White Rose

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White Rose was the name of a German resistance group against the dictatorship of National Socialism, dominated by students at its core and based essentially on Christian and humanistic values ​​from the tradition of the Bundestag youth . It was created during the Second World War on the initiative of a group of friends around Hans Scholl and Alexander Schmorell from June 1942 in Munich . Between the end of February and April 1943 it was smashed with the exposure, arrest and finally the execution of its formative members after - today as unlawful - death sentences of the People's Court under the chairmanship of Roland Freisler .

The group wrote, printed and distributed a total of six leaflets in different and increasing circulation, initially in the Munich region itself, later via couriers in some other cities of the Nazi state - especially in southern Germany - using various clandestine distribution channels Copies. In these publications, they addressed the crimes of the regime and called for resistance to National Socialism . In the final phase of its existence, the White Rose tried, through Falk Harnack, to expand its contacts to other resistance groups as far as the capital of Berlin and to system-opposition circles of the Wehrmacht . After the end of the Battle of Stalingrad, its members also painted public facades in Munich with slogans against Hitler and the Nazi regime.

Up to the present day, the White Rose is the best-known and symbolic example of the student-bourgeois resistance against the Nazi regime within Germany; In a wider sense, it stands for moral integrity , courage ( civil courage ) and willingness to make sacrifices in the commitment to humanistic-democratic ideals against the background of a totalitarian dictatorship .

Members

The inner circle of the White Rose was formed by the two siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl , Alexander Schmorell , Christoph Probst , Willi Graf and the university professor Kurt Huber .

In addition, other employees and supporters can be attributed to the White Rose, some of whom took part in actions of the White Rose or similar groups in other university towns even after the Scholl siblings and their friends were arrested. They included Traute Lafrenz , Hans Conrad Leipelt , Marie-Luise Jahn , Hans Hirzel , Susanne Hirzel , Heinz Brenner , Franz J. Müller , Eugen Grimminger , Jürgen Wittenstein , Lilo Ramdohr , Gisela Schertling and Falk Harnack, who later became known as a director . There were also Harald Dohrn , Christoph Probst's father-in-law, the architect Manfred Eickemeyer , in whose studio the White Rose met, the painter Wilhelm Geyer , who rented Eickemeyer's studio and gave Hans Scholl the key to the rooms, and the bookseller Josef Söhngen , whose basement served as a hiding place for the leaflets.

There was also a larger circle of supporters, such as the brothers Wilhelm and Heinrich Bollinger , Rudolf Alt, Helmut Bauer, August Sahm, Hellmut Hartert, Michael Brink (Emil Piepke) , Lilo Dreyfeldt , Hubert Furtwängler , Werner Bergengruen , Josef Furtmeier , Fritz Leist , Günter Ammon , Fred Thieler , Kurt Huber u. v. a. Several members came from the Bündische Jugend , for example from dj.1.11 , the Bund New Germany or the Gray Order . In Berlin, leaflets were distributed by the Uncle Emil group , in Hamburg students (a "group of 50 active people", including Hans Leipelt and of whom 30 were arrested in late autumn) formed a group around Heinz Kucharski and Margaretha Rothe which was called the White Rose Hamburg after 1945 .

Origin and motives

The resistance of certain members of the student circle around the White Rose was strongly motivated by Christianity . So z. B. Hans and Susanne Hirzel from the group later called “Ulm high school graduates”, who belonged to the White Rose sympathizers, to a Protestant parsonage; her father was a member of the Confessing Church . Franz J. Müller, Heinrich Guter , Heinz Brenner and Walter Hetzel were Catholics and went to voluntary religious instruction after regular classes were banned from school rooms in 1941. This was granted by Adolf Eisele , a Father of the Missionary Order of the White Fathers , who was anti-Nazi. He taught z. B. with texts by Thomas von Aquin and discussed critical texts such as For example, the sermons of the Münster bishop Clemens August von Galen against Nazi euthanasia and a protest letter from Galens to the Reich Chancellery. Alexander Schmorell belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church. Hans and Sophie Scholl were raised Christian and with ideals such as freedom, justice and independence and were therefore outraged about the deportation and treatment of both Jews and opponents of the regime. They were also shaped by their mother's piety. Dealing with literature, art and music was a natural part of her childhood. Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf learned of mass murders in Poland when they were at the front in 1942 and observed the misery in the Warsaw ghetto , which moved them to join the resistance after their return to Germany.

