Bologna


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Bologna
coat of arms
Bologna (Italy)
Bologna
Country Italy
region Emilia-Romagna
Metropolitan city Bologna  (BO)
Local name Bulåggna
Coordinates 44 ° 30 '  N , 11 ° 21'  E Coordinates: 44 ° 29 '38 "  N , 11 ° 20' 34"  E
height 54  m slm
surface 140 km²
Residents 390,625 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 2,790 inhabitants / km²
Post Code 40100
prefix 051
ISTAT number 037006
Popular name bolognesi
Patron saint Petronius , Catherine
Website www.comune.bologna.it
Bologna montage HD.jpg

Bologna [ boˈlɔnja, Ital. Boˈloɲːa ] is an Italian university city and the capital of the metropolitan city of Bologna and the Emilia-Romagna region . The big city with 390,625 inhabitants (December 31, 2019), the seventh largest Italian city and a major national transportation hub.

geography

Bologna lies at the foot of the Apennines , between the Reno and Savena rivers in northern Italy. The rivers and canals in the city were almost completely built over in the course of urban development for sanitary reasons. The waters flowing through Bologna are the Canale di Reno, the Canaletta del Savena and the Torrente Aposa, they are combined north of the city center to the Canale Navile. This means that some of the water is withdrawn from the Canale di Savena; The Torrente Ravone runs in the western parts of the city and joins the Reno further east. The Adriatic Sea is about 60 kilometers east of the city.

climate

Bologna, Emilia-Romagna
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
43
 
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-2
 
 
45
 
8th
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60
 
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67
 
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Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Hong Kong Observatory ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bologna, Emilia-Romagna
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 4.8 8.2 13.4 17.8 22.7 26.8 29.9 29.2 25.3 18.9 11.1 5.9 O 17.9
Min. Temperature (° C) -1.5 0.8 3.9 7.6 11.8 15.6 18.2 17.9 14.8 10.1 4.3 -0.3 O 8.6
Precipitation ( mm ) 42.9 44.9 60.4 67.0 65.0 52.6 42.8 57.9 61.0 71.6 81.3 61.0 Σ 708.4
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 2.5 3.4 4.9 5.8 7.4 8.5 9.4 8.4 6.7 4.8 2.7 2.4 O 5.6
Rainy days ( d ) 6.6 6.0 7.7 7.2 7.7 6.6 4.5 5.7 5.0 6.6 8.1 6.8 Σ 78.5
Humidity ( % ) 83 78 70 71 69 68 65 66 69 76 84 84 O 73.6
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
4.8
-1.5
8.2
0.8
13.4
3.9
17.8
7.6
22.7
11.8
26.8
15.6
29.9
18.2
29.2
17.9
25.3
14.8
18.9
10.1
11.1
4.3
5.9
-0.3
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
42.9
44.9
60.4
67.0
65.0
52.6
42.8
57.9
61.0
71.6
81.3
61.0
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

history

Antiquity

The history of the city begins as an Etruscan foundation with the name Felsina, probably in the 6th century BC. BC, traces of older village settlements of the Villanova culture in the area go back to the 11th / 10th centuries. Century BC BC back. The Etruscan city grew around a sanctuary on a hill and was surrounded by a necropolis .

In the 5th century BC The Celtic Boier conquered Felsina. 191 BC The city was conquered by the Romans in 189 BC. It became Roman Colonia as Bononia . 3000 Latin families settled there, and the organization of the city was (re) entrusted to the former consuls Lucius Valerius Flaccus , Marcus Atilius Seranus and Lucius Valerius Tappo . The construction of Via Aemilia in 187 BC BC made Bononia a traffic junction: Here the main road of the Po Valley crossed with the Via Flaminia minor to Arretium ( Arezzo ). 88 BC Like all country towns in Italy , Bononia received full Roman citizenship via the Lex municipalis . After a fire, it was rebuilt in the 1st century under Emperor Nero .

