The reform of the Macedonian calendar was I. Seleucus , the following conflicts with Antigonus under support of Ptolemy I , the territory of Babylonia final 312 v. Chr. Could win, continued. According to the current historical calendar, the Seleucid era began with this year .
In addition, the old Solon calendar system and the Arab-Macedonian model were still in use. In ancient Egypt , the Ptolemies used the Macedonian-Solonian calendar, which was harmonized with the Macedonian-Arabic calendar in the late period.
Macedonian Seleucid Calendar
The Greek lunisolar calendar was divided after the calendar reform: the Greek-Babylonian calendar was based on the Babylonian model and began in spring. The Greek-Macedonian calendar kept autumn as the start of the year.
The first day of the month usually began with the first visible new light . In 312 BC However, there was already a schematic lunar calendar, which alternated between 29 and 30 days. The common year thus had 12 months. A cycle consisted of 19 years that included 7 leap years . Xanthikos were inserted six times and Hyperberetaios once as leap months.
|Macedonian month name||Babylonian month name||Julian calendar||Gregorian calendar|
|1. Dios||1. Tašritu||October 6, 312 BC Chr.||October 1, 312 BC Chr.|
|1. Apellaios||1. Araḫsamna||November 5, 312 BC Chr.||October 31, 312 BC Chr.|
|1. Audynaios||1. Kislimu||December 4, 312 BC Chr.||November 29, 312 BC Chr.|
|1. Peritios||1. Tebetu||January 3, 311 BC Chr.||December 29, 312 BC Chr.|
|1. Dystrosis||1. Sabatu||February 1, 311 BC Chr.||January 27, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Xanthikos||1. Addaru||March 3, 311 BC Chr.||February 26, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Artemisios||1. Nisannu||April 1, 311 BC Chr.||March 27, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Daisios||1. Ajaru||May 1, 311 BC Chr.||April 26, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Panemos||1. Simanu||May 30, 311 BC Chr.||May 25, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Loos||1. Du'uzu||June 29, 311 BC Chr.||June 24, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Gorpiaios||1. Abu||July 28, 311 BC Chr.||July 23, 311 BC Chr.|
|1. Hyperberetaios||1. Ululu||August 27, 311 BC Chr.||August 22, 311 BC Chr.|
Macedonian Solon Calendar
With the introduction of this type of calendar in the time of Solon, a leap month was inserted in the second year. The months shifted over time and passed through the seasons. According to calculations by Pieter-Willem Pestman, the Ptolemies used the Macedonian-Solonian calendar to convert the periods of government in the Egyptian calendar .
|Macedonian name||Ancient Egyptian name||Gregorian calendar|
|1. Xanthikos||22. Pharmouthi||June 8, 247 BC Chr.|
|1. Artemisios||22. Pachon||8th of July|
|1. Daisios||21. Payni||6th of August|
|1. Panemos||20. Epiphi||September 4th|
|1. Loos||20. Mesori||4th of October|
|1. Gorpiaios||14. Thoth||November 2|
|1. Hyperberetaios||14. Phaophi||2. December|
|1. Dios||13. Hathyr||December 31|
|1. Apellaios||13. Choiak||January 30, 246 BC Chr.|
|1. Audynaios||12. Tybi||1st March|
|1. Peritios||12. Mechir||March 31|
|1. Dystrosis||11. Phamenoth||April 29|
|1. Dystros II (leap month)||11. Pharmouthi||May 29th|
Macedonian Arabic calendar
In the Nabataean Empire and the subsequent Roman province of Arabia Petraea, there was a Macedonian calendar, the characteristics of which were adapted to the Egyptian calendar. The year began at the beginning of spring ; the epagomens were added to the last month.
|Macedonian name||Arabic name||Ancient Egyptian name||Gregorian calendar|
|1. Xanthikos||1. Nisan||6. Phamenoth||March 22|
|1. Artemisios||1. Ajar||6. Pharmouhti||April 21|
|1. Daisios||1. Sivan||6. Pachon||May 21|
|1. Panemos||1. Tammuz||6. Payni||20th June|
|1. Loos||1. Ab||6. Epiphi||20th of July|
|1. Gorpiaios||1. Elul||6. Mesori||August 19th|
|1. Hyperberetaios||1. Tishri||1. Thoth||September 18|
|1. Dios||1. Arahsamna||1. Phaophi||October 18|
|1. Apellaios||1. Kislev||1. Hathyr||November 17th|
|1. Audynaios||1. Tebet||1. Choiak||December 17th|
|1. Peritios||1. Shabbat||1. Tybi||January 16|
|1. Dystrosis||1. Adar||1. Mechir||February 15th|
- Hermann Bengtson : rulers of the Hellenism. Beck, Munich 1975. ISBN 3-406-00733-3 . Pp. 37-61.
- Rolf Krauss : Sothis and moon data: studies on the astronomical and technical chronology of ancient Egypt , Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1985, ISBN 3-8067-8086-X
- Hans Lietzmann, Kurt Aland: Calculation of the times of the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the modern age for the years 1 - 2000 AD , de Gruyter, Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-11-010049-5 .
- Pieter-Willem Pestman: Chronologie égyptienne d'après les textes demotiques - Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 15 (332 av.JC - 453 ap.JC) - , Brill, Lugdunum Batavorum 1967
- Heinrich Pleticha , Otto Schönberger : The Greeks - Lexicon for the history of classical Greece - , Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1988, ISBN 3-404-64065-9 .
- Konrat Ziegler u. a. (Ed.): The small Pauly - Lexicon of antiquity; on the basis of Pauly's Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity , Vol. 3: Iuppiter - Nasidienus