|The Ancient Egypt
|Prehistory :||before 4000 BC Chr.|
|Predynastic time :||
approx. 4000-3032 BC BC
|Early Dynastic Period :||
approx. 3032-2707 BC Chr.
|Old Empire :||
approx. 2707-2216 BC Chr.
3rd to 6th Dynasty
|First intermediate time :||
approx. 2216-2137 BC Chr.
7th to 11th Dynasty
|Middle Kingdom :||
approx. 2137–1781 BC Chr.
11 to 12th Dynasty
|Second split time :||
approx. 1648-1550 BC BC
13th to 17th Dynasty
|New Kingdom :||
approx. 1550-1070 BC Chr.
18 to 20 Dynasty
|Third intermediate time :||
approx. 1070–664 BC BC
21st to 25th dynasty
|Late period :||
approx. 664-332 BC Chr.
26 to 31 Dynasty
|Greco-Roman time :||332 BC BC to AD 395|
|Data based on Stan Hendrickx and Jürgen von Beckerath|
|History of Ancient Egypt|
Ancient Egypt is the general name for the land of Egypt in ancient times . The Egyptian name was Kemet and means "black land". Kemet refers to the delta of the Nile and goes back to the black mud that remained after the annual flood of the Nile and guaranteed a fertile harvest. Another name for the land of antiquity was Ta meri (T3 mrj), which translates as "beloved land".
Egyptian history, insofar as it can be grasped by material evidence for historiography, covers the periods from the early days to the conquest by the Roman Empire . It is divided into several epochs .
The origin of the Egyptian culture lies in distant prehistoric times. The culture known as high culture began in the early Dynastic period when a first empire emerged in Upper Egypt . Military expansions towards the Nile Delta enlarged this empire. There today's Lower Egypt was conquered - thus the first step of the unification of the empire took place .
Politics and administration
The country was ruled centrally by the Egyptian king ( Pharaoh ), who was considered the son of the sun god Re . The people revered him as a representative of the divine on earth and thus holder of a divine office. As ruler, he had unlimited powers. He was the sole owner of the land and all of the products on it, and he had mineral resources as well as the booty from military campaigns.
As a rule, the king exercised his rule from the accession to the throne until the end of his life. He was succeeded by the eldest son conceived by the chief consort. The king and royal family were housed in their own palace , which was used both publicly and privately and was mostly located in the capital of the country.
The Egyptian king had to care for the absolute well-being of the country and for the maintenance of the world order ( mate ). He passed all laws and decrees , supervised the economy and trade, had the supreme command of the army and determined the building program, especially the building of temples. In addition, he had necessary reforms carried out, appointed top ministers who supported him in the exercise of his government office and awarded the gold of honor to his subordinates for special achievements. In addition, he took care of the maintenance of temple cults across the country , which were performed by vicarious priests . Great care was taken in preparing for his eternal life. The construction of the royal tomb was usually started when he took office .
In the 30th year of the reign, and then every third year thereafter, the Sedfest was celebrated, which served for the ritual renewal of kingship. Other rituals and festivals were the hunt for big game and lions as well as the unification festival , at which the king was celebrated as the successor of the supposedly first king and unifier of the empire Menes .
The main tasks of the Egyptian administration consisted in the counting and collection of taxes in the form of natural produce ( cattle , grain ), the re-measurement of the fields after the falling Nile flood , the organization of royal building projects and expeditions, as well as the acquisition and remuneration of workers. The most important branches were the treasure house, the double barn (office for the administration of the granaries), the military administration, the temple administration, the palace administration of the king and the building supervision.
The administrative system was tightly organized and structured hierarchically. The chief leader was the vizier , who was directly subordinate to the king. Other important offices followed such as treasurer , site manager, sealer of the king ( Chetemti-biti ), hereditary prince and mayor. In total, there were up to 2000 different civil servant titles , which were arranged differently according to order of precedence. The level of the rank strongly depended on the closeness to the king, in whose personal environment many officials such as palace administrators , secretaries and record clerks were employed. High-ranking officials were highly regarded and had the prospect of their own tombs. High offices were initially only filled with members of the royal family. Only in the Middle Kingdom did a separation take place. Many offices were passed on from father to son, but advancement was also possible regardless of social background.
