Koroška ( Slovenian )
|Country flag||State coat of arms|
|National language :||German , Slovenian|
|State capital :||Klagenfurt am Wörthersee|
|Biggest City :||Klagenfurt am Wörthersee|
|National anthem :||Carinthian homeland song|
|ISO 3166-2 :||AT-2|
|Map: Carinthia in Austria|
|Area :||9,538.01 km²|
|- of which country:||9,364 km² (98.2%)|
|- of which water:||172 km² (1.8%)|
|- Rank:||5th of 9th|
|Geographic location :||46 ° 22 ′ - 47 ° 8 ′ n. Br.
12 ° 39 ′ - 15 ° 4 ′ ö. L.
|Expansion:||North – South: 68 km
West – East: 177 km
|The highest point:||
( Grossglockner )
( Lavamünd )
statutory cities 8 districts
|Judicial districts :||11|
|Municipalities :||132, of which
47 market communities
|Map: administrative districts|
|Residents :||561,293 (January 1, 2020)|
|- Rank:||6th of 9th|
|Population density :||59 inhabitants per km²|
|Proportion of foreigners:||10.2% (as of 2018)|
|Governor :||Peter Kaiser (SPÖ)|
|Ruling parties:||SPÖ and ÖVP|
|Distribution of seats in the state parliament :|
|A total of 36 seats|
|Last choice:||4th March 2018|
|Gross domestic product :||17.94 billion euros (2014)|
|GDP per capita:||32,200 euros|
|Unemployment rate :||7.5% (September 2018)|
Carinthia (formerly also Carinthia ; Slovenian Koroška , pronunciation: [ kɔˈroːʃka ]) is the southernmost federal state of the Republic of Austria . The state capital is Klagenfurt am Wörthersee . Carinthia borders in the west on the state of Tyrol , in the north on Salzburg , in the north and east on Styria and in the south on Italy and Slovenia .
There is also a word caranto in Venetian for arid and hard ground, in Friulian carantàn with a similar meaning. Another possibility would be a derivation from the likewise Celtic carant for "friend", from which the personal names Carantius and Carantia are derived in Roman times.
Probably the earliest mention of the name Carinthia was in the cosmography of the anonymous Ravennaten , which is dated between the 8th and 9th centuries. There the Slavic tribe of the Carontani is mentioned (IV 37). Paulus Diaconus mentions in his Lombard history the "Sclavorum gens in Carnuntum, quod corrupte vocitant Carantanum" (V 22: "the tribe of the Slavs in Carnuntum , which they call Carantanum") for the year 663.
The old Slovenian Korotan , from which today's Slovenian Koroška or Koroško (originally adjective * korot-sk- ), the latter mainly in the locative usage na Koroškem "in Carinthia", is derived, is also connected with Karantanien .
In the Middle Ages, the name Carinthia was derived from “caritate plena” (“full of love”) to refer to the generous charity of the inhabitants of this area.
coat of arms
Blazon of the Carinthian coat of arms : “Split of gold and red, in front three striding red-armored and tongued black lions in front of stakes, behind a silver bar. On the gold-crowned Spangenhelm with red and gold covers, two golden buffalo horns , each with five golden sticks on the outside, with three hanging black linden leaves on the right and three red linden leaves on the left . "
The Carinthian flag is gold-red-white and is therefore the only three-colored flag of an Austrian federal state.
The national anthem is the Carinthian homeland song . The first three stanzas were composed in 1822 by Johann Thaurer Ritter von Gallenstein and were set to music in 1835 by Josef Ritter von Rainer-Harbach. They describe the Carinthian landscapes. It was made the national anthem in 1911. In 1930, following a competition, the hymn was expanded to include a fourth stanza by Agnes Millonig , which refers to the Carinthian defensive struggle .
Carinthia borders East Tyrol in the west, Salzburg in the north-west, Styria in the north-east and Slovenia and the Italian regions Friuli and Veneto in the south . The total length of the borders with neighboring countries is 280 km. The constriction of the state area roughly in the middle to only 44 km, together with the different terrain forms, results in the subdivision into Upper Carinthia (characterized by the high mountains) and Lower Carinthia (characterized by the Klagenfurt Basin ). The capital of Klagenfurt is located in the Klagenfurt Basin, which is bordered by the Austrian Central Alps in the north and the Karawanken in the south. To the west of it lies the Wörthersee . Together with many other lakes , it is the center of summer tourism.
