The Catholic order of the Dominicans , also the order of preachers , lat. Ordo (fratrum) Praedicatorum ( order abbreviation OP ), was founded in the early 13th century by St. Dominic . The seat of the General Curia of the Order of Preachers is Santa Sabina in Rome .
Foundation and first years
Dominic was born in 1170 in the Castilian town of Caleruega . He completed school and studies in Palencia . In 1196 he entered the cathedral chapter of Osma in Castile, where he was ordained a priest and in 1201 became subprior of the chapter. While traveling in the wake of his bishop Diego de Acevedo in southern France , he was confronted with the successes of the Cathars there . Due to the ascetic way of life and the rhetorical persuasiveness of its preachers, Catharism was very well received by the population. He was tolerated or promoted by the local feudal lords, while the theologically and pastoral little ambitious Catholic clergy mainly endeavored to secure their benefices and secular privileges. Even those of Pope Innocent III. Cistercians commissioned as legates , who saw the focus of their activities not in proselytizing but in political diplomacy and bringing about repressive measures, had primarily incurred the hatred of the population, but were unable to take effective measures against Catharism.
Bishop Diego had initially pursued the project of proselytizing the Turks and asked Pope Innocent III. in Rome for exemption from his episcopate. However, missionary work in southern France was the most pressing concern of the Pope. At the end of 1204, the two returned to southern France via Cîteaux and coordinated their missionary work with the papal legates (including Pierre de Castelnau ). With the support of the new Bishop of Toulouse, the Cistercian and former trobador Folquet de Marseille , they founded a convent for converted Cathars in 1206/1207 in Prouille (Occitan: Prolha ) near Fanjeaux , who in the first few years followed the rule of the Cistercians lived While Diego returned to Osma and died there at the end of 1207, Dominikus stayed in southern France and continued to dedicate himself from Prouille to his inner vocation, through a wandering life on foot instead of stately on horseback, in apostolic poverty and through restless commitment as a preacher to the population again to convert to the Catholic faith. This program, which included begging as a form of livelihood and thus contradicted the still valid church regulations, was also given the first official approval by the Pope on November 17, 1206. When the military crusade against the Cathars, which the Pope had been preparing for a long time, came in 1208 (see: Albigensian Crusade ), Dominic was apparently not significantly involved in the organization and propaganda of the crusade, but was primarily responsible for the survivors in the militarily subjugated region now also to convert spiritually, whereby his missionary activity was promoted, among other things, by the fact that the military leader of the crusade, Simon IV. de Montfort , and the new Catholic lords gave the Prouille convent with gifts and privileges.
In 1215, Dominic and six of his companions were approved by Bishop Fulko of Toulouse in a legally binding form as a community of preachers. The order was based on the Augustine Rule from the beginning , which is why the Dominicans are counted among the Augustinian orders . The community appended to these rules constitutions relating to the performance of the preaching commission. The brothers were assigned to combat heresy and preach the faith, and were given permission to live as traveling preachers in religious poverty. The funds required for this were given to them through alms of the diocese; what was not used according to the intended purpose had to be reimbursed at the end of the year. This new institution was approved by a papal letter in the same year and then prescribed for all bishops in 1215 by the 10th canon of the IV Lateran Council , there, however, without stipulating the principle of apostolic poverty.
On his return to Toulouse on the feast of the Assumption of Mary in 1217 (August 15) , Dominic sent his confreres into the world - first to Paris and Spain - to found new convents, following the biblical example of Christ when sending the disciples. At the turn of the year he stayed in Rome again and obtained a papal encyclical on February 11, 1218 , in which the preachers' principle of poverty was affirmed and the ministers of the Church were asked to support them. In the same year the first Italian convents were founded, in Bologna and by Dominic himself in Rome. From Rome he went via Toulouse to Spain, northern France (Paris) and again to Italy to personally support the establishment and organization of new conventions. The early foundations in Paris and Bologna proved to be particularly momentous, as they made a significant contribution to the fact that the order could soon take on a leading role in medieval science through chairs at the emerging universities and through the establishment of its own general studies .
In 1220, when almost 60 branches already existed, Dominic held the first general assembly of the order at Pentecost in Bologna. The general chapter supplemented the first version ( prima distinctio ) of the statutes of 1216 with a secunda distinctio and gave the order its organizational form, which is still fundamentally valid today. At the same time, it sealed the development from an order of canons to a mendicant order sui generis by tightening the principle of poverty by excluding personal as well as communal property and fixed income. After recent sermons in northern Italy, where Honorius III. had called for action against the Cathars who had come from southern France , Dominic died on August 6, 1221 in Bologna.