As is typical of a Roman city, Bononia was laid out like a chessboard around the central intersection of two main streets, the Cardo with the Decumanus . Six north-south and eight east-west streets divided the city into individual quarters and have been preserved to this day. During the Roman Empire , Bononia had at least 12,000, but possibly up to 30,000 inhabitants. During excavations around the forum of the ancient city in the years 1989-1994 two temples, administration building, market halls and the conference building of the city council were found; A theater has been uncovered in the southern part of the original urban area. However, the city seems to have outgrown its original fortifications, for example an amphitheater , an aqueduct and a thermal bath area have been discovered outside the city wall . The geographer Pomponius Mela counted the city in the 1st century AD to the five most lush ( opulentissimae ) cities in Italy.

middle Ages

Bologna in the 11th century with around 180 family towers
Basilica of San Petronio and Piazza Maggiore
Palazzo del Podestà

After a long decline, Bologna was reborn in the 5th century under Bishop Petronius , who is said to have built the church complex of Santo Stefano based on the model of the Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulcher . After the end of the Roman Empire, Bologna was an advanced bulwark of the Exarchate of Ravenna , protected by several wall rings, which, however, did not enclose most of the ruined Roman city. In 728 the city was conquered by the Longobard king Liutprand and thus part of the Longobard Empire. The Lombards created a new district in Bologna near Santo Stefano, still called Addizione Longobarda today, in which Charlemagne stayed during his visit in 786.

In the 11th century the place grew again as a free commune . The studio was founded in 1088 - today the oldest university in Europe - where numerous important scholars of the Middle Ages taught, including Irnerius . As the city continued to expand, it received a new wall ring in the 12th century, and another was completed in the 14th century.

In 1164 Bologna joined the Lombard League against Frederick I Barbarossa , and in 1256 the city proclaimed the Legge del Paradiso ( Paradise Law ), which abolished serfdom and slavery and bought the remaining slaves free with public money. 50,000 to 70,000 people lived in Bologna at that time, making the city the sixth or seventh largest in Europe after Constantinople , Córdoba , Paris , Venice , Florence and possibly Milan . The city center was a forest of towers : an estimated 180 gender towers of the leading families, church towers and towers of public buildings dominated the cityscape.

Bologna decided in 1248 to ban the export of wheat in order to secure food supplies for its rapidly growing population. This amounted to an expropriation of the Venetian landowners, especially the monasteries. In 1234, the city went one step further and occupied Cervia , putting it in direct competition with Venice , which claimed the salt monopoly in the Adriatic. In 1248 Bologna extended its rule to the county of Imola , and from 1252–1254 even to Ravenna . In 1256 Bagnacavallo , Faenza and Forlì were added .

But the smoldering conflict between Venice and Bologna was interrupted in 1240 by the occupation of the city by Emperor Frederick II . However, after Cervia had surrendered to Venice again in 1252, it was recaptured by a joint Ravenna-Bologna army in October 1254. In return, Venice built a fortress on the Po di Primaro in 1258. The Etsch , Po and the Reno , which is vital for Bologna's supply , were blocked - the latter in turn being accessible from the sea only via the Po, and the Etsch had been controlled by Cavarzere from Venice for a long time . With the help of this blockade, especially at the Marcamò fortress - Bologna sealed off Marcamò in vain with its own fortress - Venice forced the starving Bologna to an agreement dictated by the Venetians. The Bolognese fort was razed. Ravenna was once again open to Venice's merchants, and Venice's monopoly was enforced.

In 1272, after more than 22 years imprisonment in the Palazzo Nuovo (today's Palazzo di re Enzo ), King Enzio of Sardinia , an illegitimate son of the Staufer Emperor Friedrich II, died in Bologna .

Like most municipalities in Italy, Bologna was torn apart from the external conflicts by internal disputes between the Ghibellines and Guelphs (Staufer or Welfen party, Emperor versus Pope). In 1274 the influential Ghibelline family Lambertazzi was expelled from the city.