The country was administratively divided into 42 Gaue , of which 22 were in Upper and 20 in Lower Egypt . Each Gau was subordinate to a Gaufürsten who ruled from the respective provincial capital. All northern administrative districts were centralized by Memphis , and all southern by Thebes . The border between the two halves of the country was a little north of Assiut .
The conquered part of Nubia was subordinate to a viceroy of Kush from the 17th to the 21st dynasty . This was directly subordinate to the king and was authorized to represent him in the subjugated southern countries. The Egyptian administration in the Near East came from local city princes in Syria and Palestine .
At the top of the legal system were the king and the vizier. The king was regarded as the implementer of the divine order (Maat) and issued laws and decrees himself. The vizier acted on his behalf. There was no jurisdiction in the narrower sense, law was applied in practice and individual cases were decided individually. The king could also make decisions independently of the existing laws at any time, as long as he maintained the balance of the mate. In the Old Kingdom, the main concerns were presented to the so-called "six tribunals", in which high officials were appointed as judges. In the New Kingdom, important cases were negotiated in the great kenbet , which were under the direction of the vizier. For minor disputes and offenses there were local courts in the cities, temples and villages made up of the local civil servants.
The principle of the legal profession was not yet known. Plaintiffs and defendants had to represent themselves in the trial and swear an oath before testifying. Judgments were based on circumstantial evidence and testimony . In crime-centered cases, the accused were first questioned and confessions were sometimes obtained through torture . Beatings , mutilations , confiscation of property, deportation and forced labor were common punishments . One of the harshest punishments was cutting off the nose and ears. The death penalty was only imposed in exceptional cases and was usually carried out by burning , beheading or impaling . From the New Kingdom onwards, defendants had the opportunity to turn to oracles at religious festivals . For this purpose, an oral or written question was posed to a statue of the king, which was carried by priests, which could be answered in the negative or in the affirmative by a corresponding movement.
Since the country was relatively well protected from attack by external enemies due to its favorable geographical location, the military tasks in the Old Kingdom were mainly limited to carrying out construction projects as well as quarrying and trading expeditions. Normal workers were recruited for military projects, who returned to their old occupation when they had finished. Professional soldiers and a solid organizational structure of the army only became important in the Middle and New Reich, in order to conduct major campaigns in the Near East and to secure border fortresses in Nubia .
Main forces were the infantry , the Nilflotte and since the 18th Dynasty, the chariot troops . The infantry was largely composed of lancers and Nubian archers . The smallest military unit was the "division", which consisted of 50 men. Four to five divisions formed a regiment and up to 20 regiments formed a division , which was subordinate to a certain deity. The highest military rank of the supreme troop commander was mostly carried by the crown prince in the New Kingdom. Despite the high reward that precious metal, land or slaves provided, the standing soldiers or officers in battle among the Egyptians was low. As a rule, Libyans and Nubians were used for combat tasks , while Egyptians were more likely to be found in the higher officer ranks. The military training included marches and duels.
Trade contacts with neighboring peoples have existed since the earliest times, even before the unification of the Egyptian Empire around 3000 BC. The neighboring countries were visited by the Egyptian traders both by sea and by land. Foreign trade reached its peak in the New Kingdom.
The population was around 2900 BC. It was estimated at two million BC and was never higher than eight million.
Most of the ancient Egyptians were farmers and lived fairly simple lives. They owned small fields along the Nile and grew wheat, fruits and vegetables for about eight to nine months a year. Since they had to support themselves, they raised goats, sheep and cattle and stocked up on supplies for the time of the annual floods.
The position of women is controversial and is often viewed as outstanding in comparison with classical antiquity ( ancient Greece ). Indeed, women appear to have been legally equated with men, but there is little evidence of women in administrative positions. The sources do not reveal whether access was difficult for them or whether they were tied to the house due to the number of children they wanted. What is certain is that women formed a minority in administrative offices, but there are also some prominent examples of high positions. In contrast, women are often attested in the professions of miller and brewer. Egyptian texts repeatedly emphasize caring for widows. This could be seen as an indication that widowed women had few opportunities to earn a living.
The married couple lived as a rule monogamous . The polygamy is so far attested only for the royal family and in a few high officials. A high child mortality rate can be assumed. For this reason, having a large number of children was welcome. The average life expectancy was not very high, it was only about 32 to 35 years.