The country is crossed by several valleys, of which the largest next to the Drautal the Möll - that Gail - that roses - which Jaun and - Lavanttal are. The most important river in Carinthia is the Drau . The hydropower plants of the former “ Draukraft ” supply twelve percent of the electricity for all of Austria.
The location of Carinthia in the Eastern Alps is reflected in a large variety of rocks and complex rock storage conditions. The following large tectonic units can be found in Carinthia: Penninic , Eastern Alpine , Southern Alpine , Tertiary and Quaternary .
The Penninic is represented in Carinthia by the Tauern window in the Hohe Tauern. The central gneisses, which emerged from Variscan granites, build the Sonnblickkern and the Ankogel - Hochalmspitzkern . Around them is the Lower Schieferhülle the old roof (before Variscan gneisses) and the Upper Schieferhülle ( metamorphic carbonate and clastic sediments - quartzites , marbles and Bündnerschiefer with insertions of from untermeerischem volcanism herrührendem Prasinit such as the Grossglockner ).
All units of the Eastern Alps occur in Carinthia: Lower, Middle and Upper Eastern Alps.
- Unterostalpin: The Matreier Zone is a narrow strip of rock and borders the Tauern window to the south. The rocks were deposited in the chalk and later metamorphically overprinted. Also known as the Tauern flysch , the Matreier zone is sometimes also included in the Tauern window. The Katschbergzone built up from phyllites in the area of the Katschbergfurche limits the Tauern window to the east.
- Central Eastern Alpine : The Central Eastern Alpine mountains are mainly composed of mica schists , para gneiss , orthogneiss, amphibolites , quartzites , eclogites and marbles . They build the Schober group, Kreuzeck group, parts of the Goldeck group, the Ossiacher Tauern, the southern and western parts of the Nockberge as well as the Sau and Koralpe. The predominant part is attributable to the old crystalline. Mesozoic sediments, known as the Stangalm-Mesozoic, occur in the Nock area and run from the Innerkrems over the Predigerstuhl to the south of Bad Kleinkirchheim.
- Oberostalpin: This unit includes the Gurktaler Nappe and the Drauzug (Gailtaler Alpen and Nordkarawanken). They overlay the old crystalline. The Gurktaler Nappe consists of metamorphic overprinted old Paleozoic sediments (phyllites, quartzites, silica slate , carbonates ) as well as basic volcanics ( metatuffe , diabase , green slate ). In the area of Turracher Höhe - Königstuhl, sediments of the Upper Carboniferous occur, which are rich in vegetable fossils and locally contain anthracite coal . Also in the Nock area, Upper Eastern Alpine Mesozoic sediments occur on the Pfannock, which were "rolled up" between the Gurktal Blanket and the Central Eastern Alpine Stangalm Mesozoic.
The Gailtal Alps and the North Karawanken consist of a crystalline basement (Gailtalkristallin, Eisenkappler Kristallin) and superposed sediments. These range in the Gailtal Alps from the Permian to the Upper Triassic, in the Karawanken to the Lower Cretaceous; they contain carbonate rocks to varying degrees. The carbon of Nötsch and the Dobratsch massif form their own floes . The North Karawanken north of the Periadriatic Seam consist of Permomesozoic rocks, the Eisenkappler Diabaszug and the Eisenkappler old crystalline, granite and tonalite.
In Carinthia, the Carnic Alps and the South Karawanken are part of the Southern Alps . They lie south of the Periadriatic Seam. The Carnic Alps are made up of predominantly marine sediments from the younger Ordovician to the Triassic. A lower, predominantly old palaeotic floor is mainly made up of sandstones ( greywacke and quartzite). The younger, higher floor is made up of quartz-rich sandstones, slate and fossil-rich limestone and forms the Auernig and Rattendorfer layers. The South Karawanken are structured in a similar way to the Carnic Alps. The lower storey of Ordovician to Carboniferous rocks emerges in the Seeberger Aufbruch. The main chain consists of Upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and mighty Triassic marine deposits. The latter build the most important massifs such as Koschuta , Vertatscha , Hochstuhl and Mittagskogel .