When Bologna stepped up against the Ghibellines of central Romagna in 1297, Venice feared the renewed emergence of a competing mainland power. This was particularly true of Ravenna. Venice threatened the city for non-compliance with its treaties and favoring Bologna. But the dispute was settled. Another trade ban on the part of Venice (probably because of the appointment of Baiamonte Tiepolo as Capitano of Bologna) came at the end of 1326. Bologna had placed itself under the protection of the Pope after it was defeated by Modena in 1325 at the Battle of Zappolino. In May 1327 all Bolognese were asked to leave Venice within a month. 1328–1332 there were trade bans and reprisals. Ravenna remained the most important import port in the region. B. continued to use Bologna for larger imports from Apulia. Between 1325 and 1337 the Bucket War broke out in Bologna . During the plague - epidemic of 1348 about 30,000 of the inhabitants died.

After the reign of Taddeo Pepolis (1337-1347), Bologna fell to the Visconti of Milan, but in 1360, at the instigation of Cardinal Gil Álvarez Carillo de Albornoz, it was bought back into the Pope's sphere of influence. The following years were determined by a number of republican governments (e.g. that of 1377, which had the Basilica di San Petronio and the Loggia dei Mercanti built), changing affiliations to the papal or Visconti sphere of power and persistent, loss-making family feuds.

In 1402 the city fell to Gian Galeazzo Visconti , who became Signor of Bologna. After Bologna and Imola fell in 1433 (until 1435), Venice finally helped the Pope to rule the city in 1440/41. On the occasion Venice took possession of Ravenna from 1441–1509.

Around this time, the Bentivoglio family with Sante (1445–1462) and Giovanni II (1462–1506) took control of Bologna. The city flourished during her reign, and renowned architects and painters gave Bologna the face of a classic Italian Renaissance city, which, however, had to finally give up its ambitions to conquer.

Modern times

Loan for 500 lire from the city of Bologna on June 27, 1904
City map of Bologna around 1907
The present quarters of Bologna
former course of the city wall with the remaining city gates

Giovanni's reign ended in 1506 when Pope Julius II's troops besieged Bologna and sacked the art treasures of his palace. Following Bologna belonged to the 18th century to the Papal States and was of a papal legate ruled and a Senate which every two months a Gonfaloniere (judges) chose, which was supported by eight consuls. On February 24, 1530, Charles V was crowned emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna. It was the last imperial coronation carried out by the Pope. The city's prosperity continued, but a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the number of residents from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 reduced it to 47,000 before leveling off again to 60,000 to 65,000.

In 1564 the Piazza del Nettuno , the Palazzo dei Banchi and the Archiginnasio , the seat of the university, were built. Numerous churches and other religious institutions were rebuilt during the papal rule, older ones renovated - Bologna's 96 monasteries were an Italian record. Important painters such as Annibale Carracci , Domenichino and Guercino , who were active in Bologna during this period, formed the Bolognese school of painting.

In Napoleonic Europe, Bologna became in 1796 - independent from the Papal States since the First Coalition War - initially the capital of the short-lived Cispadan Republic and later the most important city in the Cisalpine Republic and the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy after Milan . On January 28, 1814, the Austrians briefly retook the city, had to give way to the invasion of French troops on April 2, 1815, in order to finally take Bologna on April 16, 1815. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna in 1815 returned Bologna to the Papal States, whereupon this was carried out on July 18, 1816.

The population rebelled against the papal restoration in the spring of 1831. A renewed Austrian occupation from March 21, 1831 put an end to this. The occupation lasted with a brief interruption (July 1831 to January 1832) until November 30, 1838. Power was again in the hands of the Pope. In contrast, the Moti di Savigno revolt rose in August 1843 . Again there were popular uprisings in 1848/1849 , when the troops of the Austrian garrison were driven out from August 8, 1848 to May 16, 1849 , who then again held command of the city until 1860. After a visit from Pope Pius IX. In 1857, on June 12, 1859, Bologna voted for its annexation by the Kingdom of Sardinia , making the city part of united Italy .

At the beginning of the 20th century, the walls of the city were demolished with the exception of a few remains to make room for the rapidly growing population. In the elections on June 28, 1914, the socialist Francesco Zanardi won the city council ( sindaco ) for the left for the first time . With the interruption of fascism , Bologna has since been administered mainly by left-wing city governments.

In 1940 Bologna had 320,000 inhabitants. During the Second World War , Bologna was bombed and damaged by the American , British and Polish invasion troops of the Allies during the fighting of the falling Nazi dictatorship . On April 21, 1945, the city was liberated by units of the II Polish Corps . After the war, Bologna recovered quickly and is today one of the wealthiest and most successful cities in Italy in terms of urban planning.