High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages (13th to 15th centuries)
The statutes and regulations of the order compiled by the second master of the order Jordan of Saxony as Constitutiones were brought into a systematic order by his successor Raimund von Peñafort , one of the greatest canonists of his time, and have since been repeatedly changed or supplemented by the general chapters. Since the early days, however, there has been a certain pragmatism in the application of the regulations, in that in individual cases dispensations were possible and indeed were often granted in order to remove obstacles in the practice of studies or the sermon. Since the General Chapter of 1236, violations of the Constitutiones were no longer judged as sin , but as an offense to be redeemed by penance .
The strict principle of poverty was relaxed many times in the course of the 14th century by the fact that individual members of the order accepted benefits and thereby introduced the vita privata as a custom. Due to the great occidental schism , the order was at times torn into three "observances". Raimund von Capua, as general master of the Roman- Urbanian observance, initiated a reform movement in 1390 that was supposed to push back the vita privata and renew the vita apostolica . This led to the establishment of reform conventions, which in turn merged to form reform congregations and reform provinces. As a binding regulation, the original principle of poverty was abolished de jure when Martin V in 1425 initially allowed individual convents and Sixtus IV in 1475 allowed the entire order to own property and a fixed income.
Like other mendicant orders , the Dominicans developed an anti-Jewish attitude through their missionary zeal in the late Middle Ages. The most common anti-Jewish script of the Middle Ages came from a Dominican, the Spaniard Alfonso de Buenhombre. His bogus letter from Rabbi Samuel , who posed as the work of a converted Jew, dealt with the dispersion of the Jews among the peoples and their cause. The letter, written in Latin in 1339, has been translated into almost all languages of the West and has survived in more than three hundred manuscripts.
The Dominicans introduced since the beginning of the Inquisition in the early 13th century in the pontifical mandate inquisitors for the detection and prosecution of heretics . Due to the experience that the Order had gathered early on in dealing with heretics, as well as its intellectual orientation, it offered particularly good conditions for this. As early as 1231–33, Pope Gregory IX. In his letter Ille humani generis, which has been issued several times, several Dominican convents were commissioned to prosecute heresies. The Dominicans, who were therefore also referred to as domini canes ( dogs of the Lord ) with a play on words , then became particularly active in the inquisitorial fight against the Cathars in southern France . In addition to inquisitors from the ranks of other orders, such as the Franciscans , Dominicans worked as inquisitors throughout the Middle Ages, especially in France, Italy and the Holy Roman Empire . Important Dominican inquisitors were among others. Bernard Gui († 1331), Walter Kerlinger († 1373), Tomás de Torquemada († 1498), the first Inquisitor General of the Spanish Inquisition , or Jakob van Hoogstraten († 1527). Conversely, members of the Dominican Order also fell victim to the Inquisition, such as Giordano Bruno .
In 2000, the provincial chapter of the Dominican Province of Teutonia took a critical position on the historical participation of the Dominicans in the Inquisition and the persecution of witches ( see here ).
Significant historical Dominican churches , also called Predigerkirchen, are the French Church in Bern and other examples in Basel , Eisenach , Erfurt , Regensburg , Rottweil and Zurich . Many of them are no longer in the possession of the Dominican Order.
In the East Westphalian Hanseatic city of Warburg (State of North Rhine-Westphalia), the curiosity of two former Dominican monasteries and church buildings in the city area can be viewed that are no longer in the possession of the order. This is the first Dominican church of St. Maria in vinea (monastery church from 1281 to 1803) with its monastery building, which has been used as the Marianum grammar school since 1826 , and the second Dominican church with the monastery of St. Mary of the Assumption (monastery church from 1903 to 1993). The novitiate as a training center for the province of Teutonia was located in the latter convent until its dissolution.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the order experienced "renewed bloom" in German-speaking countries. New convents were founded or re-established: in Braunschweig (1952), in Münster (1961), in Hamburg (1962) and in Bremen (1968).