The era of the Tertiary was shaped by the alpine mountain formation. In the course of the folding processes, some areas sank, for example the Lavanttal Basin was created, which was filled with around 1000 meters thick sediments. This also resulted in the lignite seams that were mined near St. Stefan until 1968. The only basalt in Carinthia is located near Kollnitz near St. Paul . In the Klagenfurt Basin, the Sattnitz conglomerates were deposited in the course of the erosion of the heavily uplifted Karawanken, as well as the tertiary sediments of the Karawanken foreland (Bärental conglomerate).
The Quaternary was shaped by the Ice Ages . The trough valleys and cirques as well as numerous bottom , end and side moraines were created by the action of the glaciers . Meltwater deposited large amounts of sediments, especially in the Klagenfurt Basin. The basins of the Carinthian lakes were also excavated during this time.
|Temperature mean (° C)||Period|
|Klagenfurt am Wörthersee||447||902||7.6||−4.8||18.3||1961-1990|
|Sankt Andrä -Winkling||468||811||7.4||−4.3||17.7||1961-1990|
Carinthia is located in the temperate climate zone of Central Europe. The Mediterranean climate influence is usually overestimated. The main Alpine ridge is also a clear weather divide , but not a climatic divide , especially in the eastern part of the Eastern Alps . However, the climate is strongly modified by the location to the south, by the relief and other local conditions, so that the climate is structured very small-scale.
An important phenomenon in the Klagenfurt Basin and the adjacent valleys is the winter temperature reversal . The cold air lake and thus mostly also the blanket of fog often reach heights of up to The temperature at altitudes between 1000 and 1400 meters is therefore often 15 ° C higher than in the valley. The Carinthian Kaltesee is the largest in the Eastern Alps. It is the main reason for a relatively low annual mean temperature compared to other regions in Austria and for the fact that Carinthia, unlike u. a. Parts of South Tyrol or Ticino do not have a year-round temperature advantage over the regions north of the main Alpine ridge.
The (inaccurate) impression of a Mediterranean influenced climate is mainly due to the warm, sunny summer months that v. a. are relevant to tourism. At many stations in the Klagenfurt Basin and the adjacent main valleys, an average daily maximum of over 25 ° C is reached in July, which is above average compared to other regions in Austria.
The annual temperature fluctuation in valleys is usually 20 to 24 ° C, while it is only 14 to 20 ° C in mountain areas.
The precipitation follows the Central European pattern with Niederschlagsminima in winter (February) and maxima in the summer. In the southern parts of the country (Gailtal, Gailtaler Alpen, Karawanken) a second maximum precipitation occurs as a southern alpine element in late autumn (October / November) as a result of the Adriatic and Genoa lows. The precipitation in summer often takes place in heavy rain, especially thunderstorms . In general, the annual amounts of precipitation decrease from west to east. The mountains in the north-west and south receive particularly high rainfall (over 2000 mm per year), while the rest of the country is in the rain shadow. The areas of Krappfeld (750 mm), Görtschitztal and Unteres Lavanttal (800 mm), but also the northern Klagenfurt basin, the Möll and Liesertal valley are dry.
The number of days with snow cover is 75 to 100 days in the Klagenfurt Basin and the large valleys, and even fewer in the Lower Lavant Valley. In large parts of the mountains, however, it is over 150 days. The opposite is true for the duration of the vegetation period (days above +5 ° C): it is less than 90 days in the high mountains, 180 to 220 days in large parts of the country, 220 to 230 days in the Drau Valley, the Klagenfurt Basin and in the Lower Lavant Valley .
|Culture type||Area ( ha )|
|House and kitchen gardens||388|
|Meadows with several rows||76,684|
|Alpine pastures and mountain meadows||115.115|
|other cultivated land||285|
|other unproductive areas||85,737|
|Crop||Cultivated area (
(dt / ha)
|Silo and green maize
in green matter
|Alternating grassland ( Egart )||11.1||90,655||81.4|
|Meadows two u.
57.6% of the country's area (5490 km²) is covered by forest, around half of which is secondary spruce forests. 15.6% (1500 km²) are subalpine and alpine forest-free vegetation, 19.4% form the main agricultural work area (9.1% arable grassland complexes and 10.3% commercial grassland ). 0.31% are larger wetlands, 5.13% (490 km²) settlement and traffic areas, 1.14% water areas, 0.54% glaciers and 0.28% slope areas. The table offers a more detailed representation according to agricultural aspects.