The Egyptians always believed they had the good gods on their side. One was on the lookout for fraudsters and ghosts. Haunted spirits were unhappy souls whose graves had been ransacked or destroyed. It is said that a pharaoh once had a tomb restored after such a ghost had told him in a dream about his suffering, so that the ghost could return to the realm of the dead.
Pre- and early dynastic period
Around 6000 BC BC the people in Egypt, which was sparsely populated up to that point, began to breed cattle . As a result and through the approx. 5000 BC With the emergence of agriculture in the Nile Valley, it became possible to feed more people. The population grew. But arable farming gave rise to new problems: Since the Nile flooded the country once a year and there was otherwise drought , compensation had to be created in the form of canal systems that drained or stored the water. Since the individual farmers were unable to do this, they joined forces and formed so-called Gaue , which were administered by Gaufürsten . Hence the ancient Egyptian word for Gaufürst means "He who builds the canals". Grain silos were built to feed the people all year round. These were also administered by the princes. However, the individual princes began to fight. Around 3000 BC BC Menes prevailed and united Upper and Lower Egypt, which had previously formed. Menes was the first ruler of Egypt with the title Pharaoh, which means "big house". By getting much of the harvest , Pharaoh accumulated wealth and culture arose by promoting architecture, sculpture, etc. The trigger for many cultural developments was the belief in the afterlife and the resulting cult of the dead , which was so strongly developed among the Egyptians that people spent their entire lives devoting themselves to the design of their graves.
Old and Middle Kingdom
In the Old and Middle Kingdoms , Egypt was an absolute monarchy . The Pharaoh issued all laws and was seen as a higher spirit being and later as a mediator between man and the divine. He was z. B. also made responsible for the (in) fertility of the country. The clerks and administrators, d. H. the officials at the time . Although they still administered the district, they were subordinate to the Pharaoh. In the then strictly hierarchical culture, the simple craftsmen and farmers were among them . This clear separation of the stands made it necessary to design people in reliefs and pictures and not only indicate them through the hieroglyph for "human".
The farmers only had to make their grain available to the general public; they were allowed to keep other products such as meat or vegetables themselves. At the time of the floods and the greatest drought, when agriculture was not possible, the farmers had to work in the military or building pyramids.
Many thousands of people were involved in the construction of the pyramids: a builder who supervised the construction, some engineers , thousands of foremen, many clerks (officials) who, for example, B. regulated the procurement of materials. All employees also had to be provided with food and drinks on site. Because it took a long time to build, the builder sometimes died before the pyramid was completed and had to be replaced. If the Pharaoh died before completion, construction continued anyway.
Practice of religion
In the kingdom of the Egyptians, each god had his own temple in which there were statues of the respective gods. Sometimes there are special areas in mortuary temples ( house of the millions or millions of years old) for worshiping a god. Because the Pharaoh was seen in earlier times as a high spiritual being and later as a mediator between people and the spiritual world, there was a statue even for him that was subjected to certain rites for the benefit of the country. Every morning just before sunrise, a priest crossed the temple with a candle and went to the shrine where the statue was and knocked. The god awoke and took on earthly form. Then the priest washed the statue and rubbed her forehead with cedar and myrrh oil with his right little finger . The statue was dressed and given food and drink . Flowers were also offered to her, because it was believed that in the fragrance of these was God himself. The offerings were made to the gods so that the world would remain in harmony. In addition to food, drinks and flowers, the offerings also included wine , perfume and incense . The incense was supposed to drive away evil spirits and was specially made by the priests in secret rooms, in which a list of the ingredients was posted on the walls. During processions , the statue was taken from the temple and carried through the streets. But even then the people could not see it because it was covered.
The temple was the center of the city. Often the priests were jointly responsible for the city administration, trained the children, provided medical assistance and ran a library . The pharaoh was the chief representative of the temple. The people could only offer their offerings in front of the temple because they were not allowed to enter it. Young priests were trained in the temple. They later lived together near the temple by a man-made lake. They had to bathe in it twice a day and twice a night to stay clean. Because of this, they had to shave their bodies every other day. On the roof of the temple there was often an observatory from which the stars were observed. The stars immediately around the Pole Star were called "the immortal" because they could be seen all year round. The planets made references to the gods who - according to the pictorial idea - sailed across the sky in boats .
