Roland Freisler (born October 30, 1893 in Celle , † February 3, 1945 in Berlin ) was a German lawyer whose professional career began in the Weimar Republic and reached its climax during the dictatorship of National Socialism . As one of the 15 participants in the Wannsee Conference , he was one of the main people responsible for organizing the Holocaust . From August 1942 until his death was Freisler president of the infamous People's Court , the highest judicial body of the Nazi regime for political cases .
Freisler is considered the most famous criminal judge in National Socialist Germany. He was responsible for about 2,600 death sentences in the negotiations he led, including many show trials with pre-determined sentences . Examples of this are the trials led by Freisler in 1943 against the members of the White Rose resistance group , in which he sentenced Christoph Probst , Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl, among others, to death, as well as the trials against the resistance fighters in the Hitler attack of July 20, 1944 .
Due to his malevolent , aggressive and self-conscious demeanor as well as his inadequate litigation, which was designed to humiliate the accused and largely deprive them of their right to defense , Freisler is the personified example of the perversion of justice in the service of National Socialism.
Freisler was killed in the heavy US air raid on Berlin on February 3, 1945 .
Origin, World War I and captivity
In contrast to almost all other prominent figures in the National Socialist leadership elite, little is known about Roland Freisler's private life. His father was Julius Freisler (1862–1937), a teacher and engineer from Klantendorf (today: Kujavy ), Neutitschein district in Moravia ; his mother, Florentine Schwerdtfeger (1863–1932), came from Celle . The Freislers had a second son named Oswald , born in 1895 .
In 1912, Freisler began studying law in Jena , but interrupted it after the beginning of the First World War to register as a volunteer . In Jena, Freisler was a temporary member of the SBV student association ! Alemannia Jena in the Schwarzburgbund . He was excluded from it after an old man and Freisler tried to convert the Alemannia into a wingolf student association .
Freisler came in 1915 on the eastern front in Russian captivity . For the rest of the war he was interned in an officers camp near Moscow . After the October Revolution and the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty , the camps were given over to German self-government. Freisler was appointed one of the camp commanders. He had joined the Russian Social Democrats ( Bolsheviks ). Although the prisoners were released home in 1918, Freisler stayed in Soviet Russia for two years longer . During the Russian Civil War he was the commissioner for food distribution. He is said to have spoken fluent Russian and it was speculated that he was a staunch supporter of Bolshevism at this time .
Return to Germany, doctorate and time as a lawyer
Freisler returned in 1920 to Germany and became in 1922 at the University of Jena in law after presenting a thesis on "Fundamentals of the operating organization" doctorate . In 1924 he was a court assessor at the Homberg district court for half a year . In 1924, Freisler and his brother Oswald opened a law firm in Kassel and, as defense attorney, represented members of the NSDAP that he had joined on July 9, 1925 ( membership number 9.679). As a city councilor, he fought duels with left-wing city councilors.
On March 24, 1928, Freisler married Marion Russegger . They had two sons, Harald and Roland.
The National Socialist Roland Freisler (1931 to 1945)
Beginning of the political career for the National Socialists in 1931
In 1931 he was together with Hans Frank defense lawyer in the proceedings against the ringleaders of the Kurfürstendamm riot of 1931 , SA leader Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorff and his chief of staff Karl Ernst .
For the NSDAP, Freisler was a city councilor in Kassel and from 1932 to 1933 a member of the Prussian state parliament . He also held the rank of officer in the SA , but distanced himself from this organization after the so-called Röhm Putsch in 1934. In 1927 Karl Weinrich , the Gauleiter of the then NSDAP Gau Kurhessen , characterized Freisler in a report to the party leadership in Munich as follows:
“Rhetorically, he is equal to, if not superior, our best speakers. He has an influence especially on the masses, he is usually rejected internally by thinking people. Party comrade Freisler can only be used as a speaker. He is unsuitable for any leadership position, since he is unreliable and too dependent on moods. "
The National Socialist Legal Reform after 1933: Criminal Law and Legal Policy Guidelines
After the " seizure of power " in March 1933, his career rose sharply. Freisler was a member of the Reichstag from 1933 and became Ministerial Director in the Prussian Ministry of Justice and head of the personnel department, and a few months later State Secretary and Prussian State Council . When the Prussian Ministry of Justice was absorbed into the Reich Ministry of Justice , Freisler was taken over as State Secretary.