Around 15,000 animal species are known in Carinthia. The composition of the fauna can be explained by the repopulation of the area after the last Ice Age, when Carinthia was largely glaciated. The first wave of resettlement took place through alpine fauna elements that are now found in the cool mountain regions, for example Alpine apollo ( Parnassius phoebus ), Alpine marmot ( Marmota marmota ) and chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra ). Representatives of the Nordic-Alpine fauna that occur today in Scandinavia and the Alps are the ground insect ( Podisma frigida ) and the mountain hare ( Lepus timidus ).
Most of the Carinthian fauna is found in the forest areas of Europe and Asia (Baltic fauna). These species immigrated when Carinthia re-forested. Typical representatives are stag beetles ( Lucanus cervus ), the great peacock butterfly ( Saturnia pyri ) and the adder ( Vipera berus ).
The Balkan moor frog ( Rana arvalis wolterstorffi ) is a representative of the Pontic fauna element from Eastern Europe . The species of the Illyrian-Mediterranean fauna that migrated from the Mediterranean area are, for example, the Croatian mountain lizard ( Iberolacerta horvathi ), the red chalk ( Monticola saxatilis ) and the sand viper ( Vipera ammodytes ). They have their northern limit of distribution in Carinthia.
Around 150 animal species are endemic in Carinthia . Some examples are Carinthian door snail ( Macrogastra badia carinthiaca ), Carinthian roll louse ( Armadillidium carynthiacum ) and the Carinthian mountain snail ( Miramella carinthiaca ). According to Schmalfuss, Armadillidium carynthiacum is very likely just a synonym for Armadillidium opacum, which is common in Central Europe .
A number of neozoa have also become native in the last few decades . In addition to the widespread European species such as rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ), Spanish Slug ( Arion vulgaris ) or horse-chestnut leaf miner ( Cameraria ohridella ) come in Carinthia well as rare species such as the African cichlids Hemichromis fasciatus and Hemichromis bimaculatus in Warmbach of Villach or the Japanese oak silk moth ( Antherea yamamai ).
|District or statutory city||Automotive
January 1, 2020)
|Klagenfurt am Wörthersee||K||120.11||101,300||1||1||-|
|Sankt Veit an der Glan district||SV||1,493.67||54.186||20th||4th||9|
|Spittal an der Drau district||SP||2,763.99||75,868||33||3||10|
|Sankt Veit an der Glan||SV||1224|
|Bad St. Leonhard in Lavanttal||WHERE||1311|
|Feldkirchen in Carinthia||FE||1930|
|Spittal an der Drau||SP||1930|
|Gmünd in Carinthia||SP||1346|
Most of the Carinthian population lives in the Klagenfurt basin between Villach and Klagenfurt.
In 2008 there were 4,718 live births. The proportion of those born out of wedlock was 53.3%, by far the highest figure in Austria. There were 5,385 deaths, which resulted in a negative birth balance of −667. A slight increase in population resulted from the positive migration balance of 939 people, whereby an emigration to the rest of Austria of 675 people was offset by an immigration from abroad of 1,614 people. The number of naturalizations again fell sharply in 2008 to 427. The population forecast predicts Carinthia as the only federal state to have a slight population decline of around 2% by 2050.
In 2008 around 51,700 people had a migration background . 41,500 of these were born abroad, 10,200 were children born in Austria to parents born abroad. In 2008, the proportion of the population with a migration background in Carinthia was 9.3% of the total population, around half of the Austrian figure of 17.5%. By 2017, the proportion of the population with a migration background in Carinthia had risen to 12.8%, but this number remains only half as high as the Austrian average, where almost a quarter of the population has a migration background.
The majority of Carinthia's population is German-speaking . In the south of the federal state (especially in the districts of Villach-Land, Klagenfurt-Land and Völkermarkt), members of the Slovene-speaking ethnic group live as a recognized minority. The discussion about ethnic group rights (e.g. bilingual place-name signs ) was very emotional (see place-name-sign dispute ).