Only real fractions with an integer denominator and numerator were known. Since there were only hieroglyphs for original fractions except for 2/3 , all fractions had to be represented as sums of original fractions.
The Egyptians studied astronomy and calculated the flooding of the Nile based on the state of Sothis (Sirius).
Medicine, magic and religion were inextricably linked in ancient Egypt. Medicines or surgical interventions were necessary to cure illnesses, but amulets were also always important to protect and conjure up magicians who were supposed to keep evil spirits away. The medical knowledge of the ancient Egyptians is only partially known through the paleopathological examinations of mummies. This provided information about the fact that fractures had been straightened, amputations had been carried out correctly, and artificial teeth or dentures had been inserted. In some cases treatments on the skull could even be detected. Despite their skills in the mummification of corpses, however, they had no specific anatomical or physiological knowledge of the structure and functionality of human organs. So was z. B. the heart is seen as the seat of the mind and they could not do anything with swelling, internal injuries or severe traumatic head injuries, for example.
Egyptian art essentially consists of the three areas of architecture , painting and sculpture . Most of the works of art were created for the dead. The Egyptians worked with stone , metal , wood and glass .
In the 19th century, Egyptian art was "rediscovered" by scientists under Napoléon and attracted the attention of researchers, collectors and museums. Until the 21st century there were more or less systematic excavations that unearthed various treasures or sculptures and brought new knowledge about the people of ancient Egypt.
In the early days the buildings were first made of mud bricks , later (in the 3rd dynasty ) of stone. These buildings were built for cultic-religious purposes, e.g. B. the 60 m high step pyramid of King Djoser .
The pyramids date from the 4th dynasty . The most famous example is the Cheops pyramid with a height of almost 147 m. It symbolized the connection between the eternal (top) and the earthly (base). The most famous pyramid builders were Cheops , Mykerinos and Chephren .
In the 5th dynasty , mortuary temples were built , which are also called pyramids or temples of worship. They always belonged to a royal tomb and formed a complex. In the Middle Kingdom , the mortuary temple was also built as the sole temple complex. In the New Kingdom , these were mostly built in the plain in front of the rocky mountains in the Valley of the Kings . These include the mortuary temples of Ramses III. and Amenhotep III. or the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut Temple of Hatshepsut . In a mortuary temple, offerings were made to the pharaohs buried in the complex.
The processional or cult temples with a courtyard surrounded by porticos and the "Holy of Holies" (sanctuary) were important. The Pharaoh attended the founding ceremony. Next to the facility there is sometimes a holy lake and a “house of life” where artists and doctors were trained.
- Mastaba : a building that was a kind of "private grave" until the Middle Kingdom , clad with ashlar, prism-shaped , with a cult room, a false door on the west side .
- Tombs , which consisted of the valley temple , the Aufweg , the mortuary temple and the pyramid. The graves of the high officials were in the vicinity of the complex. The arrangement of the graves towards the center of the pyramid depended on the importance of the person.
Rock carvings and ceramic paintings were made in the prehistory of Egypt . But the typical features of Egyptian painting are mainly known from finds in the burial chapels of the pharaoh families and high officials. The murals in the graves were supposed to remind the soul of the deceased of their life on earth and to represent its reality without referring to the individual, and to “surround” the dead with what they had during their lifetime. The second major subject area of Egyptian painting showed depictions of the gods and the judgment of the dead . Some more recent works are still preserved on papyrus .
The image design followed precise guidelines. The figures were distributed over the entire designed area, oblique views were avoided. The head and legs were shown in profile, while the upper body and arms were mostly frontal. Shadows or lighting effects were not incorporated, and a background was also avoided. Main characters were shown larger than secondary characters ( meaning perspective ). There were no perspective representations; For example, birds do not sit in but on the reed leaves. The arrangement of the people was mostly rigid and active movement was avoided. People can usually be seen just before they start moving, but rarely with a half-raised foot. Such portraits are usually dated to the final phases of great epochs, e.g. B. End of the Old Kingdom, whereby it was partly used as a stylistic device and used excessively (acrobat scene in the grave). The murals from Akhenaten's reign, whose “revolutionary” rule is mostly only seen in the political and religious, but not in the artistic aspect, are not a relaxation, but a major exception to these rules.
