A market town or market is a place with market rights ; in Bavaria , Austria and South Tyrol it is a municipal law name for a municipality with either a historical or a formal market right. The use of the word “market” in the community name, for example Markt Allhau or Markt Schwaben , is not required, but is practiced occasionally. In other cases, the term Markt and the original place name have grown together, such as Marktbergel .
From the Middle Ages to the 18th century, market rights were granted to places that were urban, but not so large. Usually the market law was accompanied by the granting of other rights, such as the right to coat of arms and seals. Another difference to the cities of that time was that they were not surrounded by a city wall , but only with a wall with a picket fence on it. However, like the cities, they had gates. In today's Free State of Bavaria, the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior can raise a municipality to a "market" under Article 3 of the municipal code. The term market is a special feature of Bavarian municipal law that does not exist in other German federal states. It no longer has anything to do with the right to be able to hold markets on a regular basis, rather it certifies that the place has a certain importance for the surrounding communities, for example through its central location, size or location of regional institutions. A market is thus an intermediate stage between the municipality and the city and usually has a central function for the surrounding towns. This means that market communities are minorities .
There are 386 stores in Bavaria (as of March 31, 2009). The youngest market in Bavaria is Ruhstorf an der Rott , which received this name on November 29, 2008. The oldest market communities in Bavaria include Hengersberg and Kreuzwertheim (market rights were granted in both places in 1009). The most populous municipality with market rights that has not been elevated to a city is Garmisch-Partenkirchen with around 26,000 inhabitants. The smallest market town in Bavaria is Gelchsheim with around 800 inhabitants. Due to their population, most of the market communities can be classified as rural towns or smaller towns and often represent a basic center for the supply of goods for daily needs.
Similar to the state capital or university town , “market” is not part of the place name. Exceptions are Markt Berolzheim ( WUG ), Markt Bibart ( NEA ), Markt Einersheim ( KT ), Markt Erlbach (NEA), Markt Indersdorf ( DAH ), Markt Nordheim (NEA), Markt Rettenbach ( MN ), Markt Schwaben ( EBE ), Markt Taschendorf (NEA) and Markt Wald (MN). Municipalities also lose their right to use the designation market if they are elevated to the status of a city (e.g. the Stadtbergen market was raised to a city on May 12, 2007) or because the municipality was dissolved and incorporated into a different location (e.g. B. happen with Stopfenheim and Oberföhring ). If the name Markt has become an integral part of the place name, it can remain as it is for the town of Marktoberdorf , whose original place name was Oberdorf . In the event of a merger of several municipalities , the market rights of one district can be transferred to the new overall municipality, this is done with Marktrodach and Mallersdorf-Pfaffenberg . Even if the town charter is withdrawn, a downgrade to the next lower level of the market community can take place, such as in Altomünster , Thüngen and Stadtlauringen .
In Bavarian market communities, the municipal council officially bears the name Marktgemeinderat . Analogous to this, there are the terms market fortification for fortifications with city walls, weirs and gates as well as market structure for the division of the community into districts. The central square of a market town is the market square .
Waldbröl is called Marktstadt.
Market municipality in Austria is a title that can be conferred on a municipality . The title of the municipality is higher . Cities with their own statute have a special status, as they also take on the district administration .
Aside from an existing market law from time immemorial, “municipalities that are of particular importance due to their geographical location and economic character” are raised to the market municipality. The decision is made by the respective state government based on the respective municipal code of the state. Until the 1930s (in Upper Austria even until 1965), market surveys only concerned the locality concerned, not the entire municipality. For this reason, several localities within a municipality were sometimes referred to as markets. For example, Naarn in Machlande in Upper Austria has two market towns , Naarn (the municipality's capital ) and Au an der Donau .
The survey of the market municipality allows the municipalities to use the designation “market” or “market municipality”, but has no other legal significance. In particular, the right to hold markets is also independent of the survey of the market community. Even today, many municipalities strive to be awarded the title of market municipality , mainly for representative purposes.
Before the municipal reform of 1849, markets stood out e.g. B. in the 17th century by the name market, the use of a coat of arms, the election of judges and council, the predicate citizen, the erection of a pillory, the flag put on at the time of the fair and by bourgeois trade and industry from lower-ranking places. After the reform, there were only differences in the rules for granting citizenship and honorary citizenship.
Lists of market communities by federal state:
For the definition at that time, see this source.
The name comes from the medieval root pon-, pa (e) n-, poen- , cf. "A pan market, since you have the lantgericht with unteraid to erb and your own, neck dish, the other has to judge the trial that the lantrichter has to hand over the baton to the cabinet" ( 15th century, Geiselhering / Rockinger )
Ban markets were in Bavaria a. a .:
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- Hainfeld (Lower Austria)
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- Zell am See (Salzburg)
- List of market towns in the Sudetenland
- List of municipalities with market rights in South Tyrol
- Spots (place)
- § 3 Paragraph 2 of the Styrian Municipal Code 1967
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- Market communities in Austria - from history to the present . Communal on February 7, 2020
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Statistics Austria : community changes from 1945, associations, divisions, names and Status changes (pdf, 1.67 MB)
• Dissolution or unification of municipalities from 1945 (changed on May 20, 2015.)
• Abolition of amalgamation of municipalities (changed on January 7, 2013.)
• Changes or definitions of municipality names from 1945 ( Changed on 7 January 2016.)
• Awarded the designation "Stadtgemeinde" from 1945 (changed on November 21, 2012.)
• Awarded the designation "Marktgemeinde" from 1945 (changed on September 30, 2015.)