During his work in judicial authorities, Freisler disregarded central principles of the rule of law in accordance with the judicial policy of the NSDAP, for example in 1938 the principle of “ nulla poena sine lege ” (“No punishment without law”) as part of criminal proceedings . According to this basic pillar of any constitutional order, no one may be tried on the basis of a legal situation that did not exist at the time of the offense. Two brothers, Walter and Max Götze , had made Berlin and the surrounding area unsafe between 1934 and 1938 with a series of raids using car traps . There were also two murders that only Walter Götze can be shown to have committed. According to the current legal situation, Max Götze would have got away with a long prison sentence. Freisler informed Hitler of this, who demanded that the death penalty be imposed in this case. Then Freisler, together with the Reich Minister of Justice, hastily ensured that a suitable law was passed in two days and published in the Reichsgesetzblatt of June 23, 1938 with effect from January 1, 1936. On June 24th, Max Götze was sentenced to death in nine cases on the basis of this law.
Freisler was involved in leading positions in the development of a new National Socialist criminal law : He is named as the first employee in the "Overall Processing" section of the National Socialist Justice memorandum , the "overall direction" of which was held by the Prussian Justice Minister Hanns Kerrl and which was published in September 1933. From October 1933 he was also chairman of the committee for criminal law of the Academy for German Law . At the end of September 1933, as number 46, he was one of the first hundred members of Hans Frank's National Socialist Academy for German Law.
From December 1933, Freisler was also deputy leader of the BNSDJ . Hans Frank had appointed him together with Hanns Kerrl.
In issue 8 of February 22, 1934 of the official gazette of the Reich Ministry of Justice “German Justice” it was stated that the “State Secretary in the Reich and Prussian Ministry of Justice and Chairman of the Criminal Law Department of the Academy for German Law” Roland Freisler from Hans Frank as “Head of the scientific work “Of the Academy for German Law.
Freisler became one of the most important authors of the journal Deutsche Justiz. Administration of justice and legal policy until the beginning of 1942. In various articles he represented a. a. one will criminal , after not an act but a will is already punishable to act. Freisler also played a key role in the reformulation of the facts of murder and manslaughter in accordance with the doctrine of perpetrators . After the Polish Criminal Law Ordinance was put into force by the National Socialist Council of Ministers for the defense of the Reich on December 4, 1941 , Freisler commented in three parts under the title The German Polish Criminal Law in three parts, such as the German Nazi criminal justice system in occupied Poland with non-Germans, especially Poland and Jews to deal with. The ordinance was applied to the Katowice Higher Regional Court, which was newly established in 1941 .
State Secretary Roland Freisler at the Wannsee Conference on January 20, 1942
Roland Freisler remained in the Reich Ministry of Justice until his appeal to the People's Court in 1942 and represented it in the role of State Secretary a. a. at the Wannsee Conference .
The President of the People's Court
On August 20, 1942, Freisler was appointed President of the People's Court by Adolf Hitler as successor to Otto Thierack , who had been promoted to Reich Minister of Justice. The People's Court was established in 1934 to negotiate high treason and treason cases. The jurisdiction was later extended to other state security offenses.
Under Freisler, the number of death sentences rose sharply: Around 90 percent of all proceedings ended with a death penalty, which was often set before the trial began, or with life imprisonment . Between 1942 and 1945 more than 5,200 death sentences were passed, of which over 2,600 were passed by the First Senate of the court, led by Freisler, which Freisler counted among the “armored troops of justice”. In the three years of his service at the People's Court, Freisler was responsible for as many death sentences as all the other senates of the court put together during the entire period of the court's existence from 1934 to 1945. Therefore, he soon had the reputation of a "blood judge" than After the assassination attempt on July 20, 1944, Hitler decided that those involved in the conspiracy should be brought before the People's Court. Hitler was also concerned with not giving the conspirators “any time for long speeches”. “But the Freisler will do it. This is our Vyshinsky ”- a reference to Stalin's notorious chief prosecutor in the Moscow trials , the show trials of the Stalinist purges from 1936 to 1938. Nevertheless, Freisler was no exception to Hitler's aversion to lawyers. So he was heard by Hitler during his table monologues in the Fuehrer's headquarters called Bolshevik.