On August 2, 1980, a group of right-wing extremists bombed the city's main train station . 85 people died and at least 200 were injured. In 1995 two members of the fascist Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari and employees of the Italian secret service were sentenced to long prison terms for this attack .

The main outer belt asteroid (2601) Bologna was named after the city.

In 2000, Bologna was the European Capital of Culture .

Nickname

Bologna is also called la grassa ("the fats") because of the rich food for which the city is famous. Other nicknames are la rossa ("the red one") because of the red bricks of the houses and the predominant political direction, as well as, because of the famous university, la dotta ("the scholar"). Bologna is also called la turrita , after the many towers of the family, most of which were only destroyed at the end of the 19th century.

Attractions

Buildings, squares and parks

Piazza Nettuno
The unfinished facade of the Basilica of San Petronio
Typical arcades

The city's landmarks are the two towers , the Torre Garisenda and the Torre degli Asinelli . Built around 1100, the latter was at that time the highest secular building in Europe with its height of 94.5 m. The two towers, along with a few others, are the last remnants of around 180 “ family towers ” of medieval Bologna, most of which were demolished in the 16th century. Additional sights include the palazzi mentioned in the article .

The center of the city is the Piazza Maggiore with the Neptune Fountain and the Basilica of San Petronio . The mighty Gothic church is the fifth largest in the world; the central nave is 40 m high and 20 m wide. Originally planned as the largest church in Christendom, construction began in 1390 and has not yet been completed due to financial problems. In the interior is the noon line , furnished in 1655 according to plans by the astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini . In the Capella Bolognini there is a depiction of the Last Judgment by Giovanni da Modena (around 1410). The painter of the fresco based his depiction on Dante's Divine Comedy and shows in the circle of hell, among other things, the prophet Mohammed , whose body is slit open by a devil as a divider of faith (DC Inf. XXVIII).

The Cathedral of San Pietro with the Pietà by Alfonso Lombardi is located on Via dell'Indipendenza. The oldest church in Bologna, the Basilica di Santo Stefano , is located in a monastery complex that is still in use today in the historic center of the city. The complex has a Byzantine rotunda and typical Romanesque cloisters.

Bologna is also known for its arcades . They stretch for 38 km and were originally created to accommodate the city's growing population. The construction of the arcades made it possible to expand the upper floors and thus create new living space without impairing trade and transit operations too much. The pilgrimage church of the Santuario della Madonna di San Luca is located on the Guardia hill above the city and offers a view over the Po Valley. The longest arcade in the world at around four kilometers leads up to the church.

The Palazzo dell'Archiginnasio was originally planned to unite all faculties of the university under one roof. It houses an anatomy classroom, which was badly damaged during the war in 1944, but has been completely renovated .

The city park Giardini Margherita at the Piazza di Porta Santo Stefano is the largest urban green space near the center. The 1879 opened park was to Margherita of Savoy , wife of Italian King I. Umberto named. The English-style complex has an area of ​​around 26 hectares and an artificial lake with water features .

The Cimitero Monumentale della Certosa cemetery is the city's main historical cemetery.

See also: List of churches in Bologna and synagogue

Museums

The Sistema Museale di Ateneo (SMA) of the university museums in Bologna offers partially free entry to its museums, most of which are located in the vicinity of Palazzo Poggi, only two anatomical collections of veterinary medicine are located in Ozzano dell'Emilia : the Museo di Antropologia of the University of Bologna traces the history of human development in Europe since the Stone Age with a particular focus on events in Italy.

photos

politics

Palazzo della regione

The city council (Consiglio comunale) forms the legislature in Bologna and consists of 36 members. The strongest group is currently the Social Democrats with 21 seats. Mayor ( Sindaco di Bologna ) and thus also head of the city administration has been the social democrat Virginio Merola since 2011. The incumbents since 1999 were:

As the capital of the Emilia-Romagna region, Bologna is also the seat of the regional council consisting of 50 members and the regional government (Giunta regional) . Both are located in the Palazzo della regione, a high-rise building in the Fiera di Bologna trade fair and business district to the northeast .

religion

Bologna has been the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese since the 3rd century, which was elevated to the status of archbishopric and metropolitan seat of the ecclesiastical province of Bologna in 1582 . According to the Annuario Pontificio 2019, around 940,000 Catholics currently live in the area of ​​the archbishopric. Cathedral is the church of San Pietro, completed at the end of the 12th century .