Actions

After the experiences at the front of the Second World War and the reports of friends about mass murders in Poland and Russia, reading and discussing were no longer enough for them. In June 1942, Alexander Schmorell and Hans Scholl acted. The first four leaflets were written from the end of June to mid-July 1942 and sent anonymously by post to intellectuals in the Munich area. In the winter of the same year, the group was expanded to include Sophie Scholl and Willi Graf.

From July 23 to October 30, 1942, Graf, Scholl and Schmorell had to go to the Eastern Front as paramedics . Upon their return, the students resumed their resistance activities. The fifth leaflet, "Call to all Germans!" (With an estimated circulation between 6000 and 9000) was distributed between January 27 and 29, 1943 by courier trips in several southern German and also in some Austrian cities. From the summer of 1942 onwards, the White Rose aimed primarily at “influencing the broad masses”, as Sophie Scholl said after her arrest on February 18, 1943. This goal is made clear by the fact that the leaflet is written in clearly understandable language. After their experience at the front in the East, the students were convinced that the war could no longer be won (“Hitler cannot win the war, only prolong it”). They called for parting from “National Socialist subhumanity”, imperialism and Prussian militarism “for all time”. Their future vision was a federalist Germany in a united Europe after the war.

LMU atrium

At the end of January 1943, the Battle of Stalingrad was lost for the German Reich with the surrender of the entire 6th Army under General Field Marshal Paulus to the Red Army . Around 90,000 members of the Wehrmacht were taken prisoner of war, around 150,000 soldiers died on the German side alone; more than twice as many people died on the side of the Soviet Union. Stalingrad marked a decisive turning point in the course of the Second World War and led to increased resistance in the European countries occupied by Germany. The majority of the German population was unsettled by this news. In the congress hall of the Deutsches Museum , on the occasion of the 470th anniversary of Munich University on January 13th, there were spontaneous student protests against the speech of the Gauleiter of Munich-Upper Bavaria, Paul Giesler, interspersed with insults against alleged "slackers" and vulgar allusions to the students present . Outraged, the young people, mostly soldiers in uniform, including disabled soldiers, left the hall and broke the police barriers. Led by a highly decorated lieutenant in uniform, a group freed fellow students who had already been arrested from the hands of the police.

The events spurred the members of the White Rose to increased activism. The announcement of the end of the fighting for Stalingrad gave the impetus for her sixth leaflet “Fellow Students! Fellow students! ". The appeal, permeated with patriotic passion, came from Kurt Huber. Hans Scholl and Alexander Schmorell edited the text at the point in which Huber asked for entry into the "wonderful Wehrmacht". Thanks to Helmuth von Moltke , the founder of the Kreisau Circle , this leaflet reached England via Scandinavia. Hundreds of thousands of them were dropped from British planes over Germany in late 1943. They were now headed: "A German Flyer - Manifesto of the Munich Students."

In other cities, friends of the White Rose worked in small groups, handing out leaflets and keeping in touch. "Down with Hitler" and "Freedom" were written on February 3rd, 8th and 15th on the walls of the university and numerous other buildings in Munich. Alexander Schmorell, Hans Scholl and Willi Graf had written the slogans at night with black tar paint and green oil paint using stencils (see also stencil ).

As early as the summer of 1942, the Gestapo initiated investigations into the White Rose leaflets, which were seen as “anti-state efforts”. This research was initially unsuccessful and was soon discontinued. From the end of January the Gestapo set up a special commission in Munich to deal with the leaflets that were redistributed.

Arrest and conviction

Courtroom in the Munich Palace of Justice
Grave of Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst in the Munich cemetery at Perlacher Forst
Persecution and resistance: German postage stamp from 1983

On the night of February 15-16, 1943, the group distributed 800 to 1200 leaflets in Munich. On the night of February 17 to 18, the Gestapo presented the last two leaflets that had surfaced to the Munich Count Richard Harder , with the instruction to provide a perpetrator profile on them; a little later he also received the four older ones.

