zella (Rhön) , Zellingen . Some of these provosts were later converted into collegiate monasteries: St. Bonifatius (Großburschla) , St. Bonifatius (Hameln) , Hünfeld , Rasdorf , Salmünster .
In connection with the transfer of relics of the martyr Alexander , the chapel of St. Ursula in Kempraten is mentioned for the first time in 835 : a deacon of the Fulda Abbey was warmly welcomed by a beneficial priest in Kempraten on his return trip from Italy . Relics of the saint handed over to gratitude founded the history of the pilgrimage site, where many people sought healing in physical and spiritual distress , as the monk Rudolf von Fulda recorded.
Origin of the city of Fulda
From 968 the abbot of Fulda was abbot primate of all German Benedictines . During this time, the first farmers and craftsmen settled around the monastery. The monastery received special support from Heinrich II. In 1012, at the request of abbot Branthog, he gave the monks the royal forest surrounding the monastery, and in 1019 he gave the abbey and settlement the right to coin, market and customs. 1114 Fulda is mentioned for the first time as a city (civitas). In the period that followed, the city tried to enforce its rights against the claims of the abbots.
Alienation of the monastery property in the 12th century led to the economic decline of the monastery. It was not until Abbot Markward I (1150–1165) that many of these goods were restituted. One also resorted to forgery of documents. The Fulda monk Eberhard, who summarized the possessions of the abbey in the so-called “ Codex Eberhardi ”, “modified” old documents often in favor of the monastery.
The Fulda bishopric as a spiritual principality
From 1170 the Fulda abbots had the status of imperial princes . In 1220 the abbey was raised to the status of a prince abbey by Emperor Friedrich II on the occasion of the Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis . In 1356 Emperor Charles IV awarded the prince abbot the honorary title "Arch Chancellor of the Empress". The Fuldaer Land with its monastery and city stood in the field of tension between the Archdiocese of Mainz and the Landgraviate of Hesse . Under Abbot Reinhard von Weilnau (1449–1476) the development of the imperial monastery into a territorial principality came to an end.
In 1570 Balthasar von Dernbach became prince abbot of Fulda. To reform the bishopric he called the Jesuits to Fulda in 1571 and from 1602 pushed through the Counter-Reformation against the resistance of the largely evangelical nobility . During the Thirty Years War , troops from the neighboring Protestant Landgraviate of Hesse occupied the area of the bishopric of Fulda in 1631 . Landgrave Wilhelm V received Fulda as a Swedish imperial loan from King Gustav II. Adolf and ruled the monastery area as Prince of Buchen . Prince Abbot Johann Bernhard Schenk zu Schweinsberg had to flee and died in 1632 during the Battle of Lützen . Only Hermann Georg von Neuhof , the prince abbot but one, achieved the restitution of the abbey and the ecclesiastical principality in the Peace of Prague in 1635 and then returned to Fulda. In 1700 Prince Abbot Adalbert von Schleifras appointed Johann Dientzenhofer as master builder and commissioned him to build a new cathedral and a city palace in the Baroque style on the site of the Ratgar basilica . The medieval building fell victim to this.
End of the spiritual principality
With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, the clerical principality was dissolved. In 1803 the Fulda seminary moved into the convent building of the 1802 in the course of the secularization together with all its provosts and collegiate monasteries. The Fulda possessions became part of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda and in 1866 came to the Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau as the Province of Fulda . With this, the history of the Fulda monastery after almost 1060 years, like that of so many other important monasteries, had come to an end.
To the further history of the diocese
and Josef Leinweber, history (see links below)
Abbots, prince abbots and bishops of Fulda
For an overview: Friedhelm Jürgensmeier among others: The Benedictine monasteries and nunneries in Hesse. (Germania Benedictina 7 Hessen). Eos, St. Ottilien 2004, ISBN 3-8306-7199-7 , pp. 375–379 (overview of the source editions); Pp. 415–422 (overview of the archive material); Pp. 422–425 (overview of views and plans); Pp. 425–434 (overview of numismatic , sphragistic and heraldic sources)
- Karl Christ (Hrsg.): The library of the Fulda monastery in the 16th century. The manuscript directories. Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1933. (Supplement to the Central Journal for Libraries 64)
- Franz Falk : Contributions to the reconstruction of the old Bibliotheca fuldensis and Bibliotheca laureshamensis (= supplements to the Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen , vol. 26). Harrasowitz, Leipzig 1902.
- Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke (Ed.): Traditiones et Antiquitates Fuldenses . Müller, Fulda 1844. ( digitized as PDF )
- Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke (Ed.): Codex diplomaticus Fuldensis . Fischer, Cassel 1850-1862 (reprint: Zeller, Aalen 1962).
- Walter Heinemeyer (Ed.): Chronica Fuldensis. The Darmstadt fragments of the Fulda Chronicle. Böhlau, Cologne Vienna 1976. (Archive for Diplomatic History of Writing, Seals and Heraldry, Supplement 1)
- Heinrich Meyer zu Ermgassen (Hrsg.): The Codex Eberhardi of the Fulda monastery. Vol. 1-4. NG Elwert, Marburg 1995-2009. (Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse 58)
- Gangolf Schrimpf and others (ed.): Medieval book directories of the Fulda monastery and other contributions to the history of the Fulda monastery library in the Middle Ages . Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1992.
- Edmund Ernst Stengel : Document book of the Fulda monastery. Elwert, Marburg 1913, 1956. (Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse and Waldeck X 1, 1–3)
Most of the written records are now kept in the Hessian State Archives in Marburg . The stock of documents (751–1837) was re-indexed between 2008 and 2010. For the 2,453 documents , full registers were created, which in turn are linked to digital images of the individual pieces. The registers and digital copies can be viewed online via the Hessen archive information system (Arcinsys Hessen).
The most comprehensive and up-to-date literature review, compiled by Berthold Jäger and Regina Pütz, can be found in: Werner Kathrein and others: Fulda, St. Salvator (see below), pp. 379-415.
- Marc-Aeilko Aris , Regina Pütz: Bibliotheca Fuldensis. Selected manuscripts and fragments of manuscripts from the medieval library of the Fulda monastery . Parzeller, Fulda 2010 ISBN 3-7900-0432-4 (Fulda informs: Documentation on city history 29)
- Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009) (Fuldaer Studien 13). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 .
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: New information on the legal status of the Fulda Abbey from the Vita Aegil of Brun Candidus . In: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte. 41, 1991, pp. 11-29.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: The Vita Aegil of Brun Candidus as a source for questions from the history of Fulda in the age of the Anian reform . In: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte. 42, 1992, pp. 19-48.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: Text image and architecture as carriers of an ecclesiological conception of monastery history. The Carolingian Vita Aegil by Brun Candidus von Fulda (approx. 840) . In: Gottfried Kerscher (Ed.): Hagiography and Art. The cult of saints in writing, images and architecture . Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-496-01107-6 , pp. 75-106.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: The Vita Aegil abbatis Fuldensis of Brun Candidus. An opus geminum from the age of the Anian reform in biblical-figural background style Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main, 1992, ISBN 3-7820-0649-6 . (Fulda University Theses 17)
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: The murder of the Archbishop Bonifatius by the Frisians. Searching for and shaping a martyrdom out of ecclesiastical necessity? . In: Archive for Middle Rhine Church History 57, 2005, pp. 95–132.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: Sturmi or Bonifatius. A conflict in the age of the Anian reform about identity and monastic self-image as reflected in the altar rituals of Hrabanus Maurus for the Salvator Basilica in Fulda. With appendices to the tradition and critical edition of the tituli as well as to text sources on the architecture and building history of the Salvator Basilica. In: Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979-2009). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 . (Fulda Studies 13)
- Gereon Becht-Jördens, Wolfgang Haubrichs : Fulda , in: Martin Schubert (Hrsg.): Writing places of the German Middle Ages. Scriptoria - Works - Patrons. De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2013, pp. 175–215. ISBN 978-3-11-021792-6
- Winfried Böhne (ed. :): Hrabanus Maurus and his school . Festschrift of the Rabanus-Maurus-Schule 1980. Self-published, Fulda 1980.