Litigation of Freisler
In all processes of the People's Court, Freisler showed a pronounced prejudice in terms of the Nazi state and its ideology. His litigation lay beyond the rules of procedure and the code of conduct for judges and accordingly represented a severe form of perversion of the law . As a fanatical National Socialist, he wanted to judge “as the Führer himself would judge the case”. He had u. a. said: "Everyone should know that if he raises his hand to strike, certain death is his lot." Freisler's noisy derailments made it difficult for sound engineers to pick up responses from the accused: in negotiations he sometimes shouted in such a way that the sensitivity of the microphones had to be adjusted to a correspondingly lower level.
For Freisler, the People's Court was expressly a “political court”. During the negotiations he humiliated the accused, he hardly listened to them quietly and interrupted them. He also yelled at her and made the process particularly unobjective. This conscious and deliberate humiliation of the accused was done both verbally by Freisler himself and non-verbally by the circumstances before and during the negotiations; so were z. B. Suspenders and belts removed from some of the defendants. Since they stood before the court as a defendant, they were forced to hold on to their pants at all times.
Freisler's traveling People's Court also worked in Austria, which had been annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938. In 1943/1945, Freisler sentenced 31 Slovenian and communist resistance fighters to death in three trials.
Dealing with defendants of the "White Rose"
Freisler led the show trial of the members of the White Rose resistance group in February 1943, to which the members of the First Senate were flown from Berlin to Munich. In the second trial against members of the White Rose (April 1943), right at the opening, he shouted at the accused that National Socialism did not need a criminal code at all against such “traitors”. He will make short work of “absolutely no right”. Freisler corrected himself and improved: "without any law". When an assessor handed him the penal code without a word, he immediately hurled it in the direction of the dock, where the defendants ducked to avoid being hit in the head.
Dealing with Count Schwerin von Schwanenfeld
His approach towards Ulrich-Wilhelm Graf Schwerin von Schwanenfeld in the trial against the "conspirators of July 20, 1944" is also exemplary :
Freisler: “You must have had a special experience with the Polish campaign. Have you not just been deployed in West Prussia? ”
Count Schwerin: “ Yes. ”
Freisler: “ So you were allowed to liberate your own homeland as a soldier of our Führer. ”
Count Schwerin: “ Mr. President, what kind of political experience I have personally had , has had all sorts of difficulties for me as a result, because I have worked for the Germans in Poland for a very long time and during this time I have practically experienced a lot of back and forth in the attitude towards the Poles. It's a ... "
Freisler: " Anyway, the back and forth is something that you can blame National Socialism for? "
Count Schwerin: " I thought of the many murders ... "
Freisler: " Murders? "
Graf Schwerin: " The im At home and abroad ... "
Freisler: " You are a shabby rascal! Do you break under the meanness? Yes or no, will you break under it? ”
Count Schwerin: “ Mr. President! ”
Freisler: “ Yes or no, with a clear answer! ”
Count Schwerin: “ No. ”
Freisler: “ You can no longer break, you are yes just a little heap of misery that no longer has any respect for itself. "
Count Schwerin von Schwanenfeld, who was deliberately incorrectly addressed as “Schwaneberg” by Freisler, is one of around 200 people who were accused and executed or driven to suicide in connection with the July 20th conspiracy .
Dealing with Erwin von Witzleben
The 62-year-old General Erwin von Witzleben , who was emaciated during the days of his imprisonment and whose suspenders had been removed by the Gestapo - he therefore had to hold on to his pants - Freisler hurled: “What do you keep touching your pants, you dirtier old man?"