On February 18, Hans and Sophie Scholl came into the university building through the main entrance at around 10:45 a.m. They carried a red-brown suitcase and a briefcase, both filled with the sixth leaflet and a small amount of the fifth. The siblings laid out these leaflets in bursts in front of the still closed lecture halls and in the corridors. When they were already at the rear exit at Amalienstraße, they turned around and ran to the first floor, where they put down leaflets again. Then they ran to the second floor, from where Sophie threw the rest of the leaflets over the parapet into the atrium of Munich University. The two were discovered by the lecture hall attendant Jakob Schmid and held by him (and others) until the Gestapo arrived.

First trial

After their arrest, Hans and Sophie Scholl were first transported to the Wittelsbacher Palais , the Gestapo headquarters, where they were interrogated separately for hours until February 21. When he was arrested, Hans Scholl had a draft of a leaflet by Christoph Probst with him, so that he too was arrested and charged. The siblings Scholl and Christoph Probst were sentenced to death by the so-called " blood judge " Roland Freisler at the People's Court . The “ harmonized ” court named the reasons for this ruling “ decomposition of military strength ”, “ favoring the enemy ” and “preparing for high treason”. The judgment was carried out on February 22nd by the executioner Johann Reichhart using the guillotine . Shortly before the execution, the Scholl siblings saw their parents for the last time.

Second process

Kurt Huber, Willi Graf and Alexander Schmorell were also sentenced to death on April 19, 1943 in a second trial before the People's Court. Kurt Huber and Alexander Schmorell were beheaded on July 13, 1943 in the Munich-Stadelheim prison ; Willi Graf was also executed by guillotine on October 12, 1943 after the Gestapo had tried for months to extract names from the people around the Squeezing out white rose.

Hans and Susanne Hirzel , Franz J. Müller , Heinrich Guter , Eugen Grimminger , Heinrich Bollinger , Helmut Bauer, Falk Harnack , Gisela Schertling, Katharina Schüddekopf and Traute Lafrenz were also indicted in this second trial .

The prison sentences varied: Eugen Grimminger was sentenced to ten years in prison, Heinrich Bollinger and Helmut Bauer to seven years each, Hans Hirzel and Franz Müller to five years each, Heinrich Guter to eighteen months. Gisela Schertling, Katharina Schüddekopf and Traute Lafrenz were sentenced to one year in prison, Susanne Hirzel to six months. Falk Harnack was acquitted.

Further processes

Falk Harnack was initially acquitted for “lack of evidence”. When he was arrested again in December 1943 and taken to a concentration camp, he managed to escape.

Other helpers and confidants were sentenced to imprisonment between six months and ten years in further trials.

Surname

The origin of the name White Rose - derived from the heading The White Rose above the group's first four leaflets - is unclear. Some see a reference to the book The White Rose of B. Traven . After his arrest on February 18, 1943, Hans Scholl stated that he had "chosen the name arbitrarily":

“Coming back to my writing 'The White Rose' I would like to […] explain the following: The name 'The White Rose' is chosen arbitrarily. […] It may be that I chose this name emotionally, because at the time I was directly impressed by Brentano's Spanish romances 'Rosa Blanca'. There is no relationship to the 'White Rose' of English history. "

However, the value of this interrogation situation is unclear; possibly Scholl wanted to keep his motives a secret in order to protect the other members of the group. It can be said for sure that Hans Scholl knew and appreciated the Traven book. In a letter of June 27, 1938 to his sister Inge, Hans Scholl wrote:

“I carry the bud of a rose in my breast pocket. I need this little plant because that is the other side, far removed from all soldierhood and yet no contradiction to this attitude. "

The symbol of the white rose could also have been influenced by the cherry blossom, a symbol of the German Boyhood from November 1, 1929 , to which Hans and Sophie Scholl belonged. Possibly the name goes back to the drawing of a white rose on a postcard from the Max Baur publishing house . This prompted the soldier Fritz Rook in October 1941 to write a text about what a white rose means to him. Alexander Schmorell liked this text so much that he asked the addressee, Lilo Ramdohr , to be allowed to copy it in order to show it to Hans Scholl.