- Hartmut Broszinski , Sirka Heyne (ed.): Fulda manuscripts from Hessen. With further loans from Basel, Oslo, the Vatican and Wolfenbüttel. Catalog for the exhibition on the occasion of the anniversary "1250 years of Fulda" Hessian State Library Fulda, April 19 to May 31, 1994. Fuldaer Verlagsanstalt, Fulda 1994. (Publications of the Hessian State Library Fulda 6)
- Karl Christ: The library of the Fulda monastery in the 16th century. The manuscript directories. Harrassowitz 1933. (Supplement to Zentralblatt für Bibliothekwesen 64)
- Ottfried Ellger: The Michaelskirche in Fulda as evidence of the care for the dead. On the conception of a cemetery and grave church in the Carolingian monastery Fulda Parzeller, Fulda 1989, ISBN 3-7900-0192-9 . (Publications of the Fulda History Association 55)
- Klaus Gugel: Which surviving medieval manuscripts can be attributed to the library of the Fulda monastery? Vol. 1-2. Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1995–1996, ISBN 3-7820-0717-4 , ISBN 3-7820-0734-4 . (Fulda University Theses 23)
- Wolfgang Hamberger et al. (Hrsg.): History of the city of Fulda. From the beginning to the end of the Old Kingdom. Parzeller, Fulda 2009, ISBN 978-3-7900-0397-0 .
- Ulrich Hussong : Studies on the history of the imperial abbey of Fulda up to the turn of the millennium. Part I-II. In: Archives for Diplomatics. 31, 1985, pp. 1-225; Archives for diplomacy. 32, 1986, pp. 129-304.
- Ulrich Hussong: The Fulda mark in the Wetterau . In: Ottfried Dascher / Reinhard Pfnorr (ed.): Nidda. The history of a city and its surrounding area , Verlag Niddaer Heimatmuseum, Nidda 2nd edition 2003, pp. 9–21 - ISBN 3-9803915-8-2 .
- Walter Heinemeyer, Berthold Jäger (Ed.): Fulda in his story. Landscape Imperial Abbey City. Elwert, Marburg 1995, ISBN 3-7900-0252-6 . (Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse 57)
- Berthold Jäger: Fulda in the Old Kingdom. Parzeller, Fulda 1996, ISBN 3-7900-0275-5 . (Publications of the Fulda History Association 59)
- Berthold Jäger: The ecclesiastical principality of Fulda in the early modern period: sovereignty, estates, etc. princely administration. Elwert, Marburg 1986. (Publications of the Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies 39)
- Berthold Jäger: On the economic and legal development of the Fulda monastery in its early days. In: Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979-2009). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7820-0919-5 , pp. 81-120. (Fulda Studies 13)
- Werner Kathrein, Andreas Greif (Hrsg.): Heritage and mission. 1250 years monastery - Hochstift - Diocese of Fulda. Review of the anniversary year . Parzeller, Fulda 1995, ISBN 3-7900-0262-3 .
- Werner Kathrein and others: Fulda, St. Salvator . In: Friedhelm Jürgensmeier among others: The Benedictine monasteries and nunneries in Hessen. Eos, St. Ottilien 2004, ISBN 3-8306-7199-7 , pp. 213-434. (Germania Benedictina 7 Hessen)
- Eva Krause: The councilor basilica in Fulda. An investigation into the history of research. Parzeller, Fulda 2002, ISBN 3-7900-0342-5 . (Sources and treatises on the history of the abbey and diocese of Fulda 27)
- Josef Leinweber: The Fulda Monastery before the Reformation. Parzeller, Fulda 1972, ISBN 3-7900-0012-4 .
- Karl Schmid (Hrsg.): The monastery community of Fulda in the early Middle Ages. Wilhelm Fink, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-7705-1378-9 . (Münster medieval writings 8)
- Eric Palazzo : Les sacramentaires de Fulda. Etude sur L'iconograpjoe et la liturgie àl'epoque ottonienne. Aschendorff 1994, ISBN 3-402-04056-5 . (Publications of the Abbot Herwegen Institute of the Maria Laach Abbey 77)
- Janneke Raaijmakers: The Making of the Monastic Community of Fulda, c.744 – c.900. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, ISBN 978-1-107-00281-4 . (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. Fourth Series 83)
- Gangolf Schrimpf (Hrsg.): Fulda monastery in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians. Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-7820-0707-7 . (Fulda Studies 7)
- Gangolf Schrimpf (Hrsg.): Medieval book directories of the Fulda monastery and other contributions to the history of the Fulda monastery library in the Middle Ages. Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-7820-0658-5 . (Fulda Studies 4)
- Herrad Spilling: Anglo-Saxon script in Fulda . In: Artur Brall (Ed.): From the monastery library to the state library. Contributions to the bicentenary of the existence of the Hessian State Library in Fulda . Anton Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1978.
