A preacher ( Latin praedicare "publicly testify") is literally someone who preaches something in front of an audience.
Kohelet is a book of the Tanach attributed to King Solomon , which belongs to the Ketuvim ("Scriptures"). It is about a man, called in Biblical Hebrew (קֹהֶלֶת) "assembler", whose teachings are contained in the book of the same name. He collected doctrinal sayings that he worked on rhetorically and literarily and appeared publicly with his teachings and gathered a group of students around him, roughly in the way the later Greek wandering philosophers did. In the German translation of the Luther Bible , the Hebrew book is entitled “Der Prediger Solomo”.
Christianity is a missionary religion and a Christian preacher is a preacher of the Christian faith. In the New Testament in the Gospel of Matthew and in the letters of Paul there is talk of a preacher. Jesus of Nazareth showed himself to be a preacher on various occasions . So especially in his Sermon on the Mount and the eschatological speech . Both sermons are recorded in the Gospel of Matthew.
Preacher in the Christian churches
In the churches, a preacher in the broader sense is a messenger of the Christian message through preaching , preaching and interpreting the word of God according to church teaching. In a narrower sense, the term preacher has many different meanings:
In order to spread and defend the Christian faith through missionary preaching and instruction, an order of preachers was founded by St. Dominic in 1216 (Latin ordo fratrum praedicatorum ). The members of this order are called Dominicans or preachers.
The owners of the predicatures established in the early 15th century are also called preachers . Even in the pre-Reformation period, they were well-trained clergy who mostly attended a university. In addition to the pastor and pastor , and usually also independently of them, they exercised the preaching office. During the Reformation period, this occasionally led to disputes, as the following example from Heilbronn shows: “Those from Hailbron have been preaching for a whole year… two years; the pastor preaches as of old ”, the preacher, however, according to the new doctrine of the Reformation.
Because of the emphasis on preaching, clergymen of different denominations are also called preachers in connection with their function . So for example, there preacher , court preacher , university and castle preacher, also the itinerant preacher who [ missionary acts] in different places, and not to the clergy belonging lay preacher . In the congregations of the Brethren movement and the Mennonites , lay preachers are still active today, who were formerly also known as Vermaners . In some Protestant regional churches, too, there are not theologically trained spiritual assistants who exercise the preaching office, so-called predicants and lecturers .
As free preachers used to publicly salaried preacher to designate which of the pastoral care were exempt.
Kurprendiger are pastors and pastors who work on behalf of an evangelical regional church authority, e.g. B. a regional church office, provided church service for a limited time at a health resort or vacation spot. They support the parish and seasonal service of the responsible parish through sermon and family services, devotions / evening services, discussion and lecture evenings, guest weddings, pastoral talks, meditative offers, etc. a. m. This service in health resorts and vacation areas is performed free of charge by the commissioned persons, including occasionally deacons. Often there is a free vacation home available for the preacher and his family on site.
Preachers in communities
In regional church communities of the Evangelical Gnadauer Community Association as well as in some Protestant free churches and special communities ( sects ) with a Christian background, those responsible for the preaching of the word are named preachers.
Famous Christian preachers
Selection of famous Christian preachers in chronological order:
- Ambrose of Milan (4th century)
- John Chrysostom (4th century)
- Gregory of Nazianz (4th century)
- Odo de Châtillon / Urban II. (11th century)
- Bernard of Clairvaux (12th century)
- Norbert von Xanten (12th century)
- Francis of Assisi (13th century)
- Berthold of Regensburg (13th century)
- Meister Eckhart (13th / 14th century)
- Hans Böhm (Timpanist von Niklashausen) (15th century)
- Girolamo Savonarola (15th century)
- Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg (15th / 16th century)
- Martin Luther (16th century)
- Jacques Bénigne Bossuet (17th century)
- Abraham a Sancta Clara (17th / 18th century)
- Sebastian Sailer (18th century)
- John Wesley (18th century)
- George Whitefield (18th century)
- August Zarnack (18th / 19th century)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher (19th century)
- Dwight Lyman Moody (19th century)
- Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19th century)
- Hudson Taylor (19th century)
- Karl Adam Windel (19th century)
- Charles Taze Russell (19th / 20th century)
- Franz Eugen Schlachter (19th / 20th century)
- Grigory Efimowitsch Rasputin (19th / 20th century)
- Henry Varley (19th / 20th century)
- Joannes Baptista Sproll (20th century)
- Otto Dibelius (20th century)
- Billy Graham (20th century)
- Johannes Leppich (20th century)
- Martin Niemöller (20th century)
- Fulton J. Sheen (20th century)
- Kurt Scharf (20th century)
- Helmut Thielicke (20th century)
- Ulrich Parzany (20th / 21st century)
- Joseph Ratzinger / Benedict XVI. (20th / 21st century)
- Johannes Hartl (21st century)
- Norbert Lohfink: Kohelet , Würzburg 1980, 4th edition 1993, p. 12.
- HUB IV NO. 3285h p. 561, lines 15-23.
- Free preacher. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 4 : Forschel – retainer - (IV, 1st section, part 1). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1878, Sp. 119 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
- See, for example, the guidelines for the preaching service in the Evangelical Church of Westphalia . Announcement of the regional church office of June 10, 1983, KABl. 1983, p. 101, accessed February 19, 2015 (online) .