Murnau am Staffelsee
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|Height :||688 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||38.05 km 2|
|Residents:||12,180 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||320 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||82418|
|Area code :||08841|
|License plate :||Cap|
|Community key :||09 1 80 124|
|Market structure:||12 parts of the community|
Market administration address :
82418 Murnau am Staffelsee
|Mayor :||Rolf Beuting ( ÖDP / Citizens' Forum )|
|Location of the market in Murnau am Staffelsee in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district|
The market Murnau am Staffelsee (officially: Murnau a.Staffelsee ) is a municipality in the Upper Bavarian district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen . The market was built around Murnau Castle from the 12th century . The place is part of the tourist region Das Blaue Land .
Murnau is located in the foothills of the Bavarian Alps about 70 km south of Munich . From the village you can see the peaks and ridges of the Ammergau Alps from Hörnle to Ettaler Manndl in the southwest, the Wetterstein Mountains with Zugspitze and Alpspitze in the south and the Ester Mountains with the striking Kistenkar and the Walchensee Mountains with Heimgarten and Herzogstand in the southeast. During the last Ice Age ( Würme Ice Age ), the area of today's Murnau lay under an approximately 600 m thick ice sheet.
The Murnau am Staffelsee market consists of twelve parts of the municipality: The main town of Murnau am Staffelsee, the parish villages of Froschhausen , Hechendorf and Weindorf , the village of Egling , the Oberried and Westried settlements , the hamlets of Achrain , Hermannswiese , Mühlhabing and Ramsach and Neuegling Castle .
Until the 11th century
The area around Murnau was already settled in pre-Christian times. From the reign of Septimius Severus there was the Via Raetia, a Roman road over the Brenner Pass and Seefelder Sattel through the upper Isar and Loisach valleys to Augsburg , which existed as the imperial and trade route Via Imperii until the 19th century. Signs of Celtic and Roman settlement can also be found on the Moosberg in the Murnauer Moos , which has since been removed . At that time Murnau was nothing more than a more or less fortified post office called Murau or Mureau . The name, from which Murnau later developed, referred to the current Murnauer Moos (Mure) and the Loisach Valley (Aue) .
12th to 16th centuries
Murnau was first mentioned in a document around 1150.
The Church of St. Nicholas was first mentioned in a document around 1300 . Murnau Castle was first mentioned in a document in 1324. In 1350, Ludwig the Brandenburger confirmed the ban on blood , the right to defeat, the weekly market on Wednesday and the Michaelimarkt in Murnau . Around 1400, Ettal Monastery received the high jurisdiction previously exercised by the Weilheim district court for its Murnau court .
The first view of the town (the castle) by Philipp Apian dates from 1560.
17th and 18th centuries
1632-1648 took place the occupation by Swedes and French and billeting of imperial troops during the Thirty Years' War . In 1634 the plague broke out. The Church of St. Nicholas was rebuilt from 1717 to 1734. In 1722 the Leonhardi and Scapular markets were approved.
In 1803 the Ettal Abbey was secularized and the Murnau nursing office was repealed. Murnau was assigned to the Weilheim district court . The town hall was rebuilt in 1842. In the middle of the 19th century, almost the entire structure of Murnau was destroyed in a city fire. The subsequent reconstruction led to the closed place that is presented today. In 1868 the Murnau e. V. founded. The Weilheim – Murnau line was opened in 1879, and the Murnau-Garmisch line in 1889. In 1900 the Murnau-Oberammergau railway line opened.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the appearance of the town was changed on the initiative of Emanuel von Seidl .
The two artist couples Gabriele Münter / Wassily Kandinsky and Marianne von Werefkin / Alexej Jawlensky stayed in Murnau for the first time in 1908 to paint together. Her pictures, which she painted of the place and its landscape until 1914, made Murnau known to an art audience all over the world. This period before the First World War is what the term "Murnau Time" means in art history. She is directly connected to these four artists and stylistically marks the development from Expressionism to Abstract Art in painting . The outstanding cultural attractions of Murnau today include the Münter House ("Russenhaus"), which was renovated in 1999 , / which Münter bought in 1909 and into which she moved with Kandinsky, as well as the Castle Museum with its art collection.
