1945


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1945
Berlin, destroyed vaudeville "Wintergarten"
Berlin , destroyed vaudeville conservatory
That destroyed Hiroshima, with a signature by Paul Tibbet
That of an atomic bomb destroyed Hiroshima , with a signature of Paul Tibbets , pilot of the Enola Gay
1945 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2698
Armenian calendar 1393-1394
Ethiopian calendar 1937-1938
Badi calendar 101-102
Bengali calendar 1351-1352
Berber calendar 2895
Buddhist calendar 2489
Burmese calendar 1307
Byzantine calendar 7453-7454
Chinese calendar
 - era 4641-4642 or
4581-4582
 - 60 year cycle

Wood monkey (甲申, 21) -
wood rooster (乙酉, 22)

French
revolution calendar
CLIII - CLIV
153-154
Hebrew calendar 5705-5706
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2001-2002
 - Shaka Samvat 1867-1868
Iranian calendar 1323-1324
Islamic calendar 1364-1365
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 20
 - Kōki 2605
Coptic calendar 1661-1662
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4278
 - Juche era 34
Minguo calendar 34
Modern Olympics XIII
Seleucid calendar 2256-2257
Thai solar calendar 2488

The year 1945 marks the end of the Second World War and thus the beginning of the post-war period.

In Europe, the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front is being pushed back by the Red Army on the Oder in its winter offensive , while with the Ardennes Offensive, a last advance against the Allies on the Western Front fails and the German cities are destroyed in the bombing war .

In February Roosevelt , Churchill and Stalin discuss the post-war order at the Yalta Conference . On the western front, the Allies succeeded in crossing the Rhine at the end of March as the last barrier before the occupation of Germany. The Red Army marched into Berlin at the end of April . Adolf Hitler commits suicide in the Führerbunker on April 30 , the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht comes into effect on May 8 at 11:01 p.m. CET.

Germany and Austria are divided into zones of occupation , on June 5, the Allies formally take over government in Germany in the Berlin Declaration . The Nuremberg trial of the major war criminals begins on November 20 .

In Asia, during the Pacific War, the Japanese are being pushed back by the US forces island by island to the main Japanese islands, but still hold large areas in China (see Second Sino-Japanese War ). After the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th and the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan (August 8th), the emperor's first public address to the population led to the surrender (August 15th). The surrender ceremony on the deck of the American battleship USS Missouri on September 2nd ends the Second World War.

The signing of the Charter of the United Nations on June 26th and the Potsdam Agreement of August 2nd formed the framework for the political world order of the coming decades, shaped by the Cold War .

Events

Politics and world events

Second World War

Political and diplomatic developments
Signing of the declaration of surrender in a tent on the Timeloberg
Colonel-General Alfred Jodl signs the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht on May 7, 1945 in Reims
German-Soviet War / Balkans
Course of operations from January 12 to March 30, 1945
Liberated prisoners, Auschwitz-Birkenau, 1945
Soviet soldiers in Budapest 1945
Poznan 1945
Soviet troops in downtown Vienna
Soviet artillery off Berlin (April 1945)
The war in the west / Italy
Recordings of the Special Film Project 186 shortly after the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp
Liberated prisoners carry the dead out of the barracks, Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, April 17, 1945
The corpses field at Lorenzkirch, Torgau, April 25, 1945
Mauthausen concentration camp after liberation
Final phase crime on large German soil
Bomb war in Europe
The destroyed town center of Engelskirchen
Aerial view of Hildesheim after the destruction on March 22, 1945.
The destroyed city center of Potsdam
Submarine war in the Atlantic
  • From January to May, 153 submarines were sunk in the Atlantic.
  • January 30th : The steamer Wilhelm Gustloff is sunk by a Soviet submarine . Of around 10,000 people (refugees from East Prussia) on board, only around 1,200 survive; it is the greatest shipping disaster in world history.
  • February 9 : The German passenger ship Steuben with over 4,000 refugees on board is torpedoed by the Soviet submarine S-13 off the Pomeranian Baltic coast and sinks. The attack kills around 3,500.
  • April 16 : The refugee ship Goya is sunk in the Baltic Sea .
  • May 1st : The last German submarine of the Second World War is put into service.
Southeast Asia and Pacific War
Burned down Tokyo district after the March 10, 1945 air raid
The photo of the hoisting of the first flag was hardly known.
Pacific War after the end of the war in Europe
Burning Tokyo on May 26, 1945
  • May 23 : The heaviest of the air strikes on Tokyo dropped 583 tons of AN-M47, 796 tons of AN-M50, 1,276 tons of AN-M69, 298 tons of AN-M76 incendiary bombs and 3.6 tons of AN-M41 fragmentation bombs . The badly decimated fire brigade can do nothing to counteract the wildfires that have gotten out of control and so a further 44 km² of urban area burn down. In no other air raid in history, a large area of ​​the city is destroyed.
  • June 10 : Phase three of the air raids on Tokyo begins. Precision attacks on industrial targets will resume until August 15th .
  • June 21 : The Americans victoriously end the Battle of Okinawa against the Japanese.
  • July 5 : The US declares liberation of the Philippines complete; in fact, individual pockets of Japanese resistance hold up until the final surrender.
  • July 21 : Allied troops complete the conquest of Borneo .
  • July 26th : Potsdam declaration : Japan is asked to surrender unconditionally, otherwise there is a threat of “immediate and complete annihilation”.
  • July 28 : Japanese Prime Minister Suzuki Kantarō stated in a press conference that his government found “no significant news” in the Potsdam declaration.
The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima
Fat Man explosion over Nagasaki
Japanese prisoners of war at Tenno's surrender speech