The number of Slovenes living in Carinthia is controversial. The result of a survey carried out in 1991 in bilingual parishes, in which the parishioners were asked about the colloquial language, resulted in a figure of 50,000 members of the Slovene ethnic group. According to the 2001 census , however, 13,225 people born in Austria gave Slovene as a colloquial language, of which 11,119 in Carinthia indicated Slovene and 535 indicated Windisch .
The majority of the population professes the Roman Catholic Church , the proportion of followers of the Protestant Church is the second highest in Austria after Burgenland (13.3%) in Carinthia with 10.3%.
The catholic diocese of Gurk is practically congruent with the federal state. The patron saint of Carinthia is Saint Joseph (March 19), Saint Hemma von Gurk (June 27) is the mother of the country. The Evangelical Superintendent of Carinthia and East Tyrol looks after the Evangelical Christians of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions . Carinthia is part of the Graz district of the Islamic Faith Community in Austria . Carinthian Jewish faith belong to the Israelite religious community for Styria, Carinthia and the political districts of Burgenland Oberwart, Güssing and Jennersdorf. Carinthian Old Catholic faith belong to the parish of Klagenfurt (incl. East Tyrol). Old Catholic places of worship are in Klagenfurt (St. Markus) and in Villach (castle chapel).
The Hallstatt population of Carinthia, mostly made up of Illyrians but also Venetians , mixed in 300 BC. With Celtic immigrants, whereby religion, customs and social structure continued to exist. At this time, the independent tribal societies united to form the Principality of Noricum as the first state formation on the soil of what is now the state of Carinthia. Noricum was peacefully absorbed under Emperor Augustus in the Roman province of Regnum Noricum . The provincial centers were located on Magdalensberg on Zollfeld and in Teurnia am Lurnfeld . At the beginning of the migration there was an Ostrogothic upper class with a Roman administrative and military structure. After the Slavs replaced this upper class around the year 600 and formed their own state of Carantania with the center in Karnburg , the Slavic language displaced the other languages by the 8th century while the Noric , Roman and Slavic population continued to exist . Called into the country to defend against the Avars , Baier and Franconian dukes in Carinthia also gradually gained influence. Franconian kings and emperors ruled the area from 743 to 907. Carinthia then became part of the Duchy of Baiern again , with large numbers of Bavarian settlers following and spreading the German language.
976 began a phase of independence for the Duchy of Carinthia, which lasted until 1335; During this time numerous monasteries were founded as well as the construction of castles and fortifications. Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian transferred Carinthia to the Habsburgs in 1335 , who united it with Austria , Styria and Carniola .
In the period that followed, up to the 18th century, Carinthia was initially affected by the Turkish wars , peasant uprisings and the consequences of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation . In the course of recatholization, thousands of Protestants were forced into exile, mainly to southern Germany and western Hungary, or were forced to emigrate. Under Maria Theresa there were reforms at the end of the 18th century that curtailed the power of the estates and guaranteed the farmers the right to their property, but Carinthia also lost its administrative independence. Another setback in the country's development was the result of the coalition wars from 1797, which finally resulted in the whole of Upper Carinthia falling to France in 1809. As early as 1813 the country was liberated again and placed under a Habsburg kingdom of Illyria .
After the revolution in 1848, Carinthia regained its independence and national unity in 1849 and was a duchy in the western half of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918 . After the provisional national assembly for German Austria met on October 21, 1918 in the course of the dissolution of the Habsburg multi-ethnic empire after the First World War , the provisional provincial assembly of Carinthia decided on the constitution of the state of Carinthia and the accession of Carinthia to the state of German Austria on November 11, 1918. After the loss of territory from Raibl and the Kanaltal (445 km²) to Italy and Mießenal , Unterdrauburg and the municipality of Seeland in Kankertal (331 km²) to the new SHS state and after the democratically guaranteed preservation of Southern Carinthia after the referendum of October 10, 1920 is Carinthia is part of the Republic of Austria within the boundaries set out in the Peace Treaty of Saint Germain .
The legislature of the state of Carinthia consists of a unicameral parliament, the Carinthian state parliament , with 36 members who are elected for a legislative period of five years. The sessions are chaired by one of the three state presidents elected by the state parliament. The seat of the state parliament is the Landhaus Klagenfurt .