In 1923, numerous local residents took part in the Hitler coup in Munich and were awarded the blood order . In the Reichstag elections in 1924, the National Socialists otherwise without a chance in Germany received almost 33 percent of the Murnau vote. From 1923 to 1933 the writer Ödön von Horváth lived and worked in Murnau. In 1924 a private high school for girls (later grammar school ) was founded. The new hospital, donated by James Loeb , was built in 1932. In the Reichstag election on March 5, 1933 , 55.8% of those eligible to vote in Murnau voted for the NSDAP (German Reich: 43.9%, Upper Bavaria-Swabia: 40.9%).
In 1953, the professional association accident clinic in Murnau was opened in the south-east of the village, and has been continuously expanded since then. The Goethe Institute opened its doors in 1954. In 1956 and 1971 the barracks were occupied again by the German armed forces, one of which (Kemmel barracks) was closed again in 1994. Numerous country houses, including a few villas and a gym, built by Emanuel von Seidl , were demolished in the 1960s and 1970s. The Staffelsee-Gymnasium was expanded to a full school in 1967.
On July 1, 1972 , Murnau was separated from the Weilheim district and assigned to the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district. On March 12, 1979, the name of the community Murnau was officially changed to Murnau am Staffelsee .
In 1970, the first remote data transmission to pharmaceutical wholesalers across Bavaria took place via telephone from the Engel pharmacy owned by the pharmacist Gustav Hell together with Siemens.
In 1979 a youth center was created, which in 2006 got its own house named after the founder, the Erlhaus. The Murnauer Moos became a nature reserve in 1980 . In 1993 the castle museum was opened. The historic town center was renovated from 1998 to 2000. The redesigned Münterhaus was reopened in 1999. In 2000 the pedestrian zone and underground car park were inaugurated.
In 2001 the new Kurpark and Münter-Platz as well as the new Staffelsee-Gymnasium were inaugurated.
Murnau acquired the site of the former Kemmel barracks in 2002. It was converted into a commercial and residential park, the Kemmelpark .
In 2006 the Goethe Institute was closed and demolished. In autumn 2009, three semi-detached houses were built at its location.
Since December 9th, 2008 the assembly hall of the Staffelsee-Gymnasium has been named after the writer Ödön von Horváth .
In 2010, the Murnau post office was closed and moved to the Feneberg supermarket. The previous post office building is a listed building and will be preserved.
On July 1, 1974, the previously independent community of Weindorf was incorporated. On January 1, 1978, smaller areas of the communities Riegsee and Seehausen on the Staffelsee were added. With its incorporation on May 1st, 1978, Hechendorf marks the end.
Between 1988 and 2018 the market grew from 10,103 to 12,118 by 2,015 inhabitants or 19.9%.
The data from 1871 to 1987 and in 2011 are census results.
|Party / list||2008 election||Election 2014||2020 election|
|Christian-Social Union in Bavaria||42.9||11||34.12||8th||24.45||6th|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany||15.5||4th||12.23||3||5.01||1|
|Free voter community e. V.||18.8||4th||13.07||3||14.10||3|
|Ecological Democratic Party / Citizens' Forum||19.7||5||22.45||6th||25.5||6th|
The first mayor is Rolf Beuting (ÖDP / Bürgerforum). In the mayor's runoff election on March 29, 2020, he was confirmed in office with 57.11% of the valid votes and a turnout of 66.86%, after he had received the most votes in the first ballot with 41.4%. His competitor in the runoff election, Phillip Zoepf (Mehr Bewegen), came in at 42.89%.
coat of arms
When the dragon appears in the Murnau coat of arms is not known for sure. The first community seal dates from 1374.