The Order in the Present
Constitution of the Order
What distinguishes the Order of the Brothers Preachers from its foundation is its democratic constitution. All brothers share responsibility for the realization of the goals of the religious community. There is a say at all levels. All superiors are elected for a time. Important decisions are made by the fraternal community or their respective delegates in the conventual, provincial or general chapter . The superior general of the Dominicans is called the master of the order (Magister Ordinis). The current master of the order (since July 2019) is Gerard Francisco Timoner .
The smallest building block of the order is a monastery, the so-called convent , which traditionally consists of at least six members. If the number of members is lower, it is a "domus" (house). Here the brothers live together in community, hold the choir prayer together and fulfill their tasks in the study, in the sermon inside and outside the convention and sometimes also in taking on tasks of parish or categorical pastoral care (hospital, prison, counseling services, etc.). The superior of a convent is called a prior and is elected for three years. He is confirmed by the next higher superior, the provincial superior . The upper part of a domus is called the superior. He is appointed by the provincial superior for three years after hearing the community. The convents and houses are united to form provinces, today a total of 42, each of which is headed by a provincial. He is elected for four years at the provincial chapter that meets every four years and is composed of the elected priors and additionally elected delegates. The provincial is confirmed by the order master , the highest superior of the order. The master of the order, in turn, is elected for nine years by the general chapter , the supreme legislative assembly. Voters are the elected provincials and delegates elected by the provinces.
The spirituality of the Order is determined by the aim: “to proclaim the name of the Lord Jesus Christ to all the world” (Pope Honorius III ). The sermon flows from the fullness of contemplation, so that Thomas Aquinas was able to formulate: “ contemplari et contemplata aliis tradere ” (“dedicate oneself to contemplation and pass on the fruit of contemplation”). The specific way of life of the Dominicans, for whom community life, solemn common choral prayer and constant study are characteristic, leads to preaching in word and other apostolic activities.
Nowadays the Dominicans have the following priorities for their actions:
- The catechesis in non-Christian cultures, intellectual systems, social movements and religious traditions.
- Justice in the world: critical analysis of the origins, forms and structures of justice in our world and commitment to human liberation.
- The use of social communication tools to preach the word of God.
Today there are around 6,000 brothers worldwide, as well as 3,000 nuns and over 30,000 active sisters in congregations of the third order (see Dominican Sisters ). The Dominican lay communities of both sexes lead a spiritual life in the spirit of the Dominican tradition, but live in the world, pursue a profession and can also be married.
The province of Teutonia (founded in 1221) includes 9 convents: Cologne ( provincialate ), Düsseldorf, Vechta, Hamburg , Berlin, Braunschweig , Leipzig , Worms, Mainz (study center). The novitiate has been in Worms since 1993, where the Dominicans settled ten years after the order was founded in 1216. There is also a smaller branch (Domus) in the pilgrimage site of Klausen near Trier and in Berlin (Institut M.-Dominique Chenu). Until 2013, the province of Teutonia had a vicariate in Bolivia with 6 branches (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Cochabamba, Pampagrande, Comarapa, Samaipata, Mairana, Potosi). The Vicariate became independent in 2013 as the Vice Province of Bolivia. Hungary has been the Provincial Vicariate of Teutonia since 2020 with houses in Sopron, Debreczen and Sentendre.
The southern German-Austrian province comprises four convents: one in Baden-Württemberg (Freiburg), two in Bavaria (Augsburg, Munich) and one in Austria (Vienna).
See also: List of Dominican Monasteries .
The coat of arms of the Dominicans
The current coat of arms of the Dominicans shows a black and silver cross of lilies in the shield, which is eightfold in black and silver . The lily cross has appeared since the 15th century and is therefore older than the black and silver ecclesiastical coat of arms. It is an emblem originally assigned to the Inquisition and has only been widely used as a symbol for the order of preachers since the 17th century.
The coat of arms (heraldic: coat train ) is a silver tip on a black field . It first appeared in a Venetian processionarium in 1494 , then became the usual symbol for the Dominicans in Europe and gave them the name Blackfriars , black brothers, in England . It is interpreted as "over the white robe of joy the black cloak of penance as a sign of humility and readiness to repent".
The actually older lily cross replaced the coat of arms only at the turn of the 20th century, at the General Chapter in Bologna in 1961 the coat of arms was again declared a binding badge of the Dominican Order, but this was repealed by the General Chapter of 1965 in Bogotá. Since then the use of both coats of arms has been optional.