United Nations

The original version of the Charter (PDF; click for the entire version)
  • June 26 : The United Nations Charter is signed by representatives of the 50 founding members in San Francisco . This establishes the United Nations as the successor organization to the League of Nations . Due to the fact that the formation of a government in Poland has not yet been completed, a margin is left for this country in the document. The associated signature will be given on October 15th . This makes Poland the 51st founding member.
FAO logo
IMF logo

Germany after the surrender

English-language film about the signing of the Berlin Declaration
Areas swapped under the Wanfried Agreement
Soviet memorial (front view)
The defendants in the main Dachau trial on November 15, 1945
Eight of the 24 main defendants in Nuremberg: Göring , Heß , von Ribbentrop , Keitel (front row from left), Dönitz , Raeder , von Schirach and Sauckel (behind)

Europe after the war

The Norwegian royal family returns
Clement Attlee 1945

Switzerland

United States

Latin America

North Africa and Middle East

Indonesia

Sukarno

Vietnam

Korea

Other events in Asia

economy

World bank

Financial policy

1 shilling banknote, printed from 1944, issued from May 1945

Patents

Business start-ups

Berliner Zeitung , first edition

Nationalizations

science and technology

War technology

A4b compared to A4 and other units
Trinity test

Civil aviation

Natural sciences

Research and Teaching

  • At the University of Vienna , women are admitted to the Catholic-Theological Faculty (since 1897 at the Philosophical Faculty , 1900 at the Medical Faculty, 1919 Law and Political Science and 1922 at the Evangelical-Theological Faculty).

Culture

Movie

literature

Music and theater

religion

Nag Hammadi Codex II with the Apocryphon of John and the
Gospel of Thomas

Disasters

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

Sports

Nobel Prizes

Born

January

February

Bob Marley , 1980
Mia Farrow , 2008

March

Eric Clapton , 2008

April

May

June

July

August

September

Ehud Olmert , 2005

October

November

December

Bette Midler , 1990
Jarno Saarinen
Lemmy Kilmister with electric guitar (2006)

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

January

Joseph Roth , 1930
Helmuth James von Moltke , January 1945

February

March

Emily Carr
Hans Fischer (1930)

April

Special stamp for the 100th birthday of Georg Elser (2003)
Hans von Dohnanyi (German postage stamp, 2002)
Portrait of Adolf Hitler, 1937

May

Joseph Goebbels
Heinrich Himmler, 1942

June

July

Adolf Cardinal Bertram

August

September

October

November

December

Adam Stegerwald

Exact date of death unknown

literature

Web links

Commons : 1945  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Military certificate of surrender on documentarchiv.de.