Dealing with Elfriede Scholz
The statement to a customer that the war was lost after all led to the arrest of Erich Maria Remarque's sister Elfriede Scholz after being denounced to the Gestapo . In October 1943 she was sentenced to death before the People's Court in Berlin, chaired by Roland Freisler, for undermining military strength . In his judgment, Freisler is said to have explicitly referred to her pacifist brother and exclaimed during the trial: "Unfortunately, your brother got away from us - but you will not get away from us." The judgment was made on December 16, 1943 in the execution site of the Berlin prison. Plötzensee executed by beheading with a guillotine.
Responses from defendants to Freisler
The trial of the July 20 conspirators began on August 7, 1944 and important parts of it were filmed daily by cameramen from the Nazi newsreel . The recordings were based on the film Traitors before the People's Court , which was to be shown in German cinemas. In addition to the trial transcripts, it can also be seen from these film documents that Freisler repeatedly had to deal with unbroken defendants who have never lost their dignity. This is particularly evident in the decision of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels not to show the film in cinemas for this reason.
Probably the clearest words that Freisler had to listen to in August 1944 in the courtroom of the Berlin Supreme Court come from the mouths of Caesar von Hofacker and Erwin von Witzleben. Hofacker, who was regarded as the leading figure in the resistance in France, interrupted Freisler after the latter had interrupted him several times: “You are silent now, Mr. Freisler! Because today it's about my head. In a year's time it's about your head! "And the closing words that General von Witzleben addressed to Freisler are said to have been:" You can hand us over to the hangman. In three months, the indignant and tormented people will hold you accountable and drag you alive through the mud. "When Freisler sarcastically portrayed the imminent death of General Erich Fellgiebel in the trial , Fellgiebel replied:" Then hurry up with him Hang up, Mr President, otherwise you are more likely to hang up than we do. "
Freisler was killed in the heavy US air raid on Berlin on February 3, 1945 when he was hit by a fragment of a bomb on his way to the air raid shelter of the People's Court at Bellevuestrasse 15 . On the other hand, the autobiographical representation by the later judge at the Federal Constitutional Court, Fabian von Schlabrendorff , that Freisler was killed in his presence by a falling beam in the shelter, contradicts representations in the historical specialist literature, even if it was repeated for a long time.
When he died, Freisler was still holding the Schlabrendorff files in his hand. A doctor summoned from the street only found his death; it was Rüdiger Schleicher's brother , whom Freisler had sentenced to death the day before. Freisler's death saved von Schlabrendorff's life, among others. Roland Freisler, like his wife, who died in 1997, is buried in the grave of his in-laws in the Dahlem forest cemetery in Berlin . The name Freisler is not mentioned on the tombstone.
Development after 1945
In 1958, a court of justice in Berlin imposed an atonement fine of 100,000 D-Marks on the estate of Freisler. It was offset against the previous seizure of two properties. The widow Marion Freisler objected to this decision because the land had been paid for from her dowry. In the ruling chamber decision, however, it was found that the payments for the land corresponded to the salaries of Freisler. Moreover, it turned out that the widow in marriage had been penniless.
In 1985 it became known that Marion Freisler was drawing a pension under the Federal Pension Act and, from 1974, an additional compensation for occupational damage. This compensation payment was justified by the fact that in the case of Freisler it must be assumed that if he had survived the war, he would have achieved a higher income as a lawyer or civil servant in the higher service. Despite the considerable public outcry over these decisions, this pension payment remained for Freisler's widow, as the argumentation was in accordance with the law. It was not until 1997, after Marion Freisler's death, that the Federal Pension Act was amended to the effect that benefits can be denied in the event of violations of the principles of humanity or the rule of law .
- Basic information about the company organization (publications of the Institute for Business Law at the University of Jena, 3). Jena 1922.
- Becoming a lawyer in the Third Reich. 1st part, Berlin 1933.
- Thoughts on hereditary court law. 1933.
- German criminal law (magazine). Since 1933.
- Basics of a general German criminal law. Memorandum of the Central Committee of the Academy for German Law. 1934 (most likely only partial contributions).
- Together with Reich Minister Franz Gürtner : The coming German criminal law, general part. 1934 (Freisler “only” participated).
- Together with Gerd or Walter Luetgebrune : Memorandum of the Central Committee of the Criminal Law Department of the Academy for German Law on the basics of general German criminal law. Berlin 1934.
- The yearbook of German law. Place and date unknown, but before 1935.
