Lower Egypt

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Lower Egypt in hieroglyphics
V28 G43 M15

Broad land

N16 V23

land of estuary waters

N29 D58 V28 W16

The (land) of cooling waters

Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png
Lower Egypt with division of the districts

Lower Egypt (also Ta-mehu, Ta-mehet , Qebehu ; Assyrian Muṣur, Miṣir ; Arabic مصر السفلى, DMG Miṣr as-suflā ) extends from the delta of the Nile from Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea .


The delta was formed by deposits of the very fertile Nile mud and was always crossed by the seven arms of the Nile. Due to this and the more Mediterranean climate , a completely different flora developed than in Upper Egypt : Large areas of grass and papyrus thickets provided habitat for many animals such as birds and cattle. Therefore, the first inhabitants were also wandering shepherds .

Due to the proximity to the sea and thus to other cultures , Lower Egypt was influenced by these even before Upper Egypt got to know them through trade . Until the unification of Egypt, Lower Egypt was mostly ruled by rulers from foreign countries or from Upper Egypt. Among the Pharaohs it was in 20 districts divided by nomarchs were managed. In Byzantine times , Lower Egypt formed the province of Arcadia and was administered from Alexandria .


The term Lower Egypt was not subject to a fixed term assignment, but had several names due to the diverse habitat. Ta-mehu referred to the function of the Nile Delta from which the Nile flowed into the Mediterranean with several branches. In Mehet Ta- mythological reference is to Osiris included, after which Isis the young in papyrus Horus against Seth hidden.

Qebehu is in turn an epithet for the breeding sites in the cooling Nile River, which can also be used as a general local term and means the northern region of the cooling water . In the world chamber of the solar sanctuary of Niuserre , Qebehu is equated with Lower Egypt in connection with the migratory birds that migrate from the cool region to Lower Egypt to winter. In addition, Qebehu is mentioned in the Nutbuch as the divine region of the northern sky and place of the primeval waters of Nun . In Nun's creative function , Qebehu is a synonym for the preparation for birth and rebirth in the sphere from which all life arose .

Red crown of Lower Egypt in hieroglyphics
S3 L2


The red crown (of the north)

The red crown

The supreme goddess of Lower Egypt was Wadjet and the symbol of Lower Egypt was the red crown , which was united with the white crown of Upper Egypt to form the double crown of the pharaohs when the empire was unified.

Another symbol of Lower Egypt is the papyrus plant that is widespread there .

See also


  • Elmar Edel : On the inscriptions on the seasonal reliefs of the "World Chamber" from the sun sanctuary of Niuserre. (= News of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. I., Philological-Historical Class. Born in 1961, No. 8). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1961.

Individual evidence

  1. Elmar Edel: On the inscriptions on the seasonal reliefs of the "World Chamber" from the solar sanctuary of Niuserre. Göttingen 1961, p. 233.

Coordinates: 30 ° 36 '  N , 31 ° 6'  E