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A manifest ( Latin manifestus 'made tangible') is a public declaration of goals and intentions, often of a political nature. Also used as a term in art and literary history for aesthetic programs since 1800.


Title page of the first edition of the Communist Party Manifesto ("Bu23")


  • Joachim Schultz: Literary Manifestos of the "Belle Epoque", France 1886–1909. Attempt to determine a genre , Lang, Frankfurt am Main, Bern 1981 (Bayreuth Contributions to Literary Studies 2)
  • Johanna Klatt, Robert Lorenz, (Ed.): Manifests. Past and present of political appeal , Transcript-Verlag, Bielefeld 2011 (studies by the Göttingen Institute for Democracy Research on the History of Political and Social Controversies 1), ISBN 978-3-8376-1679-8
  • "The whole world is a manifestation". The European avant-garde and its manifestos. Edited by Wolfgang Asholt / Walter Fähnders. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1997. ISBN 978-3534131501
  • Manifestos and proclamations of the European avant-garde (1909–1938). Edited by Wolfgang Asholt / Walter Fähnders. Stuttgart / Weimar: Metzler, 1995, new edition 2005. ISBN 978-3476020758