- A lbertus Magnus (approx. 1200–1280)
- Anatol Feid (1942-2002)
- Arthur F. Utz (1908-2001)
- Aurelius Arkenau (1900–1991)
- B artolomé de Las Casas (1484 or 1485–1566)
- Basilius Streithofen (1925-2006)
- Benedict XI. (1240-1304)
- Benedict XIII. (1649-1730)
- Benedikt Momme Nissen (1870–1943)
- Bernard Gui (approx. 1261-1331)
- C hristoph Cardinal Schönborn (* 1945)
- Colmar Dominican chronicler (approx. 1221–1305)
- D ietrich of Freiberg (ca. 1240-1320)
- Dominik Duka (* 1943)
- Dominic (founder of the order) (approx. 1170–1221)
- Dominique Pire (1910-1969)
- E berhard Welty (1902–1965)
- Edward Schillebeeckx (1914-2009)
- Everhard von Westerheim (approx. 1362-1392)
- F elizian Ninguarda (1524–1595)
- Fra Angelico (approx. 1400–1450)
- Francesco Gaude (1809-1860)
- G eorges Cardinal Cottier (1922-2016)
- Giordano Bruno (1548–1600)
- Girolamo Savonarola (1452–1498)
- Gordian Landwehr (1912-1998)
- Gustavo Gutiérrez (* 1928)
- H ans Conrad Zander (writer, former Dominican novice, * 1937)
- Heinrich Kalteisen (approx. 1390–1464)
- Heinrich Kramer (approx. 1430–1505)
- Heinrich Seuse (approx. 1295–1366)
- I nnozenz V. (1225-1276)
- J acobus a Voragine (approx. 1228–1298)
- Jacobus de Cessolis (14th century)
- Jakob Sprenger (Inquisitor, 1435–1495)
- Jacopo Passavanti (approx. 1302–1357)
- Jean-Baptiste Labat (1663-1738)
- Jean Baptiste Henri Lacordaire (1802–1861)
- Jean de Menasce (1902–1973)
- Jean-Hervé Nicolas (1910-2001)
- Jean-Joseph Lataste (1832–1869)
- Johannes Nider (approx. 1385–1438)
- Johannes Tauler (approx. 1300-1361)
- Johann Dietenberger (approx. 1475–1537)
- Johann Strote († 1350)
- Johann Tetzel (indulgence preacher, approx. 1460–1519)
- Jordan of Saxony (approx. 1185–1237)
- José Tolentino Cardinal Calaça de Mendonça (* 1965)
- Joseph Maria Bocheński (1902-1995)
- K atharina of Siena (3rd order, 1347-1380)
- Kjell Arild Pollestad (* 1949)
- L aurentius Siemer (1888-1956)
- M arie-Dominique Chenu (1895–1990)
- Martín de Porres (1579–1639)
- Matthias von Sittard (1522–1566)
- Master Eckhart (approx. 1260-1328)
- Michel Le Quien (1661-1733)
- O dilo Braun (1899–1981)
- P aul-Heinz Guntermann (1930-2006)
- Peter of Verona (approx. 1206–1252)
- Pierre Claverie (1938–1996)
- Pius V (1504–1572)
- R éginald Garrigou-Lagrange (1877–1964)
- Ricoldo da Monte di Croce (approx. 1243-1320)
- Rosa von Lima (3rd order, 1586-1617)
- S ervais-Theodore Pinckaers (1925-2008)
- T homas Cajetan (1469-1534)
- Thomas Aquinas (approx. 1225–1274)
- Titus Maria Horten (1882–1936)
- Tomás de Torquemada (Inquisitor, 1420–1498)
- Tommaso Campanella (1568–1639)
- U lrich of Strasbourg (approx. 1220–1277)
- V inzenz Ferrer (1350-1419)
- W olfgang Ockenfels (* 1947)
- Wunibald Maria Brachthäuser (1910–1999)
- Y ves Congar (1904-1995)
Overviews and general presentations
- William A. Hinnebusch OP: Brief history of the Dominican order (= Dominican sources and testimonies , vol. 4). From the American by Christophe Holzer and Winfried Locher OP and Winfried Locher. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-7462-1688-5 .
- Elias H. Füllenbach (Ed.): More than black and white. 800 years of the Dominican Order . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7917-2757-8 .
- Wolfram Hoyer (Ed.): Jordan von Sachsen. From the beginnings of the order of preachers (= Dominican sources and testimonies , vol. 3). St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 2002, ISBN 3-7462-1574-9 .