Reliefs and wall paintings were used in temples, palaces, tombs and burial buildings. If a wall was to be decorated with reliefs , a grid was first applied for the proportions, then the outline and then the fine lines were worked out. A distinction is made between bas-reliefs (background is removed) and sunken reliefs (lines are chiseled into them). Finally, they were colored with pigments . Soot or charcoal was used for black , malachite or azurite for green and blue , plaster of paris or chalk for white , and iron oxide pigments for red, yellow, pink and brown .
Most of the sculptures were placed in tombs . They were supposed to represent the dead and assure him of eternal continuity. That is why the sculptors tried to depict people without pointing out impermanence; so they tried to depict the essence of being rather than appearance. That is why the figures are shown with an ideal posture, and individual body shapes are largely disregarded.
The posture of the statues is always upright, either sitting, kneeling or standing. Gaps were avoided. The arms and legs of wooden statues were made and attached individually. Limestone or granite was mostly used for stone statues . Another characteristic of the Egyptian sculptures is that they were always painted, even if they were made of precious materials. Women were painted light yellow, men red-brown. Sometimes crystals or other colored stones were used as the eyes of the figures , as in the case of the famous seated scribe in the Louvre in Paris.
An exception to the idealized representation of Egyptian sculptures are the sculptures of the Amarna period is in the 18th Dynasty. The duration of this period, named after the place Tell-el-Amarna, where the remains of Pharaoh Akhenaten's newly established capital Achet- Aton can be equated with his reign (from 1350 BC Amenhotep IV. , From approx. 1346 BC Akhenaten, † 1334 BC) and beyond that for about 20 years afterwards.
Akhenaten introduced monotheism in Egypt and restructured the entire state. He replaced the old gods with the god Aton (the sun disk), had the powerful Amun priests disempowered, expropriated the temple grounds, and finally moved with his court to the construction of his new capital in the middle of the desert between Memphis and Thebes. It all happened between his third and fifth years in office. As a visible sign of the new era, he gave up his maiden name Amenophis and called himself Akhenaten from then on.
Akhenaten promoted Egyptian art beyond measure and a completely new style of art emerged under sculptors like Thutmose , which not only broke with the Egyptian rules such as lack of perspective and immobility. The style still seems strange to us today and it must have had a similar effect on the Egyptians at the time of the New Kingdom. It was characterized by exaggerated, elongated proportions and even Champollion described the sculptures as ugly and grotesque: long-necked, obese, the pharaonic statues hermaphroditic to completely sexless. It was often assumed that this type of representation was based on an innate ugliness of the God-King, which is why various clinical pictures were assumed. Bob Brier identifies this appearance with the Marfan syndrome , not least because of the tendency of contemporary sufferers not to hide but to clearly show their “deficiency”. However, to this day we have no idea what the king and his family actually looked like.
However, it did not survive the time of the restoration of the old form of government under the pharaohs Eje and Haremhab and the destruction of Achet-Aton and almost all temples and images of the Amarna epoch.
Since archaeological excavations have often concentrated on the much better preserved tombs, comparatively little was known of the living quarters of the living until a few years ago. This situation has only changed in the last two decades, and there are currently numerous settlement excavations in Elephantine , Buto , Ayn Asil , Tell el-Dab'a and Abydos . Most of the prehistoric houses seem to have been simple round straw huts. It was not until the end of the Naqada period that brick construction appeared to have become widespread for residential buildings. The residential buildings of the Old Kingdom on Elephantine are small and densely built. Parts of a pyramid city that were found in Giza also show more spacious buildings, although the settlement found there was obviously planned. Two types of houses can be distinguished in the Middle Kingdom. The so-called courtyard house is grouped around an open courtyard. It is typical for the rather poor and middle classes, whereby the rooms were mostly multifunctional, i. that is, there was no room that could be described as a bedroom or living room. Most of the rooms were used for living, sleeping and working. The so-called three-strip house is more typical for an upper class of society, whereby this house is divided into three areas: (1) a reception area, (2) a main hall, which served officials both as an audience hall and as a kind of living room and (3) a private area in which the landlord even had his own bedroom. Some of the richest of these houses have been furnished with simple wall paintings, a garden and storage facilities can also occur. The three-strip house is the main type of house in the New Kingdom and is particularly well known from Amarna, where gardens and granaries were found around the largest houses. Door frames are often made of stone and are labeled. Some rich houses even have figural murals. There was often a shrine in the main hall.