- Franz Staab : Bonifatius, the "regula sancti patris Benedicti" and the foundation of the Fulda monastery . In: Archive for Middle Rhine Church History. 57, 2005, pp. 55-69.
- Franz Staab: Fulda (B) . In: Caspar Ehlers et al. (Ed.): Die Deutschen Königspfalzen. Volume 1: Hesse . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-36517-9 .
- Franz Staab: Relations between Mainz and Fulda. A field of forces between church and state until the end of the Holy Roman Empire . In: Berthold Jäger: Fulda in the Old Kingdom. Parzeller, Fulda 1996, ISBN 3-7900-0275-5 . (Publications of the Fulda History Association 59)
- Edmund E. Stengel : Treatises and studies on the history of the Reichsabtei Fulda. Parzeller, Fulda 1960. (Publications of the Fulda History Association 37)
- Cf. Ulrich Hussong: The imperial abbey of Fulda in the early and high Middle Ages. With a view of the late Middle Ages. In: Walter Heinemeyer, Berthold Jäger (Hrsg.): Fulda in his story. Landscape Imperial Abbey City (see literature below) pp. 89–179; Ulrich Hussong: The history of the Fulda monastery from its foundation to the 11th century. In: Wolfgang Hamberger et al. (Ed.): History of the city of Fulda. From the beginning to the end of the Old Kingdom (see literature below) pp. 143–165; Josef Leinweber: The Fulda Monastery before the Reformation (see literature below); Berthold Jäger: Fundamentals of the Fulda constitutional and administrative history from the end of the Middle Ages to the diocese survey in 1752. In: Walter Heinemeyer, Berthold Jäger (Ed.): Fulda in his story. Landscape Imperial Abbey City (see literature below) pp. 201–225; Uwe Zuber: Crisis, upheaval and reorganization. Fulda from 1752 to 1830. In: Walter Heinemeyer, Berthold Jäger (Hrsg.): Fulda in his story. Landscape Reichsabtei Stadt (see under literature) pp. 259–299.
- On the founding and the development up to the death of the founder abbot, cf. Pius Engelbert : The Vita Sturmi of the Eigil of Fulda. Literary-critical-historical investigation and edition. (Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse and Waldeck 29). Elwert, Marburg 1968, pp. 69-127; Ulrich Hussong: The imperial abbey of Fulda in the early and high Middle Ages. With a view of the late Middle Ages. In: Walter Heinemeyer, Berthold Jäger (Hrsg.): Fulda in his story. Landscape Reichsabtei Stadt (see literature below) pp. 89–179, here pp. 89–93; Ulrich Hussong: The history of the Fulda monastery from its foundation to the 11th century. In: Wolfgang Hamberger et al. (Ed.): History of the city of Fulda. From the beginnings to the end of the Old Kingdom (see literature below) pp. 143–165, here pp. 143–145; Karl Schmid: The question of the beginnings of the monastic community in Fulda. In: Karl Schmid (ed.): The monastery community of Fulda in the early Middle Ages (see literature below) pp. 108–135; Gereon Becht-Jördens: New information on the legal status of the Fulda Abbey from the Vita Aegil of Brun Candidus (see literature below); Gereon Becht-jördens: The murder of the Archbishop Bonifatius by the Frisians. Searching for and shaping a martyrdom out of ecclesiastical necessity? In: Archive for Middle Rhine Church History 57 , 2005, pp. 95–132, here pp. 98–104; Pp. 106-108; 117-121; 129–132 (further literature, note 38, p. 106)
- See Josef Semmler: Instituta Sancti Bonifatii. Fulda in the conflict of observances. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (ed.): Fulda in the world of the Carolingians and Ottonians (see literature below) pp. 79–103, here pp. 93–96.