The executive consists of the Carinthian provincial government chaired by the governor of Carinthia . Up until 2018, every parliamentary group (above a certain strength) was represented in this concentration government. The election takes place by the state parliament, whereby the electoral mode for the governor corresponds to majority voting, that of the other members of the government to proportional representation . The Carinthian provincial government consists of seven members: the provincial governor, two provincial governor deputies and four provincial councilors.
The governor was provided by the SPÖ from 1945 to 1989 and from 2013, the ÖVP from 1991 to 1999, and the FPÖ and BZÖ from 1989–1991 and 1999–2013.
The mayors are elected directly at the municipal level . The Carinthian e-government portal offers online and print forms with which citizens can fill out and submit their applications regardless of time and place. It is u. a. in the areas of health, environment or economy and tourism, the trip to the authority is saved. In Carinthia, the governor earned a gross monthly income of EUR 14,254 in 2016, 9–18% less than in the eight other federal states.
In 2014, compared to the gross domestic product of the European Union at purchasing power standards, Carinthia achieved an index value of 108 (EU-28: 100 Austria: 129). At market prices, Carinthia's gross domestic product per capita in 2014 even corresponded to an index value of 117 of the EU average (Carinthia: 32,200 euros, EU-28: 27,500 euros). The largest employer is the Kärntner Landeskrankenanstalten-Betriebsgesellschaft - Management Landeskrankenanstalt Betriebsgesellschaft, followed by the Carinthian regional government and the Austrian Federal Railways .
Agriculture and Forestry
In 2007 there were 18,911 agricultural and forestry holdings in Carinthia, 5,272 of which were full-time. The number of businesses has almost halved since 1945.
In 2008, 34,118 dairy cows were kept, which produced 206,000 tons of milk. In total there were 193,758 cattle, 142,224 pigs as well as 43,344 sheep and 4,236 goats.
The forest area in Carinthia amounts to 505,910 hectares. In 2008 a total of 2,798,455 solid cubic meters of wood was felled, that is 12.8% of the total Austrian felled.
Industry is Carinthia's most important branch of the economy. In 2018, 35,337 residents were directly employed in the manufacture of goods, in tourism there are significantly fewer with 14,638. The strongest branches of industry are: electronics with a production value of 2.9 billion euros in 2017, machines / metal with 1.8 billion euros, wood with 1.2 billion euros and chemicals with 1.16 billion euros.
Carinthian industry plays a key role in shaping the research and innovation location. The 2015 data published by the IHS Carinthia in summer 2017 on research and development in the Austrian federal states show an improvement compared to 2013. In terms of the research quota, the federal state, with a share of 3.15 percent of regional GDP, rose from fifth to fourth, behind Styria (5.16%), Vienna (3.66%) and Upper Austria (3.18%). The total research expenditure amounts to 585.3 million euros, i.e. i. 15.5% more than in 2013. With this increase, Carinthia ranks third in a comparison of the federal states. Around 79 percent of research expenditure comes from the business sector. This is also a top figure in Austria. Of all the federal states, Carinthia has the highest share of research expenditure by foreign companies. According to WIFO (4th quarter of 2018), manufacturing / industry has the highest share of high-tech employees of all federal states with 17.2 percent.
After Tyrol and Salzburg, Carinthia is the most important tourist state in Austria. In 2012 it achieved 12.6 million overnight stays. Carinthia has a tourism intensity of 23 overnight stays per inhabitant, also more than all other federal states with the exception of Tyrol and Salzburg. This means that tourism in Carinthia plays a particularly important role economically and socio-economically.
In terms of the average length of stay, it ranks first among all federal states with 4.4 overnight stays per tourist arrival together with Tyrol. Carinthia's tourism differs from that of the other federal states in a number of features. Carinthia is largely a one-season country: Carinthia has a winter share of overnight stays of only 28% compared to 49% in the Austrian average. Although Carinthia has individual important winter sports areas (Nassfeld, Bad Kleinkirchheim, Mallnitz, Heiligenblut, Katschberg), the summer tourist regions (Wörthersee, Klopeiner See, Millstättersee, Weißensee, Pressegger See, Faaker See) are so strong that they achieve around 72% of the total annual overnight stays . The location south of the main Alpine ridge, relatively far from the main source areas of winter tourism, the difficult accessibility when winter sets in and the tolls on important pass roads also contribute to this.