Culture and other things
- 1980: Foundation of the Historisches Verein e. V. through Ernst Krönner
- 1988: First Ödön von Horváth project in Murnau, led by Elisabeth Tworek
- In 1989, the first electronic interlocking in Germany was put into regular operation in Murnau .
- Since 1994: Annual kultURKNALL festival organized by the Menschen Helfen e. V.
- Since 2000: Annual "World Music Festival without borders"
- 2003: Foundation of the Ödön von Horváth Society, which regularly organizes events. In November 2013 she awarded the Ödön von Horváth Prize for the first time .
- 2007: Youth and culture days of the Upper Bavaria district "Murnau together"
- The Werdenfelser barracks is located in Murnau and houses the command support battalion 293 , which is around 800 men .
- The Integrative Murnau Market Run takes place in Murnau every two years .
- Murnau was the location of the Sat1 series Stadt, Land, Mord .
- The Murnauer Leonhardiritt takes place every year on November 6th to the Froschhauser Church St. Leonhard .
The Murnau station is located on the Munich-Garmisch-Partenkirchen railway and the ammergau railway to Oberammergau . The place is on the federal highway 2 and there is a connection to the federal highway 95 via the state highway 2062 .
The old “Obere Salzstraße” formerly ran through the village and ran from Tölz, Obersöchering, Murnau, Kohlgrub to Steingaden. The old Roman road “Via Raetia” also ran here.
In Murnau there is the Emanuel-von-Seidl- and the James-Loeb-Grundschule, a middle school that was named after Max Dingler until July 2011 and after Christoph Probst from 2016 , as well as the Staffelsee-Gymnasium, a school with science and technology and linguistic orientation. Murnau has had a secondary school since the 2011/12 school year, which, after originally only being planned for boys, has also been accepting girls since the 2013/14 school year. Initially, the students were housed in temporary containers, at the end of 2014 the first phase of construction was completed and the new school building moved into. The total investment was 21 million euros. The first graduate class left secondary school in the 2016/2017 school year.
In 1964 the Camerloher Musikschule Murnau e. V. founded. She is a member of the Association of Bavarian and German Singing and Music Schools.
Murnau has two hospitals: The Murnau Accident Clinic and the Hochried Clinic, a specialist clinic for pediatric and adolescent medicine. The internal clinic of the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district hospital in Murnau has now been housed in the building of the Murnau professional association accident clinic.
- Listed upper and lower market with Marian column
- Villas, country houses and a school built by Emanuel von Seidl
- Parish church of St. Nikolaus with the dome painting by Waldemar Kolmsperger the Elder
- Maria-Hilf-Kirche in Untermarkt
- Murnau Castle with the Castle Museum
- town hall
- Münter House ("Russian House ")
- King Ludwig II. - Monument, unveiled in 1894, first monument for Ludwig II in Bavaria
- Ramsachkircherl "Sankt Georg" on the edge of the Murnauer Moos
Barracks and garrisons
During the Nazi era , the Kemmel barracks was built in 1935 , the name of which is reminiscent of the conquest of the Kemmelberg by German troops during the Fourth Battle of Flanders . Murnau received a garrison from the mountain troops for the first time in 1938 . Christoph Probst , a member of the White Rose who was born in Murnau in 1919 , was executed in Munich in 1943 . During the Second World War, Polish officers were imprisoned in the Werdenfels barracks ( Oflag VII A ).
Today Murnau is the location of the Bundeswehr ; It was the location of the Mountain Infantry Brigade 22, from 1981 Panzer Grenadier Brigade 22 , later Panzer Brigade 22, which was subordinate to the 1st Mountain Division in Garmisch-Partenkirchen . On March 21, 1993 the large association was dissolved.