- Achim Todenhöfer: Apostolic ideal in a social context. On the genesis of the architecture of the European mendicant order in the 13th century. In: Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft , Vol. 34 (2007), pp. 43–75.
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. A contribution to the history of the Franciscans, Poor Clares, Dominicans and Augustinian Hermits in the Middle Ages (= Saxonia Franciscana , Vol. 6). Coelde, Werl 1995, ISBN 3-87163-216-3 .
- Johannes Schütz: Guardian of Reality. The Dominican Order in Scandinavian Medieval Society , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014.
- Yvonne Arras: The Dominicans of the Neckar-Alb region in the Augsburg Chronicle by Karl Welz OP († 1809) and Emerich Rueff OP († 1814). In: Hohenzollerischer Geschichtsverein (Hrsg.): Journal for Hohenzollerische Landesgeschichte. 51./52. Tape. Sigmaringen 2015/2016. (With an edition of part I of the manuscript 2002/90 diocese archive Augsburg).
- Ulrich Engel (Ed.): Dominican Spirituality (= Dominican sources and testimonies , vol. 1). St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-7462-1358-4 .
- Timothy Radcliffe: Community in Dialogue. Encouragement to religious life (= Dominican sources and testimonies , vol. 2). St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-7462-1450-5 .
- Thomas Eggensperger, Ulrich Engel : Dominicans: History and Spirituality . Topos-Tb, Kevelaer 2010, ISBN 978-3-8367-0709-1 .
Saints and blessed
- Gerfried A. Bramlage OP: The saints and blessed of the Dominican order . Werth, Warburg 1985.
Articles in encyclopedias
- Ambrosius Eßer OP: Dominicans . In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie (TRE). Volume 9, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1982, ISBN 3-11-008573-9 , pp. 127-136.
- Grützmacher: Dominikus, and the Dominicans . In: Realencyklopadie for Protestant Theology and Church (RE). 3. Edition. Volume 4, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1898, pp. 768-781.
- Franz Karl Praßl : Dominicans. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-7001-3043-0 .
Movies and audio files
- Episode 13 , Dominicans , on the podcast God forbid!
- From Word to Science - The Dominicans. Documentation series Te Deum - Heaven on Earth , 3sat ( Weblink ).
- Wilfried Köpke : The Dominicans. The Order of Preachers, 30 'film and 15' interview with the Order Master fr. Carlos Azpiroz Costa op, DVD, Leipzig (St. Benno-Verlag) 2006, ISBN 978-3-7462-1967-7 .
- Portal of the Dominican Order (English)
- Portal of the Dominican Order in Germany
- Dominican Province of Teutonia
- South German-Austrian Dominican Province
- Swiss Dominican Province
- Meister Eckhart and his time - Order - Dominicans
- Institute Chenu of the Dominican Order in Berlin
- Alfonso Buenhombre
- Dominic. In: Robert-Henri Bautier: Lexicon of the Middle Ages. Vol. 4, Munich 2002.
- Martin H. Jung : Christians and Jews. The history of their relationships. Darmstadt 2008, pp. 109-110.
- See Pierre Mandonnet: Note de symbolique médiévale: Domini canes . In: the other, inter alia: Saint Dominique . Paris 1938, Vol. 2, pp. 69-81; Meinolf Schumacher : Doctors with the tongue. Licking dogs in European literature . Bielefeld 2003.
- Elias H. Füllenbach: On the history of the order in the 19th and 20th centuries . In: Ders. (Ed.): More than black and white. 800 years of the Dominican Order . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2016, pp. 147–165, quotation p. 164.
- Croatia: Dominicans celebrate General Chapter in Trogir , Vatican Radio , August 4, 2013.
- Helmut Weick: Worked in Worms very early on. In: Wormser Zeitung , September 12, 2016, accessed on September 7, 2019.
- Wolfram Hoyer: 75 years of the Dominican Order Province of St. Albert in Southern Germany and Austria 1939-2014 Overview on the website dominikaner.org . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Angelus Walz: The coat of arms of the order of preachers. In: Roman quarterly for Christian antiquity and for church history XLVII (1939), pp. 111–147; quoted from OA: Which coats of arms do the Dominicans use? (blog entry) Orden-online, May 16, 2008, accessed on February 27, 2010 .
- When performance counted at the sermon. Retrieved August 31, 2018 .