For an Alpine federal state, Carinthia has a relatively broad distribution of origin in terms of the demand for foreigners and residents. In 2011, 37% of all overnight stays were spent by residents and 63% by foreigners. In particular, the steadily increasing domestic tourism has saved Carinthia from excessive declines in demand in recent years.
While Carinthia's occupancy rates for bed capacity in commercial establishments are good (4/5 star establishments in the summer half year an average occupancy of 55%, 3 star establishments 36%, 2/1 star establishments only 23%) it is with the many private quarters often inadequate. Many of them have therefore left the market in the last decade. In 1990 Carinthia still had 220,000 beds. Since then, 90,000 beds have been given up, especially in private quarters and lower quality commercial establishments, so that Carinthia still had 130,000 beds in 2011 - a high figure after Tyrol and Salzburg. But in no other federal state has the number of beds decreased so sharply during this period. The background to this is a sharp decline in demand, especially for overnight stays abroad. Carinthia achieved almost 20 million overnight stays around 1980. In the period from 1990 to 1995 in particular, it recorded the greatest losses of all federal states, a dramatic decrease of around 5 million overnight stays. This mainly affected the demand from foreigners and thus summer tourism. Since then, demand has leveled off at around 12 to 13 million overnight stays.
Around 20% of the overnight stays in 2008 were on the 128 campsites, a high figure internationally. Germans (41%), Austrians (37%) and Dutch (9%) accounted for 85% of all overnight stays.
Winter tourism is less pronounced in Carinthia, but it is a growth sector. In the 2007/08 season (November to April) 3.7 million overnight stays were recorded, the highest value since statistical records began. The number of overnight stays increased by 3.1% compared to the previous year. According to the country of origin, the Austrians (33%) were ahead of the Germans (30%) and Hungarians (7%). The municipalities of Bad Kleinkirchheim , Heiligenblut , Rennweg , Mallnitz and the Weißensee recorded the highest tourism density .
In Carinthia, hydropower is used particularly intensively. The 540 Carinthian hydropower plants (of which 330 are small hydropower plants ) cover 90% of Carinthia's electricity needs. Half of the production is accounted for by the ten power plants on the Drau . Largest storage power plants are the Malta power plant , the power plant Reißeck and the particularly complex power plant group Fragant .
Mining plays only a subordinate role in Carinthia today. In addition to a large number of quarries, there are only two active mining operations: Eisenglimmer in Waldenstein (municipality Wolfsberg ) and magnesite near Radenthein .
Employed and employed
Of the 268,200 people in employment, 7.0% were employed in agriculture and forestry, 26.6% in industry and trade and 66.4% in the service sector.
On average in 2008 there were 209,291 employees in Carinthia, around 47% of whom were women. The most important areas were manufacturing (37,062), public administration / social security (33,650) and trade / repair of motor vehicles (32,414), which together employed 49% of the workforce. There were 17,059 employees in construction, 16,168 in health and social services and 13,659 in the hotel and restaurant sector.
The unemployment rate in 2015 was 6.1% and thus the second highest after Vienna compared to the other Austrian federal states.
The largest research and educational institution in Carinthia is the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, founded in 1970, with over 10,000 students and an annual budget of 63 million euros (as of 2019, excluding third-party funding). It provides university teaching and research in the cultural and social sciences, economics, technical sciences and in the interdisciplinary field.
The Carinthian University of Applied Sciences operates courses in the fields of technology, business, health and social affairs at four locations in Klagenfurt , Villach , Spittal an der Drau and Feldkirchen .
Since 2013, the Carinthian University of Education, together with the University of Klagenfurt, has been part of the “Development Association South-East” for teacher training, together with colleges and universities in Styria and Burgenland .
Carinthia has produced a number of writers of international standing in the last few decades. In the early 20th century, Robert Musil , Josef Friedrich Perkonig , Dolores Viesèr and Gerhart Ellert became well known.
After the Second World War, the poets Ingeborg Bachmann , Michael Guttenbrunner and Christine Lavant emerged. They were followed by Peter Handke , Gert Jonke , Josef Winkler and Peter Turrini . Among other things, they dealt quite critically with their homeland, like Josef Winkler in his trilogy “Das wilde Kärnten”. Other important representatives of Carinthian literature include: a. Janko Messner , Lydia Mischkulnig , Werner Kofler , Antonio Fian and Florjan Lipuš .