The city also has a synagogue and several small mosques . The construction of a larger mosque has been in planning for several years (as of 2018).

Regular events

Culinary

Tortellini in brodo
  • Bologna is the home of tortellini - small ring-shaped pasta filled with minced meat that is served in a chicken brodo or with a cream sauce. According to legend, the tortellini are said to imitate the navel of the Roman goddess of love Venus .
  • Another classic pasta from Bologna are tagliatelle , ribbon pasta made with egg, which is traditionally served with ragù alla bolognese , a sauce with minced meat and tomatoes. The spaghetti bolognese was inspired by the Bolognese tagliatelle al ragù, but it does not belong to the cuisine of Bologna, but probably originates from North America .
  • Another specialty from Bologna is mortadella , a sliced ​​pork sausage that is eaten cut into wafer-thin slices.
  • Bologna is also known for its green lasagna .

Infrastructure

education

Palazzo dell'Archiginnasio , building of the University of Bologna from 1563 to 1803

With the university founded in 1088, Bologna is home to the oldest institution of its kind in Europe. The approximately 80,000 students make up a significant part of the city's population with a total population of around 400,000 and shape the city, especially within the historic city walls. The city is popular not only with students from all over Italy, but also with foreign students. In addition to Erasmus students, these are mainly students from the USA.

There is also the Academy of Fine Arts in the city , where Giorgio Morandi taught and Enrico Marconi completed an apprenticeship. The SAIS Bologna Center is a branch of the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University . Bologna was the location of the Bologna Declaration in 1999 and namesake of the Bologna Process for the reform and standardization of the European Higher Education Area .

traffic

Bologna Airport

Airport:

Rail: Bologna is also one of the largest rail hubs in Italy.

  • Its main train station is the Bologna Centrale train station . This was built in 1864 and redesigned by Gaetano Ratti just ten years later . In 1926 it was expanded to include the western platforms , and in 1934 also on the eastern side. In 2013, the complementary underground station for high-speed traffic Bologna Centrale AV ( AV for Alta Velocità ) was opened.
  • The Bologna San Donato marshalling yard has a head-shaped system that is very rare for marshalling yards and is located on the bypass (Cintura) in the northeast of the city. It is the largest marshalling yard in Italy.

Highway:

Resident companies

The Italian motorcycle manufacturer Ducati Motor Holding SpA is based in the Borgo Panigale district .

The Correllifkio Emiliano SpA (CESAB) - traditional manufacturer of conveyor systems and forklifts - was founded 1942nd

Sports

The city's best- known football club is the seven-time Italian champions FC Bologna , which was one of the most successful in Italy, especially in the period before the Second World War . It plays its home games at the Stadio Renato Dall'Ara from the World Cup soccer was a venue for two, and still plays a relegation to Serie B 2013/14, since the season 15/16 back in the first quality series A. In Basketball is the city with Virtus and Fortitudo is home to two clubs that can boast successes on a national and a continental level.

Personalities

Famous personalities of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Bologna .