- Together with Ludwig Grauert , head of the police department of the Prussian Ministry of the Interior: The new law in Prussia (collection). Berlin, 1st volume probably 1934 or 1933, 2nd volume 1935.
- Thoughts on the technology of the emerging criminal law and its facts. 1935.
- German criminal law. Criminal law, criminal law policy, criminal process. Berlin 1935.
- To redesign the criminal procedure. Berlin 1935.
- "The tasks of the Reich Justice developed from the biological legal conception", in: Deutsche Justiz , Issue 13 of March 29, 1935, pp. 468-470.
- Together with Reich Minister Franz Gürtner: The new criminal law. Basic thoughts on escort. Berlin 1936.
- For the final meeting of the official criminal law commission; in: Zeitschrift Deutsche Justiz , ed. from the Reich Ministry of Justice, No. 42 of October 16, 1936, p. 1550.
- "For the Liberation of Legal Thought"; in: Zeitschrift Deutsche Justiz , ed. from the Reich Ministry of Justice, No. 42 of October 16, 1936, pp. 1568–1574.
- From the old to the new divorce law. Criticism, suggestion, reason. Berlin 1937.
- Protection of honor in the new German criminal procedure (contributions to renewal of the law, 4). Joint work by Roland Freisler…, Berlin 1937.
- Rule of law , in: Erich Volkmar; Alexander Elster; Günther Küchenhoff (ed.): The legal development of the years 1933 to 1935/36 (also concise dictionary of jurisprudence, Volume VIII: Der Umbruch 1933/1936), Berlin / Leipzig 1937, pp. 567-577.
- National Socialist Law and Legal Thought (publications of the Reich Association of German Administrative Academies). Berlin 1938.
- Guide for the investigative helpers. Berlin 1938.
- The rebirth of criminal thinking. Berlin 1940.
- "The Idea of the Reich", in: German Justice. Administration of justice and legal policy. Official Journal of the German Administration of Justice , Volume 102, Issue 9 of March 1, 1940, pp. 253-256.
- “Psychological basis of Polgreuel, represented by the development of the Polish people's spirit”, in: Deutsche Justiz , Issue 29 of May 17, 1940, pp. 557-563.
- With Justus W. Hedemann : German common law in the making. Von Decker, Berlin 1940.
- With Justus W. Hedemann (ed.): Fight for a German people's law: Richard Deinhardt on his 75th birthday. Von Decker, Berlin 1940.
- Criminology - an indispensable and equivalent basis for successful criminal justice. In: German criminal law. 7/8 (1942), pp. 97-107.
- The German Polish Criminal Law (in 3 parts); in: Deutsche Justiz , ed. from the Reich Ministry of Justice, Part 1 in No. 51/52 of December 19, 1941, pp. 1129–1132, Part 2 in the issue of January 9, 1942, pp. 25–32, Part 3 in issue 3 of January 16, 1942, Pp. 41-46.
- Wilhelm Baum : The Freisler Trials in Carinthia. Evidence of resistance against the Nazi regime in Austria. Kitab, Klagenfurt 2011, ISBN 978-3-902585-77-6 .
- Matthias Blazek: On the biography of Roland Freisler (1893–1945). In: Thomas Vormbaum (ed.): Journal of legal contemporary history. Issue 1/2010, De Gruyter, Hagen 2010, , p. 35 ff.
- Gert Buchheit : judge in red robe. Freisler, President of the People's Court. List, Munich 1968.
- Beatrice and Helmut Heiber (eds.): The back of the swastika. Strange things from the files of the Third Reich. dtv documents, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-423-02967-6 .
- Hanns Kerrl : National Socialist Criminal Law: Memorandum of the Prussian Minister of Justice . R. v. Decker, Berlin 1933, OCLC 11721189 .
- Guido Knopp , Oliver Dött, Andrea Glückert: Hitler's helpers. Goldmann, 1999, ISBN 3-442-15017-5 , p. 281 ff.
- Ingo Müller : Terrible lawyers. The unresolved past of our judiciary. Kindler, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-463-40038-3 .