- Cf. Winfried Romberg (ed.), The Dioceses of the Ecclesiastical Province of Mainz. The Diocese of Würzburg, vol. 8 The Würzburg bishops from 1684–1746 (Germania sacra 3, 8), de Gruyter, Berlin 2014; Lotte Kéry, monastery exemption in the wilderness. Bonifatius and the privilege of Pope Zacharias for Fulda (751), in: Archive for Middle Rhine Church History 60, 2008, pp. 75–110, here p. 99; Gereon Becht-Jördens, The Murder (see literature below), note 21 f., P. 101 f .; ders., New Notes on Legal Status (see literature below), pp. 15–26. Anders Hussong, The history of the Fulda monastery from its foundation to the 11th century, in: Wolfgang Hamberger et al. (Hrsg.), Geschichte der Stadt Fulda (see literature below), note 14, p. 144 with further references.
- See Josef Leinweber, Das Hochstift Fulda (see literature below), pp. 46–48; Map 3.
- Cf. K. Schmid, Die Klostergemeinschaft (see literature below) Vol. 2, 1, p. 250.
- Jürgen Sauerbier: Parchment and quill pen - the Fulda convent school . In: Susanne Bohl and others (ed.): Fulda. 50 treasures and specialties . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0425-0 , pp. 26–29, here p. 26.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens, The Vita Aegil of Brun Candidus as a source on questions from the history of Fulda in the age of the Anian reform (see literature below); Gereon Becht-Jördens, text image and architecture as the carrier of an ecclesiological conception of monastery history (see literature below); Gereon Becht-Jördens: The Vita Aegil abbatis Fuldensis of Brun Candidus. An opus geminum from the age of the Anian reform in a biblical-figural background style (see literature below); Gereon Becht-Jördens, Vita Aegil abbatis Fuldensis a Candido ad Modestum edita prosa et versibus. An opus geminum of IX. Century. Introduction and critical edition. Diss. Phil. Heidelberg. Selbstverlag, Marburg 1994, pp. XVII – XXVIII; Gereon Becht-Jördens, Sturmi or Bonifatius. A conflict in the age of the Anian reform about identity and monastic self-image as reflected in the altar rituals of Hrabanus Maurus for the Salvator Basilica in Fulda. With appendices to the tradition and critical edition of the tituli as well as to text sources on the architecture and building history of the Salvator Basilica. In: Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.), Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009) (Fuldaer Studien 13). Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 2010, pp. 123–187; Johannes Fried, Fulda in the educational and intellectual history of the early Middle Ages. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (Ed.): Fulda Abbey in the World of the Carolingians and Ottonians (see literature below) pp. 3–38 .; Maria-Elisabeth Brunert, Fulda as a monastery in eremo. Central sources about the foundation in the mirror of the hagiographic tradition. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (ed.), Fulda Abbey in the World of the Carolingians and Ottonians (see literature below) pp. 59–78.
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens, Litterae illuminatae. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (Ed.), Fulda Abbey in the World of the Carolingians and Ottonians (see literature below) pp. 325–364, here p. 348; Pp. 355-362.
- Cf. Becht-Jördens, Die Vita Aegil by Brun Candidus as a source on questions from the history of Fulda in the age of the Anian reform (see literature below) pp. 32–48.
- See list of the abbots and bishops of Fulda .
- See University of Fulda .
- See Kathrein et al., Fulda (see literature below), pp. 222–268; Josef Leinweber, Das Hochstift Fulda (see literature below), pp. 266–301.
- See Vita s. Sturmi abbatis Fuldensis ; Pius Engelbert, Die Vita Sturmi des Eigil von Fulda (publications of the Historical Commission for Hessen-Waldeck 29). Elwert Marburg 1968.
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens, Wolfgang Haubrichs, Fulda (see literature below).
- See Werner Kathrein et al., Fulda (see literature below), pp. 341–349 (Aris, Regina Pütz); Aris, Pütz, Bibliotheca Fuldensis (see literature below); Gugel, Which manuscripts (see literature below), Gangolf Schrimpf, Medieval book directories (see literature below); Christ, the library of the Fulda monastery (see literature below).
- History of the Principality of Fulda. December 31, 2010, accessed July 3, 2015 .
- See Herrad Spilling, Anglo-Saxon Script (see literature below)
- Cf. Gereon Becht-Jördens, Litterae illuminatae (see literature below), pp. 347–351; Pp. 355-361
- Cf. Christine Kenner, The pre-Romanesque wall paintings of the church. In: Katharina Benak (ed.), The Church of St. Peter in Petersberg near Fulda. Monument preservation and research. Darmstadt 2014, pp. 283–392.
