The Seleucid era (abbreviated SE for English Seleucid Era , in Latin AG for Anno Graecorum , in German also SÄ ) is a year or epoch that started from the 4th century BC. BC mainly with the Seleucids and Parthians , but also with other peoples in the Orient, until it was used in some cases into the Islamic period. Among other things, it was also in use in Judea, which is proven by corresponding information in the 1st Maccabees and in the New Testament . Due to its wide distribution, it was also referred to as the Greek era or the year counting of the Greeks .
The era originally referred to the reign of Seleucus I , a diadochi (successor) of Alexander the Great , who founded the Seleucid dynasty in the Middle East and who in 312 BC. Chr. Babylon took what was seen as a key event. After his death, however, his successors did not start a new count by year of reign. Instead, counting began with the capture of Babylon in 312 BC. Chr. Retained.
Although so common, dates based on the Seleucid era are fundamentally ambiguous when it comes to converting the dates into modern calendar dates. The calendar year in Syria begins in October, accordingly the year 1 SE in Syria is October 312 BC. Until September 311 BC In Babylon the calendar year begins in April, accordingly year 1 SE in Babylon is April 311 BC. Until March 310 BC Dates that have only been handed down with a year therefore always refer to two years of the Gregorian calendar. The Macedonian Seleucid calendar begins, like the Syrian calendar, in October 312 BC. Chr.
The Seleucid calendar mixed Greek with Babylonian elements, based on the solar and lunar cycle. A year had twelve months, a leap year 13 months, with seven leap years within 19 years.
- Wolfgang Leschhorn : Ancient eras. Era, politics and history in the Black Sea region and in Asia Minor north of the Taurus. Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-06018-9
- Elias J. Bickerman : Notes on Seleucid and Parthian Chronology. In: Berytus Archeological Studies . 8, 2, 1943, , pp. 73-83, copy in the Digital Documentation Center .