The Boier (also Bojer , Latin Boii ) were a Celtic tribe in Central Europe . The Boier, originally from the Rhine , Main , and Danube regions, settled in what is now the Czech Republic , Slovakia , Hungary , Austria , southern Germany and the Balkans as well as northern Italy . The Italian Boier became after 200 BC. Chr. Romanized and the northern Boier currently turning by the Marcomanni assimilated.
Origins and Division
The name of the Boier has not yet been satisfactorily explained. In addition to a Celtic name for bat or warrior , an interpretation as a cattle owner (from urindogerm . * Gʷowjeh₃s , see Latin bos : "cattle", genitive : bovis : "of the cattle") is also possible. Occupied names are Boiorix ( King of the Boier ) and Boiodurum ( Passau ). An echo of their name can probably be found in the area names Bohemia ( Boio-haemum = home of the Boier) and Bavaria , which is derived from the tribal name of the " Bajuwaren ", Latin Baiuvarii ( Urm. * Baja-warjōz , where the first component of The name is likely to be a Germanic version of Boii ; the second part belongs to a common educational group for Germanic tribal names meaning "residents").
According to classical doctrine, the name of the Bavarians is derived from the Boiern. However, direct descent is no longer considered likely today. Until the emergence of the Bavarian wars , some upheavals can be assumed during the early migration period in Central Europe.
The area of origin is probably between the Rhine, Main and Danube. During the migration from this area in the Latène period A in the 4th century BC. The tribe was divided into two groups, one of which moved to northern Italy and the other to Bohemia ( Boiohaemum ). The trigger for the emigration was probably increased pressure from invading Germanic tribes.
The Italian Boier soon mixed with the Etruscans and Umbrians who lived there . They made the Etruscan settlement Felsina their capital Bononia (now Bologna ). However, it is not known via which route the sub-trunk migrated to Italy. Some historians such as B. Helmut Birkhan assume that they hiked over the Alps , maybe even over Hallein . Few others believe that the division of the tribe only took place in Bohemia , or shortly before reaching this area, and the migration via the later Noricum and Pannonia to Illyria north of the Adriatic and south of the Alps through the Venetian area in Etruscan Area happened.
Because of the lack of space among the Celtic tribes of Northern Italy and the excess land of the Etruscans, who, despite the excess, did not want to leave anything to them, there were armed conflicts . The Etruscans were supported by the Romans who were enemies with them , and there was also a fight between a Roman emissary and a Celtic chief who was killed in the process. Angry about the interference of the Romans and the killing of the prince, the Celts sent a delegation to Rome and demanded the extradition of the Roman, but this was refused due to the influence of his family, the Fabians : a provocation in the eyes of the Celts. So it came to the conquest of Rome by the Senones and possibly also by parts of the Boier, Insubrer and Lingonen (around 390 BC).
After that, the Boier settled in the area north of the Apennines and south of the Po up to the three-way fork of the Po and mixed with the Etruscans residing there. Princely graves with Etruscan armor elements and Celtic armament were found. The cultural mix also shaped the Ligurians , and through trade with the Boiers who remained north of the Alps, trade goods such as fibulae, which showed the mixture of the two artistic styles, ended up in Bohemian Celtic graves.
The annihilation of the Senones was an occasion for the remaining tribes to undertake a joint attack on Rome , which ended in the Telamon fiasco . Then the Boier and finally the Insubrian and the other tribes were pacified and romanized. A certain part probably fled to their relatives in Central Europe. Six years later they rose up one last time under Hannibal against the Romans, but after the Punier's return to Carthage his army was wiped out and the territories subdued one more and last time.
The group of the Boier who remained at their Bohemian seat spread to Noricum , Pannonia and, occasionally, to Gaul . From their tribal area, the Boier were in the 1st century BC. Partially ousted by Marcomanni and Dacians . The remaining tribesmen went into the Marcomanni and Dacern.
The Boier spread from Bohemia to what was later to be southern Poland and southern Silesia , from where they spread in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. Were pushed back by the growing Germanic Vandals . In an easterly direction they penetrated into the Pannonian lowlands, into today's Hungary , perhaps even to Romania , where they were finally stopped by the Thracians and in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC Were repulsed by the Celtic Dacians . In western Hungary and Burgenland, the Boier under Boiorix , the king of the Cimbri , who presumably also ruled over the Boier of this area, were ousted by the Dacians under Burebista after they had been defeated by him in a battle. The Boier fought in their areas in Lower Austria , north-eastern Upper Austria and northern Burgenland against the Cimbri, Teutons and Ambrones , who they successfully fought off.
Caesar wrote that shortly before they joined the Helvetians with 32,000 people in their emigration, the Boier besieged Noreia . This suggests that they had spread in the Eastern Alps as far as Styria and southern Burgenland, perhaps even to parts of Carinthia and Salzburg . In the Battle of Bibracte defeated Boier were Caesar to Gorgobina the territory of the Aedui settled in Gaul.
In the last two decades of the pre-Christian era, the Boier were ousted from their Bohemian and Eastern Austrian tribal areas north of the Danube by the Suebian Marcomanni and largely assimilated by them. During the Alpine campaign of Tiberius , the Boier, along with another 45 tribes in the Rhaetian part of today's Baiern, were mentioned as one of the last subjugated tribes. The name of a Limes border guards around 278 AD is Boius , which simply means the Boier .
- Helmut Birkhan : Celts. Attempt to present an overall picture of their culture . 2nd edition. Austrian Academy of Sciences , Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-7001-2609-3 .
- Peter Connolly : Hannibal and the enemies of Rome ( Hannibal and the enemies of Rome , 1979). Tessloff, Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-7886-0182-5 .
- Franz Ertl: Topographia Norici. 2nd edition VTN, Kremsmünster 1976 (3 vol.).
- Janine Fries-Knoblauch: The Celts. 3000 years of European culture and history . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2002.
- Max Him : Boii 1 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume III, 1, Stuttgart 1897, Col. 630-633.
- Jacques Moreau : The World of the Celts (Great Cultures of Humanity; Vol. 8). Phaidon-Verlag, Essen 1985, ISBN 3-88851-087-2 .
- Maciej Karwowski / Vladimir Salač / Susanne Sievers (eds.), Boier between reality and fiction. Český Krumlov / Krumau (November 14-16, 2013). Colloquia on Prehistory and Early History 21, Bonn 2015.
- Birkhan, Helmut: "Die Kelten", Vienna, 1997, p. 99
- Caesar, de bello Gallico 1.28.