The development of houses in the late period is more difficult to follow, but the development of tower-like multi-storey house complexes seems to have taken place in cities, as are typical of the Roman and Byzantine periods.
The garden design was influenced religiously and soon played an important role. Due to excavations, temple inscriptions and wall paintings, this garden culture and the creation of kitchen and ornamental gardens have been around since at least the 3rd millennium BC. Comparatively well documented. Even if the pyramids and temple complexes, which are now surrounded by desert, no longer give the impression, they were once surrounded by large gardens. In addition, the pharaohs and the privileged Egyptian social class owned lavishly designed pleasure gardens .
- Heroonpolis (Pi-Thum, Pa-Thum, Heroopolis)
- Tell El-Amarna
- Abu Simbel temples
- Karnak temple
- Kom Ombo
- Luxor temple
- Mentuhotep II temple
- Medinet Habu
- Millions of years of age
- Pyramid (building) , see also list of Egyptian pyramids
- Valley of the Kings , see also List of Tombs in the Valley of the Kings
- Valley of the Queens
- List of Theban tombs
- List of the rock tombs of Amarna
- Jan Assmann : Egypt. A story of meaning. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-596-14267-9 .
- Alessandro Bongioanni: Egypt - The Land of the Pharaohs. Neuer Kaiser, Klagenfurt 2005, ISBN 3-7043-5045-1 .
- Charlotte Booth: travel guide to the world of antiquity. Ancient Egypt, Thebes and the Nile Valley 1200 BC Chr. Theiss, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-8062-2288-3 .
- Isabelle Brega: Egypt. Müller, Stuttgart / Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-86070-836-8 .
- Vivian Davies, Renée Friedman : Unknown Egypt. On the trail of old secrets with new methods. Theiss, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-8062-1393-3 .
- Hans Gerhard Evers : State made of stone - monuments, history and meaning of the Egyptian sculpture during the Middle Kingdom. 2 volumes, Bruckmann, Munich 1929 ( online at: archiv.evers.frydrych.org ).
- Wolfgang Helck : Small Lexicon of Egyptology. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-447-04027-0 .
- Sabine Kubisch: Ancient Egypt. From 4000 BC Until 30 BC Chr. Marix, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-7374-1048-9 .
- Christoph Kucklick : The realm of the pharaohs. Gruner & Jahr, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-570-19239-3 .
- Karl Oppel : The old wonderland of the pyramids. 5th edition. Spamer, Leipzig 1906 ( online ).
- Guy Rachet: Lexicon of Ancient Egypt. Patmos, Düsseldorf / Zurich 2002, ISBN 3-491-69049-8 .
- Hermann A. Schlögl : Ancient Egypt: History and culture from the early days to Cleopatra. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54988-8 .
- Siegfried Schott : Altägyptische Festdaten (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences and Literature. Humanities and social science class. Born 1950, Volume 10). Verlag der Wissenschaft und der Literatur in Mainz (commissioned by Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden).
- Wolfgang Schuler: Pocket dictionary ancient Egypt. Piper, Munich / Zurich 2000, ISBN 3-492-23105-5 .
- Regine Schulz , Matthias Seidel: Ancient Egypt. Mysterious high culture on the Nile (= fascination from A to Z. ). Meyers Lexikonverlag, Mannheim 1999, ISBN 3-411-08321-2 .
- David P. Silverman: Ancient Egypt. Frederking & Thaler, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-89405-371-2 .
- Bolko Stern: Egyptian Cultural History. Reprint Verlag, unchanged reprint of Edition Magdeburg 1896, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-8262-1908-2 .
- Toby Wilkinson : The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. 3. Edition. Pantheon, Munich 2015.
- Manfred Reitz : Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt. Battenberg, Augsburg 1999, ISBN 3-89441-464-2 .
- Edda Bresciani: On the banks of the Nile, everyday life at the time of the pharaohs. Theiss, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-8062-1655-X .