The historian Sönke Zankel , on the other hand, attributed the naming in his dissertation to an alleged basic attitude of the group of talented students of middle-class origin:

“They thought elitist, especially in the summer of 1942, when their leaflets were still titled 'White Rose'. They named themselves after the exiled nobles during the French Revolution. The name 'White Rose' did not stand for democracy. "

This interpretation, which initially attributed insufficient awareness of democratic values ​​to the resistance group, has been criticized for its woodcut-like handling of the sources.

First reactions in Germany and abroad

The White Rose's hope that the Stalingrad catastrophe would spark open resistance against the regime in Germany was not fulfilled. On the contrary, the National Socialist propaganda used the defeat to swear the population to " total war ". On February 18, 1943, the day the Scholls were arrested, Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels gave his Sportpalast speech to the cheers of his audience .

Shortly after the arrest of the Scholl and Christoph Probsts siblings, the newspapers published searches for Alexander Schmorell. On February 22, 1943, the Munich students had to assemble and officially protest against the “traitors from their ranks”. On February 23, 1943, the Völkischer Beobachter and the Munich Latest News published short notes about the arrest and execution of some "degenerate loners". However, the network of friends and supporters of the White Rose turned out to be too large, and the authorities could not completely suppress the rumors. Persecution continued until the end of World War II, and German newspapers reported, mostly in short articles, about the arrest and punishment of other people. On March 15, 1943, a report by the SS Security Service documented that rumors about the leaflets caused "considerable unrest" among the population. The report was particularly concerned about the fact that the leaflets were no longer being delivered to the authorities as reliably as before.

On April 18, 1943, the New York Times published an article entitled Signs of strain seen in German populace , and mentions the resistance of the students in Munich. The New York Times published further articles on March 29 and April 25, 1943 under the title Nazis Execute 3 Munich Students For Writing Anti-Hitler Pamphlets ("Nazis execute three Munich students for anti-Hitler leaflets") and Germans Clinging to Victory Hope in Fear of Reprisals ("Germans cling to victory for fear of retaliation"). While not all of the information about the resistance, trials, and verdicts was correct, these articles represent the first ever White Rose news in the United States.

On June 27, 1943, the writer and Nobel laureate in literature, Thomas Mann , spoke in his monthly program Deutsche Hörer! on the BBC, admiring the courage of Munich students. Behind the German front, the Soviet Red Army distributed a propaganda leaflet “Lower the flags over the fresh graves of German freedom fighters!” In honor of the students, which was later wrongly attributed to the National Committee for Free Germany .

The text of the sixth leaflet of the White Rose was smuggled into Great Britain via Scandinavia by the German lawyer and member of the Kreisau Circle , Helmuth James Graf von Moltke . In July 1943, the text entitled "A German Flyer" was dropped from Allied aircraft over Germany. The resistance of the White Rose was already known to large parts of the German population during the war.

Remembrance and commemoration to this day

Memory in Munich

Memorial for the “White Rose” in front of the LMU Munich
Fence at Munich Ostbahnhof

Today, the two squares in front of the main university building in Munich are named after the Scholl and Prof. Huber siblings. In front of the entrance, stone leaflets embedded in the floor are reminiscent of the White Rose. These were destroyed by strangers in the night of April 4, 2006, but a renewal of the leaflets was planned anyway. Inside the main building of the university, a stone white rose and a relief with the image of the members of the white rose in the southwest corner of the atrium with the names of the members carved over it remind of the resistance group. At the atrium is the 1997 association of the White Rose Foundation. V. established the White Rose Memorial with the permanent exhibition The White Rose. The resistance of students against Hitler, Munich 1942/43 . On February 22, 2005, a bronze bust of Sophie Scholl made by Nikolai Tregor Jr. was unveiled in the northwest corner . You and the two rulers, King Ludwig I and Prince Regent Luitpold, are the only people to whom a memorial was erected in this area of ​​the LMU.