The most important publishers are Johannes Heyn, Carinthia and the Kärntner Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft. Slovenian literature is mainly promoted by the Carinthian publishers Mohorjeva / Hermagoras, Drava and the Wieser-Verlag, founded by Lojze Wieser .
The most important literary event in Carinthia are the Days of German-Language Literature in Klagenfurt, during which the Ingeborg Bachmann Prize is awarded, which has been held annually since 1977 and particularly promotes younger authors. The Ingeborg Bachmann Prize is one of the most important literary awards in German-speaking countries.
In the early 20th century, the Nötscher Circle with the painters Sebastian Isepp , Franz Wiegele , Anton Kolig and Anton Mahringer was active with its European orientation. The painter Herbert Boeckl was only loosely connected to the circle . An art-political controversy was the dispute over the Kolig frescoes in the Klagenfurt Landhaus from 1931, which ended in the dismantling of the frescoes in 1938. In terms of architecture, Gustav Gugitz , the builder of the State Museum, should be mentioned, while the Wörthersee architecture with the villas and hotels is primarily shaped by Viennese architects. Switbert Lobisser is known for his woodcuts . Werner Berg made woodcuts and paintings, especially his adopted home in Bleiburg .
After 1945 Maria Lassnig , Hans Staudacher and Hans Bischoffshausen initiated a radical new beginning. Important sites were and are the Carinthian Art Association , the Hildebrand Gallery, the Nötscher District Museum and the Carinthian Museum of Modern Art, which opened in 2003 . Two high-profile "art scandals" were the frescoes by Giselbert Hoke in Klagenfurt main station in 1950 and the redesign of the meeting room in the country house by Anton Kolig's grandson, Cornelius Kolig, in 1998 .
A fountain designed by Kiki Kogelnik stands near the country house. Other visual artists are Valentin Oman , Bruno Gironcoli , Meina Schellander and Karl Brandstätter . The architect Günther Domenig designed the stone house on Ossiacher See in Carinthia, the building for the state exhibition in Hüttenberg and the extension for the Klagenfurt city theater .
- Klaus Arnold: Carinthia tourism region. Amaliendorf 2013. As CD and download at arnold-research.eu.
- Wilhelm Deuer, Johannes Grabmayer: Transromanica. On the trail of Romanesque in Carinthia. Heyn, Klagenfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-7084-0302-1 .
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- Wolf Bachmann: Vacation in Carinthia. Langen Müller, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7844-1927-5 .
- Institute for Austrian Art Research of the Federal Monuments Office (Hrsg.): Dehio-Handbuch Die Kunstdenkmäler Österreichs. Carinthia. 3. Edition. Schroll, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-7031-0712-X .
- Paul Mildner, Helmut Zwander (Ed.): Carinthia - Nature. The diversity of a country in the south of Austria. 2nd Edition. Publishing house of the Natural Science Association for Carinthia, Klagenfurt 1999, ISBN 3-85328-018-8 .
- Herbert Stejskal (Ed.): Carinthia. History and culture in pictures and documents. Carinthia University Press, Klagenfurt 1985, ISBN 3-85378-220-5 .
- Slovenian is permitted as an official language in accordance with Appendix 2 of the National Ethnic Groups Act: National Ethnic Groups Act in the version of January 1, 2014 . In: RIS - Federal Law .
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- Gunnar Strunz, Carinthia: Nature and Culture between the Alps and Wörthersee (Berlin 2014), p. 31.
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- Helmut Schmalfuss: World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). (PDF) State Museum for Natural History, Stuttgart, November 25, 2003, accessed on August 13, 2019 (English).
- Office of the Carinthian Provincial Government: "Statistisches Handbuch des Landes Kärnten. 54th year 2009: data 2008. “Heyn, Klagenfurt 2009, ISBN 978-3-7084-0371-7 , pp. 25-72.
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- The description of the 20th century, especially the selection of artists, follows: Hellwig Valentin: “The special case. Carinthian Contemporary History 1918–2004. “Mohorjeva / Hermagoras, Klagenfurt (Celovec) / Ljubljana / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7086-0108-4 , pp. 112–114, 309–314.