- Cf. Christine Kenner, The restoration of the wall paintings in the crypt of St. Andreas zu Fulda-Neuenberg ; Ulrich Haroska, this., The wall paintings in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church in Fulda-Neuenberg inventory, conservation and first results of the painting technique, in: Matthias Exner (ed.), Wall painting of the early Middle Ages. Inventory, painting technique, conservation. A meeting of the German National Committee of ICOMOS. Lipp, Munich 1998, pp. 219-236.
- See Christoph Winterer, The Fulda Sacramentary in Göttingen. Benedictine observance and Roman liturgy. Imhoff, Petersberg 2009; Gereon Becht-Jördens, Litterae illuminatae. On the history of a literary form type in Fulda. In: Gangolf Schrimpf (Ed.), Fulda Monastery (see literature below), pp. 325–364; Eric Palazzo, Les sacramentaires de fulda. Étude sur l'iconographie et la liturgie à l'epoque ottonienne (Liturgical scientific sources and research 77). Aschendorff, Münster 1994 (cf. the review by Gereon Becht-Jördens, in: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte 48, 1998, pp. 401-413, especially on the question of illuminated Carolingian sacraments); Winfried Boehne, Archbishop Egbert von Trier and the Fulda Writing and Painting School of the 10th Century, in: Archive for Middle Rhine Church History 42, 1990, pp. 97–121; ders., The painting and writing school of the Reichsabtei Fulda in the 9th century, exhibition catalog Stadtschloß Fulda, Fulda 1982; ders., Fulda illumination of the early Middle Ages. Seidel & Haus, Fulda 1980; Ders., On the significance and development of the Fulda painting school in the Carolingian and Ottonian times, in: Fuldaer Geschichtsblätter 49, 1973, pp. 113-136; Florentine Mütherich, Die Fuldaer Buchmalerei in the time of Hrabanus Maurus, in: Winfried Böhne (Ed.), Hrabanus Maurus (see literature below), pp. 94–125; Peter Bloch, On the dedication picture in the praise of the cross of Hrabanus Maurus, in: Victor H. Elbern (ed.), The first millennium, text vol. 1, Schwann, Düsseldorf, 1962, pp. 471-494; Albert Boeckler: The Codex Wittekindeus , Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1938; E. Heinrich Zimmermann : The Fulda book painting in Carolingian and Ottonian times . In: Art History Yearbook of the KK Central Commission for Art and Historical Monuments in Vienna 4, 1910, pp. 1–104 (dissertation, digitized version ).
- Cf. Werner Kathrein et al. Fulda (see literature below), p. 340f. (also patronages and incorporations); Pp. 45-49; Pp. 435-511; Pp. 653-657; Pp. 666-697; Pp. 900-915.
- The St. Andreas monastery in Exaiulo near Santa Maria Maggiore was a gift from Henry II on the occasion of his and Pope Benedict VIII's visit to Fulda in May 1020. Cf. Werner Kathrein et al., Fulda (see literature below), p. 311, sources u. Lit. ibid. Note 805; on the location and significance of Frank Theisen, Medieval Foundation Law: an investigation into the document transmission of the Fulda monastery in the 12th century, Böhlau, Cologne Weimar 2002, p. 178f.
- Cf. The Bonifatiusstift in Hameln in the late Middle Ages - pious everyday life in the 14th and 15th centuries Thomas Künzel
- Norbert Lehmann: Information brochure on the St. Ursula Chapel. Published by the Catholic Parish Rapperswil-Jona, as of September 2013.
- See Steffen Patzold: The long way from the monastery to the city. Fulda in the time of the Carolingians and Ottonians. In: Wolfgang Hamberger et al. (Ed.): History of the city of Fulda. From the beginnings to the end of the Old Kingdom (see literature below) pp. 166–179.
- Brigitte Busold: Well positioned - the special position of the Fulda abbots . In: Susanne Bohl and others (ed.): Fulda. 50 treasures and specialties . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7319-0425-0 , pp. 17–20, here p. 18.
- Overview of the holdings "Reichsabtei Fulda" In: Archivinformationssystem Hessen (Arcinsys Hessen), accessed on May 30, 2011.