The University's Institute for Political Science has been known as the Geschwister-Scholl-Institut since 1968 . In the student town of Freimann , built in the 1960s , several streets were named after members of the White Rose . In addition, the student councils and the AStA of the Ludwig Maximilians University tried in vain to rename the university to “Geschwister-Scholl-Universität”.

The first trial against Sophie and Hans Scholl and Christoph Probst took place on February 22nd, 1943 in the jury court room of the Munich Palace of Justice, Prielmayerstraße 7, the second trial against 14 other accused, including Professor Huber, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf, on 19th April 1943 in meeting room 216 (today: 253). This conference room is now equipped as a memorial and can be visited on weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., but not from April 10 to May 31 and from October 10 to November 30 (because of the state legal exams taking place at these times).

One of the few well-known photos in which several members of the White Rose can be seen together (Sophie Scholl, Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell, Willi Graf and Hubert Furtwängler) was taken on July 23, 1942 on Orleansstraße, opposite house number 63, at the end of 2017 it became known that the fence could possibly be torn down due to the upcoming S-Bahn expansion. The Au-Haidhausen district committee is committed to preserving the fence as an "original location of historical importance".

Grave of honor and Willi Graf memorial

In 1946 Willi Graf's remains were transferred to the St. Johann cemetery in Saarbrücken and have been in a grave of honor ever since. On October 12, 2009, on the occasion of the 66th anniversary of his death, a memorial in the form of a small building was erected near the grave. It contains pictures and quotes from Willi Graf and a summary of his life story. His sister Anneliese Knoop-Graf, who died shortly before the exhibition opened, helped design the texts.

Remembrance and canonization of Alexander Schmorell

The Russian Orthodox Church abroad decided to canonize Alexander Schmorell in 2007. The canonization ceremony took place on February 4, 2012 in the Munich Cathedral Church, near the graves of the Scholl siblings, Christoph Probsts and Alexander Schmorells in the Perlacher Forst cemetery .

In Orenburg , Russia, the Alexander Schmorell Scholarship funded by the White Rose Foundation has been awarded to four students every year since 2000. The Orenburg Memorial Center White Rose has existed since 2004 (bilingual, German-Russian permanent exhibition in the Orenburg State Pedagogical University).

Geschwister-Scholl-Prize

The Geschwister Scholl Prize , endowed with 10,000 euros, has been awarded since 1980 . The literature prize is awarded by the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels - Landesverband Bayern, together with the cultural department of the state capital of Munich. The purpose and aim of the Geschwister-Scholl-Prize is to annually honor a book of more recent date that testifies to intellectual independence and is suitable to promote civil liberty, moral, intellectual and aesthetic courage and to give important impulses to the present sense of responsibility.

White Rose Foundation

In 1987 members of the White Rose and relatives of the executed members of the White Rose founded the White Rose Foundation in Munich . V. as a registered non-profit association. The office is located in the main building of the Ludwig Maximilians University. The foundation was supported by cities and communities in which the members of the White Rose lived and offered resistance. The aim of the White Rose Foundation, which is largely financed by donations, is to keep the memory of the White Rose's resistance alive at home and abroad and to set impulses for tolerance and against racism and xenophobia. The White Rose Foundation runs the permanent exhibition in the White Rose Memorial at the atrium of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, offers guided tours through the exhibition and rents touring exhibitions at home and abroad in eight languages. Her work also focuses on historical-educational projects with schools and themed events.

Ulm Memorial White Rose

Memorial stone in Wehrsdorf (2005)
Monument on the place of the White Rose Marburg-Tannenberg
Square of the White Rose in Fulda with a memorial, behind it the Scholl Sibling School

The permanent and traveling exhibition of the White Rose Memorial in Ulm with the title “We wanted the other” - Young People in Ulm 1933 to 1945 was created on the initiative of Franz J. Müller (Honorary Chairman of the White Rose Foundation). It is a project of the White Rose Foundation , Ulm Adult Education Center (vh Ulm) and the German Adult Education Association - funded by the Robert Bosch Foundation . The memorial is located in downtown Ulm in the EinsteinHaus of the vh on Kornhausplatz. Vh was re-founded in 1946 by Inge Aicher-Scholl in the spirit of the “White Rose” in the Martin Luther Church .