Murnau has housed a telecommunications battalion since 1966. Initially set up as Mountain Telecommunication Company 8 in Mittenwald in 1956 , Mountain Telecommunication Battalion 8 (later renamed Mountain Telecommunication Training Battalion 8, then Mountain Staff Telecommunication Training Battalion 8) was relocated to Murnau, where it was stationed in the former Kemmel barracks until March 31, 1994 . On April 1, 1994, it moved into the much smaller but more modern Werdenfels barracks on the northern outskirts of Murnau. Since January 1, 1996 soldiers from Murnau have been regularly represented in foreign missions of the German armed forces ( IFOR , SFOR , EUFOR , TF FOX , KFOR , ISAF ). In the course of the transformation of the Bundeswehr and the associated dissolution of the 1st GebDiv (mountain division), the battalion was renamed Command Support Battalion 293 in 2006 and placed under the armed forces base . According to the structural planning of the Bundeswehr, the Murnau site was originally supposed to be completely dissolved. But only the driving school company was dissolved. Structural security has existed for the Werdenfels barracks since the stationing concept was published in 2011 . In the course of taking this structure, the Murnauer Feldjägerkompanie was dissolved in 2014, and its area of responsibility was taken over by the Munich Feldjägerkompanie.
The Murnau medical supply center is also stationed in the Werdenfels barracks.
The film director Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (actually Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe) named himself after the place.
- Murnau as hardly anyone knows it. 2003, ISBN 3-89702-561-2 .
- Hans-Peter Keitel, Brigitte Salmen: Zeitbilder, Murnauer houses, 100 years ago / today. Murnau 2008.
- Yearbooks of the historical association Murnau , since 1980.
- Simon Baumann: History of the Murnau market. Murnau 1855, Reprint 1984, also at bavarica.digitale-sammlungen.de
- Official website of the municipality
- Entry on the coat of arms of Murnau am Staffelsee in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Markt Murnau am Staffelsee in the location database of the Bayerische Landesbibliothek Online . Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, accessed on September 5, 2019.
- Annegret Hoberg: Gabriele Münter in Munich and Murnau 1901–1914. In exh. Cat .: Gabriele Münter 1877–1962, retrospective. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich 1992, p. 27 ff.
- Exhib. Cat .: Kandinsky, Absolutely Abstract. Munich 2008.
- Bernd Fäthke: Marianne Werefkin. Munich 2001.
- Bernd Fäthke: Jawlensky and his companions in a new light. Munich 2004.
- Brigitte Salmen (ed.), Exhib.-cat .: 1908–2008, 100 years ago, Kandinsky, Münter, Jawlensky, Werefkin in Murnau. Murnau 2008.
- Helmut Friedel, Annegret Hoberg: The Münterhaus in Murnau. Munich 2000.
- Brigitte Salmen: Museum treasures. 15 years of the Murnau Castle Museum. Murnau am Staffelsee 2008.
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 578 .
- Murnau municipal statistics , accessed on January 5, 2011.
- Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing .
- https://www.merkur.de/thema/kommunalwahl-2014-ere73047/ accessed on March 18, 2014
- Election of the market council 2020, Murnau a.Staffelsee, overall result , accessed on May 18, 2020
- Mayor's run-off election, Markt Murnau a.Staffelsee, overall result
- Georg Paula , Stefanie Berg-Hobohm : District Weilheim-Schongau , Volume 1 (= Monuments in Bavaria ), Lipp, Munich 2003, page 17, with references to: Riedl, Adrian von: Reiseatlas von Baiern , Vol. 1, Munich 1796 -1805, map 39.
- Via Raetia , website operator: Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, accessed on October 24, 2010.
- Realschulbau in Murnau: 21 million euros for education. Merkur-Online, May 14, 2013, accessed on May 14, 2013 .
- King Ludwig Monument in Murnau ( Memento from November 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
- Mention of the the barracks in 1938 on page 10 in Sighard Wacker: The Blue Rider is charging forward . 2006 ( PDF ; 3.1 MB, accessed October 8, 2017).
- 402- Historique du 402ème Régiment d'Artillerie . In: basart.artillerie.asso.fr . Retrieved October 8, 2017 (French).