- Francois Trassard, Dominique Antérion, Renaud Thomazo: Life in Ancient Egypt. Theiss, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8062-1947-8 .
- Martin von Falck, Katja Lembke , Britta Rabe: Life on the Nile and everyday life in ancient Egypt (= Ancient Egypt in Hildesheim. Volume 2). 1st edition, von Zabern, Mainz 2011, ISBN 978-3-8053-4285-8 .
- Anja B. Kootz: The ancient Egyptian state. Investigation from a political science perspective (= MENES. Studies on the culture and language of the early Egyptian period and the Old Kingdom. Volume 4). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-447-05319-4 .
- Berlin State Museums: Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection. ( Memento of November 28, 1999 in the Internet Archive ).
- State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich.
- Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg: DFG special collection area Egyptology at the University of Heidelberg. ( Memento from January 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- University of Leipzig: Egyptian Museum Georg Steindorff.
- Antikenmuseum Basel and the Ludwig Collection.
- The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archeology. More than 80,000 objects with pictures.
- The British Museum: Ancient Egypt.
- Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: Egyptian-Oriental Collection. ( Memento of December 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Museo Egizio, Turin.
- Musee du Louvre. With a large Egyptian collection.
- Archaeological sites
- Kent Weeks et al .: Theban Mapping Project. ( Memento from January 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). Complete overview of the Valley of the Kings; numerous texts, pictures and literature lists.
- Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: The Giza Archives. ( Memento of January 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). Very extensive homepage: photos, documentation and bibliography with literature on Giza available online, interactive satellite images and panoramic images, information on excavations.
- Barry Kemp et al .: Amarna Project. Overview of the excavations in Amarna.
- Archaeological Institute
- German Archaeological Institute, Cairo Department. ( Memento of April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- Institut français d'archéologie orientale.
- Austrian Archaeological Institute, Cairo branch.
- Swiss Institute for Egyptian Building Research and Archeology in Cairo.
- The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
- Egyptologists and study projects
- Zahi Hawass. Official website of Zahi Hawass, the former head of the Egyptian Antiquities Administration; lots of information on recent discoveries.
- Digital Egypt for Universities. A study project.
- International Association of Egyptologists. International Association of Egyptologists.
- Info-online: The information sheet for German-speaking Egyptology.
- Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae. Virtual dictionary and text database.
- Fitzmuseum: The Beinlich Wordlist. Egyptian Word Database.
- Archeology Data Service: Oxford Expedition to Egypt: Scene-details Database. Scene database of the Old Kingdom.
- Online Egyptological Bibliography.
- Propylaeum. Virtual specialist library in the field of classical studies.
- Rainer Hannig: The language of the pharaohs. Part 1: Large concise Egyptian-German dictionary. von Zabern, Mainz 1995, ISBN 3-8053-1771-9 , pp. 223.1-224.9.
- Thomas Schneider : Lexicon of the Pharaohs. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3 , p. 28.
- Erik Hornung: Introduction to Egyptology. Status, methods, tasks. 6th, unchanged edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2008, ISBN 978-3-534-21647-5 , p. 78.
- E. Hornung: Introduction to Egyptology. Darmstadt 2008, p. 81.
- W. Helck: Small Lexicon of Egyptology. Wiesbaden 1999, pp. 97–98, → Jurisdiction.
- E. Hornung: Introduction to Egyptology. Darmstadt 2008, pp. 85-87.
- W. Helck: Small Lexicon of Egyptology. Wiesbaden 1999, pp. 212-213, → Orakel.
- E. Hornung: Introduction to Egyptology. Darmstadt 2008, pp. 83-85.
- A. Bongioanni: Egypt - The land of the pharaohs. Klagenfurt 2005, pp. 144-145.
- Gabriele Höber-Kamel: From Uruk to Hatti - Egypt and its relationships in the ancient Orient. In: Egypt and the Middle East (= Kemet. Issue 1/2000). Kemet-Verlag, Berlin 2000, , p. 4.
- Hermann A. Schlögl : The Ancient Egypt: History and Culture from the Early Period to Cleopatra. Frankfurt am Main 2006, p. 18.
- Hermann A. Schlögl : The Ancient Egypt: History and Culture from the Early Period to Cleopatra. Frankfurt am Main 2006, p. 20.