In addition to the Ulm members of the White Rose Hans and Sophie Scholl , Franz J. Müller , Hans and Susanne Hirzel and Heiner Guter , 22 Ulmer people are portrayed in the permanent exhibition of the Ulm Memorial White Rose, who did not belong to the "White Rose", but also as Young people resisted National Socialism or refused to accept the regime in any other way.

GDR

In the Soviet occupation zone and later German Democratic Republic , numerous streets and facilities were named after the Scholl siblings, although the group had a Christian background, while the GDR leadership emphasized the communist resistance. Most of the names after the Scholls were made immediately after the end of the war until the early 1950s. A frequent initiator was the Association of Victims of the Nazi Regime (VVN). Although the VVN was soon considered to have been infiltrated by communists in the western zones or the early Federal Republic, it itself emphasized its non-partisan nature and, in particular in its work of remembrance and commemoration, despite various attempts at appropriation by the KPD / SED, knew how to maintain a certain degree of independence. In 1953, this ultimately led to the VVN being banned in the GDR.

The Scholl siblings should serve as conscientious and humanistic role models, especially for children and young people, which is why many schools were named after them (e.g. in Löbau , Freiberg , Sondershausen ). In Leipzig, the former building of the commercial college was rededicated in the Geschwister-Scholl-Haus in 1948 and has since served the university as the headquarters of various institutions.

In the course of Stalinization, the preference for the Scholl siblings and for other protagonists of the White Rose in naming them came under criticism. The head of the Berlin VVN research center, Klaus Lehmann, described the frequent dedications in a letter dated January 6, 1951 to Hermann Axen , head of the agitation and propaganda department of the SED Central Committee, as an indication of the action of "reactionary forces". The previous honors of the group were "in no relation to their activities and certainly not to the struggle of the proletarian resistance fighters." Instead, dedications to Ernst Thälmann and other communists should be increased. As a result, there were largely no further honors. On the other hand, there was no active decanonization of the Christian-motivated resistance.

White Rose Square, Berlin-Spandau

Further honors and commemorations

In memory of the White Rose, Freimut Börngen, as the discoverer of an asteroid, gave it the name (7571) White Rose .

In the Marburg district of Ockershausen, a memorial was built on the site of the former Tannenberg barracks. On the so-called White Rose Square there is an abstract monument that stands on a fountain. As an extension of the ramp of the fountain there are memorial plaques a few dozen meters away.

In May 2003, members of the members of the resistance group founded the Weisse Rose Institute , which is supposed to scientifically examine and honor the group's achievements. The association initiates and promotes the implementation of research projects.

In Berlin-Spandau (district of Wilhelmstadt ), by resolution of the Spandau district council meeting in August 2020, a place in the immediate vicinity of the site of the former Spandau war crimes prison , which had been demolished in 1987 after the death of the last prisoner, Rudolf Hess , was named the White Square Rose . With the designation, the district assembly wanted to set a "clear signal against National Socialist ideas".

Cultural reception

Exhibitions on the White Rose

  • In the Ulmer Denkstätte White Rose , the permanent exhibition is "The White Rose. The resistance of students against Hitler. Munich 1942/43 ”. In addition, a current solo exhibition on a member of the White Rose is shown every year. It is a permanent exhibition in the foyer of the Ulm Adult Education Center ; the traveling exhibition can be borrowed in German.

Concert pieces, opera and theater

Movies

Light music

Radio plays

  • In spite of all violence The story of the white rose. CD-ROM for PC. by Ulrich Chaussy, Systhema Verlag, Munich (1995), based on the cassette edition, order no. 27288 from 1993, TR-Verlagsunion München
  • Sophie Scholl - The interrogation. Oskar Verlag, 2006. In this listening document, the previously unpublished interrogation protocols are discussed in full. Speaker: Anna Clarin (Sophie Scholl) and Konstantin Wecker (Robert Mohr)
  • Hard mind and soft heart. The intellectual environment of the White Rose. Audiobook publisher auditorium maximum 2007. An audio collage about the discussion of the White Rose with philosophical and theological topics and the environment of the White Rose. (Author: Barbara Ellermeier)
  • Risk White Rose. Documentary radio play in two parts Long live freedom! and your spirit lives on. Katrin Seybold , Michael Farin , BR , 2012.