- Helmut Ortner: The executioner. Roland Freisler, murderer in the service of Hitler. Steidl, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-88243-355-8 . Several subsequent editions, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-534-25905-2 .
- Walter Pauly , Achim Seifert (ed.): Doctorate of a terrible lawyer. Roland Freisler and the Law Faculty of the University of Jena. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2020, ISBN 978-3-16-159237-9 .
- Arnim Ramm: July 20th before the People's Court. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86573-264-4 .
- Uwe Wesel : Three death sentences a day. In: The time . No. 6/2005.
- Roland Freisler. Shown in MDR on July 31, 2016, 9:00 p.m. - 9:45 p.m. (Documentary recordings and cinematic scenes).
- Literature by and about Roland Freisler in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Roland Freisler in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Roland Freisler in the database of members of the Reichstag
- Obituary for Freisler on February 16, 1945 by Nazi Justice Minister Thierack in the legal journal Deutsche Justiz , reproduced on a private website
- Roland Freisler. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Freisler and the People's Court. More detailed documentation (13 sub-pages including biography, documents and images)
- Kirsten Schulz: Roland Freisler - President of the People's Court. Federal Agency for Civic Education
- "Freisler, Karl Roland". Hessian biography. (As of September 7, 2012). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Biography Roland Freisler In: District portal Vorderer Westen, accessed on March 5, 2018.
- Matthias Blazek : Roland Freisler, President of the NS People's Court, biography.
- War Volunteer, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 234, 3rd Company; Prussian loss list No. 84 of November 24, 1914, p. 2880 / German loss list: missing; No. 489 of March 25, 1916, p. 11754: previously missing, was wounded, e.g. Tr. to.
- Peter Hanne, Heinrich-Josef Riotte: The history of the Schwarzburg connection Alemannia Jena. akadpress, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-939413-15-8 .
- | German list of losses (Prussian list of losses No. 423) of January 7, 1916, p. 10943 / | German list of losses (Prussian list of losses No. 468) of March 1, 1916, p. 11480
- Rupert Butler: Gestopo: Hitler's Secret Police. Casemate, London, 2004, ISBN 1-932033-24-6 , pp. 141nbsp; f.
- В. В. Захаров, В. Д. Кулишов. В преддверии катастрофы: Германия 1933-1939 годы. - 2-е изд., Перераб. и доп. - М .: Коллекция «Совершенно секретно», 2003. - (Анатомия Холокоста) - С. 60. - ISBN 5-89048-115-0 .
- According to the legal historian Uwe Wesel : Three death sentences per day. In: The time . No. 6/2005.
- Helmut Ortner: The executioner. Roland Freisler, murderer in the service of Hitler. Steidl, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-88243-355-8 , p. 44 f.
- Pauly / Seifert (ed.): “Promotion of a terrible lawyer”. Roland Freisler and the Law Faculty of the University of Jena, Mohr Siebeck Verlag, Tübingen 2020.
- Did you know that ... Homberg. In: HNA Regiowiki.
- Hartmut Jäckel : People in Berlin. The last telephone book of the old capital 1941. 2nd edition. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart / Munich 2001, ISBN 3-421-05421-5 , p. 142.
- Justice under National Socialism. About crimes in the name of the German people. Contributions and catalog for the exhibition , Baden-Baden 2002, pp. 86, 141 and 143.
- No. 96: Law against street robbery using car traps. dated June 22, 1938 . Part I. In: Reich Ministry of the Interior (Hrsg.): Reichsgesetzblatt . Reichsverlagsamt , Berlin 1938, p. 651 (2018 pp., Online in the Austrian National Library ).
- Justice in the Third Reich 1933–1940. Adaptation and submission in the Gürtner era. 3rd, improved edition. Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-53833-0 , p. 897 f.
- Wolfgang Schüler (Ed.): Serial killers in Germany. Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-86189-629-X , p. 72.
- Preußische Justiz magazine , No. 41 of September 28, 1933, p. 417
- Journal of Prussian Justice , No. 45 of October 26, 1933, p. 583
- Preußische Justiz magazine , No. 41 of September 28, 1933, p. 479
- Zeitschrift Deutsche Justiz (name change; previously Prussian Justice ), No. 52 of December 15, 1933, p. 820
- Ulrike Henschel, Mediator of Law: Legal Publishers from the Late Enlightenment to the Early Post-War Period , Berlin, Boston, 2015, p. 359.