Town twinning

Via Zamboni

literature

  • Luca Ciancabilla (a cura di): Bologna in guerra - La città, i monumenti, i rifugi antiaeri . Minerva Edizioni, Argelato 2010. ISBN 978-88-7381-264-7 .
  • Tiziano Costa: Le grandi famiglie di Bologna - Palazzi, Personaggi e storie. Collana c'era Bologna, Costa Editore, Bologna 2013. ISBN 978-88-89646-40-3 .
  • Davide Daghia: Bologna insolita e segreta . Edizioni Jonglez, Versailles (France) 2018. ISBN 978-2-36195-119-1 .
  • Antonio Ferri, Giancarlo Roversi (a cura di): Storia di Bologna . Bologna University Press, Bologna 2005. ISBN 88-7395-084-1 .
  • Antonio Ferri, Giancarlo Roversi (a cura di): Bologna 1900-2000 - Cronache di un secolo . Bologna University Press, Bologna 2011. ISBN 978-88-7395-676-1 .
  • Marcello Fini: Bologna sacra - Tutte le chiese in due millenni di storia . Edizioni Pendragon, Bologna 2007. ISBN 978-88-8342-512-7 .
  • Alessandro Goldoni: Storia di Bologna - Dalle origini ai giorni nostri . Edizioni Biblioteca dell'Immagine, Pordenone 2018. ISBN 978-88-6391-290-6 .
  • Max Jäggi, Roger Müller, Sil Schmid: The red Bologna - Communists democratize a city in the capitalist West . Publishing cooperative, Zurich 1976.
  • Marco Poli, Carlo Ventura: Bologna - La città delle acque e della seta . Minerva Edizioni, Argelato 2017. ISBN 978-88-3324-008-4 .
  • Eugenio Riccòmini: L'Arte a Bologna - Dalle origini ai giorni nostri . Edizioni Pendragon, Bologna 2011. ISBN 978-8883428319 .
  • Valeria Roncuzzi, Mauro Roversi Monaco: Bologna - Parole e immagini attraverso i secoli . Minerva Edizioni, Argelato 2010. ISBN 978-88-7381-345-3 .
  • Giuseppe Scandurra: Bologna che cambia - Quattro studi etnografici su una città . Edizioni Junior, Reggio-Emilia 2017. ISBN 978-88-8434-811-1 .
  • Anna Laura Trombetti, Laura Pasquini: Bologna delle torri - Uomini, pietre, artisti dal Medioevo a Giorgio Morandi . Edifir-Edizioni, Firenze 2013. ISBN 978-88-7970-616-2 .

Web links

Commons : Bologna  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Bologna  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Bologna  travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
  2. a b Andrea Ballandi, Martino Caranti, Giuseppe Marangoni, et al .: La Ciclo Via del Navile - Dal Porto di Bologna a Malalbergo e al Passo Segni . Ed .: Ezio Raimondi. Edizione Monte Sole Bike Group / Istituto dei Beni Culturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna 2004, p. 18th f .
  3. Titus Livius , Ab urbe condita 37,57,5.
  4. Alex Witula, Leonardo Paganello: Carte valori d'epoca. Emilia Romagna e San Marino, ISBN 9788895848020/8895848020.
  5. a b c Amedeo Benati, Franco Bergonzoni, Giorgio Bonfiglioli, et al .: Storia di Bologna . Ed .: Antonio Ferri, Giancarlo Roversi. 3. Edition. University Press Bologna / Santerno Edizioni, Bologna / Imola 1996, p. 286 f . (Page 286 f. Documents the information for the period 1796–1914).
  6. 25 years ago: Bomb attack in Bologna train station. Broadcast by Deutschlandfunk on August 2, 2005, accessed on July 23, 2019.
  7. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin , Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-29925-7 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on August 24, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 1992): “1980 XA. Discovered 1980 Dec. 8 at the Osservatorio San Vittore at Bologna. "
  8. ^ We are History: Palazzo Pepoli - Museum of the History of Bologna. detail-online.com (English), accessed on November 17, 2016.
  9. ^ SMA - Sistema Museale di Ateneo . sma.unibo.it (Italian, English), accessed on July 23, 2019.
  10. ^ Composition of the Consiglio comunale on the side of the city of Bologna
  11. Biography of Virginio Merola on the website of the city of Bologna (Italian)
  12. Moschea a Bologna? Scontro tra Lega, sindaco e islamici , bologna.repubblica.it , accessed on November 10, 2019
  13. Bologna invites you to the ArteFiera 2015. Website of the Reise EXCLUSIV magazine, accessed on January 5, 2015.
  14. Italian mayor declares spaghetti Bolognese to be fake news. In: web.de, March 12, 2019.
  15. That's why Italians never eat spaghetti Bolognese. Travelbook, June 12, 2017, accessed June 12, 2019 .