Literature (selection)

Web links

Commons : White Rose  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ulli Stang (Ed.): Sophie and Hans Scholl: 22 February 1942 murdered by Nazis. Edited by DKP Marburg, district group North Am Grün 9, Marburg 1983, p. 4.
  2. Benedikt Pfister : “Stand up to the Nazis!” The Ulm high school graduates under National Socialism. Saarbrücken 2008.
  3. Michael Kuckenburg: This gave us opposition. In: teaching practice. Supplement to education and science. of the Baden-Württemberg Education and Science Union, Issue No. 5, September 20, 2013, ISSN  0178-0786 , p. 6.
  4. See Heinz A.Brenner: Against. Report on the resistance of students of the Humanist High School Ulm / Donau against the German National Socialist dictatorship. Roth, Leutkirch 1992, ISBN 3-9800035-4-X , pp. 9-16 and 20-29 and http://www.schwaebische.de/home_artikel,-Zivilcourage-ist-seine-Staerke-_arid,1508046.html
  5. Excerpts from the interrogation protocols of Sophie Scholl. In: Federal Center for Political Education . April 20, 2005.
  6. Gerhard Schott: Richard Harder , classical philologist, first interpreter of the leaflets of the "White Rose" and the "Institute for Indo-European Spiritual History". In: Elisabeth Kraus (Ed.): The University of Munich in the Third Reich. Essays. Volume 2., Utz , Munich 2008 (contributions to the history of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, volume 4) ISBN 978-3-8316-0727-3 , pp. 413-500.
  7. The death sentence and the rationale. In: Federal Center for Political Education . April 20, 2005.
  8. The guillotine of the Scholl siblings is still soaked in blood augsburger-allgemeine.de of January 10, 2014, accessed on June 25, 2019.
  9. Friends and supporters on bpb.de, from April 20, 2005, accessed on January 23, 2018.
  10. ^ Peter Steinbach , Johannes Tuchel : Resistance against the National Socialist dictatorship 1933–1945. (= Information series on political education. Volume 243). Bonn 2004.
  11. Alexander Schwabe: White Rose Resistance Circle: “Let's finally stop drawing the image of demigods”. In: Spiegel Online , September 14, 2006.
  12. Herbert Ammon: The historical tragedy of the White Rose and the political morality of those born after. In: Globkult.de .
  13. ^ Munich Latest News. February 23, 1943.
  14. ^ Corina Petrescu: Against all odds. Models of subversive spaces in National Socialist Germany. Peter Lang Publishers, Bern 2010, ISBN 978-3-03911-845-8 (English).
  15. Heinz Boberach (Ed.): Messages from the Reich. The secret situation reports of the security service of the SS 1938–1945 . Pawlak Verlag, Herrsching, S. 4944 .
  16. ^ Signs of strain seen in German populace . In: New York Times. April 18, 1943, p. 13. (online) , accessed April 25, 2016 (English).
  17. George Axelsson: Nazis Execute 3 Munich Students For Writing Anti-Hitler Pamphlets. In: New York Times . March 29, 1943, p. 1 , accessed September 8, 2013 (English).
  18. Lower the flags over the fresh graves of German freedom fighters! - Berlin State Library, manuscript collection: Einbl. 1939/45, 8725, p. 75.
  19. "G.39, a German pamphlet" , Aerial Propaganda Leaflet Database, accessed on May 1, 2016th
  20. Andreas Schubert: A rusty fence with historical significance. In: sueddeutsche.de. December 19, 2017, accessed January 2, 2018 .
  21. St. Johann cemetery. In: saarbruecker-friedhoefe.de.
  22. Jakob Wetzel: Alexander von Munich. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . 5th February 2012.
  23. Quoted from: Elke Reuter, Detlef Hansel: The short life of the VVN 1947–1953. The history of the unification of those persecuted by the Nazi regime in the Soviet occupation zone and in the GDR . Berlin 1997, p. 372 f .
  24. Berliner Morgenpost : Democracy: Spandau gets "White Rose Square" , August 13, 2020 [1]