- See e.g. B .: Roland Freisler: Excerpt from “The coming German criminal proceedings”, in: Zeitschrift Deutsche Justiz , Issue 32 of August 12, 1938, p. 1253: “We are committed to a criminal law that is usually called criminal law of the will.”
- No. 101: Law amending the Reich September 4, 1941 . Part I. In: Reich Ministry of the Interior (Hrsg.): Reichsgesetzblatt . Reichsverlagsamt , Berlin 1941, p. 549 (802 pp., Online in the Austrian National Library ).
- Roland Freisler: The German Polish Criminal Law ; in: Deutsche Justiz , Part 1 in No. 51/52 of December 19, 1941, pp. 1129–1132, Part 2 in the issue of January 9, 1942, pp. 25–32, Part 3 in issue 3 of January 16 1942, pp. 41-46
- rbbKultur: the Rosenburg file - how the Nazi justice system was (not) processed after 1945. July 17, 2019, accessed on July 18, 2019 (min. 6:15).
- Nicolaus von Below : As Hitler's Adjutant 1937-1945. Mainz 1980, p. 383.
- Ian Kershaw : Hitler. 1936-1945. Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-421-05132-1 , p. 901.
- Bernd Rüthers: The unlimited interpretation , 7th edition 2012, p. 106 with reference to Henry Picker : Hitler's table talks in the Fuehrer's headquarters, Bonn 1951, p. 212.
- Henry Picker: Hitler's Table Talks in the Führer Headquarters , Bonn 1951, p. 212.
- The Children of July 20th. TV documentary in the ZDF History series , 2014.
- Erich Zimmermann, Hans-Adolf Jacobsen : July 20, 1944. 3rd edition Berto-Verlag, 1960, , p. 197.
- Quotation after testimony of a defendant. In: The Resistant. Witnesses to the White Rose. Documentary by Katrin Seybold . Germany 2008.
- Zimmermann, Jacobsen: July 20, 1944. 1960, p. 199.
- Christian Bommarius : Witness to History. Vinzenz Koppert was a stenographer. In 1944 he recorded Hitler's show trials and in 1949 the meetings of the Parliamentary Council, which wrote the Basic Law. In: Berliner Zeitung . January 10, 2009.
- Antje Vollmer, Lars-Broder Keil: Stauffenberg's companions . Carl Hanser Verlag , 2013, ISBN 978-3-446-24156-5 , p. 61 (256 pages, online excerpt [PDF]).
- Fabian von Schlabrendorff : Officers against Hitler. Zurich 1946 (reprint by TB Goldmann, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-442-12861-7 ).
- Gert Buchheit : Judge in red robe. Freisler, President of the People's Court. List, 1968, p. 274.
- Simone Hannemann: Robert Havemann and the resistance group "European Union". A presentation of the events and their interpretation after 1945. Series of publications by the Robert Havemann Archive Vol. 6, ISBN 978-3-9804920-5-8 , p. 80, footnote 263.
- Fabian von Schlabrendorff : Encounters in five decades . Wunderlich, Tübingen 1979, ISBN 3-8052-0323-3 , p. 144 .
- Barbara Orth (ed.): Gestapo in the operating room. Report from hospital doctor Charlotte Pommer. Studies and documents on everyday life, persecution and resistance under National Socialism Vol. 2. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-86732-126-6 , p. 75.
- Joachim Fest : Coup. The long way to July 20th. Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-88680-539-5 , p. 317 f.
- Roland Freisler. Grave of Freisler's in-laws in the Dahlem forest cemetery in Berlin . In: Klaus Nerger's website.
- see e.g. B. Spiegel article of February 18, 1985
- See Helmut Ortner: The executioner: Roland Freisler - murderer in the service of Hitler. Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-88243-355-8 .
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German lawyer and politician (NSDAP), President of the People's Court, MdR, MdL|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 30, 1893|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Celle , Hanover Province , Prussia|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 3, 1945|
|Place of death||Berlin|