from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
الإسكندرية al-Iskandariyya
Coordinates 31 ° 13 ′  N , 29 ° 56 ′  E Coordinates: 31 ° 13 ′  N , 29 ° 56 ′  E
coat of arms
coat of arms
Basic data
Country Egypt


surface 1108 km²
Metropolitan area 2679 km²
resident 5,039,975 (2017)
Metropolitan area 5,363,823 (2017)
density 4,548.7  Ew. / km²
Metropolitan area 2,002.2  Ew. / km²
founding 331 BC Chr.
governor Adel Labib
Twin cities TurkeyTurkey Izmir , Turkey Lichtenberg district , Berlin
Alexandria (Egypt)
(31 ° 12 ′ 48 ″ N, 29 ° 55 ′ 39 ″ E)
Location in Egypt

Alexandria or Alexandria ( ancient Greek Ἀλεξάνδρεια Alexándreia , after Alexander the Great ; Arabic الإسكندرية al-Iskandariyya ) is with over 5 million inhabitants (as of 2017) and an extension of 32 kilometers along the Mediterranean coast after Cairo, the second largest city in Egypt and the largest Egyptian city with direct access to the Mediterranean Sea. It has the largest seaport in the country, where around 80% of Egypt's foreign trade is handled. As an important industrial location, it is suppliedwith oil and natural gas from Suez via pipelines .

Alexandria was born in 331 BC. Founded by the ruler Alexander the Great on the site of the ancient Egyptian settlement Rhakotis and under Ptolomäus II between 285 and 247 BC. Completed. The city developed into an important center of the Hellenistic world as well as Roman and Byzantine Egypt. It was the capital of the province of Aegyptus , later the Dioecesis Aegypti . The ancient Alexandria was mainly for its lighthouse (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, and for its Great Library known. After the Islamic conquest of Egypt in AD 641 and with the founding of Cairo, it lost its importance. At the beginning of the 19th century it had sunk to a fishing village cut off from the hinterland, but thanks to the construction of the Mahmudiyakanal and the flourishing of the lucrative Egyptian cotton trade , Alexandria was able to rise again to an important international trading center.

In the port of Alexandria found since 1994 underwater archaeological instead investigations by the new findings on the predecessor settlement Rhacotis and Ptolemies were won.


Alexandria is located on the western edge of the Nile Delta just above sea level on a narrow strip of land along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, which runs from southwest to northeast . Behind the strip of land stretches the lagoon-like brackish water lake Mariut , the area of ​​which has become smaller and smaller in the last 200 years. All through land reclamation was transformed into irrigated farmland the area of the former ferry from Abukir (المعدية أبو قير - al-Ma'dīyat / al-Mu'addiyat Abu Qīr) extending between the Mariut Lake, Bay Abukir and the Idku Lake (بحيرة إدكو - Buhayra Idkū) is located. The Alexandria Canal (خليج الإسكندرية - Chalīg al-Iskandariyya), created under the Ptolemies, meanders from the Nile Delta between the lakes to Alexandria. It is used for fresh water supply and inland shipping. Between 1807 and 1820, the canal was renewed again, relocating the outlet from the Nile by 20 kilometers downstream, and creating a new connection to the Mediterranean at Alexandria. Since then it has been called Mahmudiyakanal (قَنَال المحمودية - Qanāl al-Maḥmūdiyya).

The old town al-Medina (المدينة) is located on the headland that stretches along the 300 BC. Built dam to the island of Pharos , and thus north of the ancient city. This headland was secured to the south by a fortress wall. South of the old town and the harbor basin, i.e. on the site of ancient Alexandria on the strip of land parallel to the coast, there was and is a suburb (around 1800) that was almost twice as large in area and was protected by additional city walls. Today a settlement band of over 15 kilometers in length has formed from this suburb.

The city is located in the governorate of the same name and forms an administrative area of ​​2679 km². The city of Rosette (Raschīd) is 65 kilometers east, the Suez Canal 240 kilometers. The distance to Cairo is 225 kilometers.


On the coast around Alexandria there is a narrow steppe-like strip of land between the Mediterranean climate and the desert climate . The temperature fluctuates from 9 to 19 ° C in January and from 22 to 31 ° C in July. These fluctuations are moderate due to the proximity to the sea. 190 mm of precipitation falls on a few days between October and April.

The humidity is 60 to 70 percent. Coming from the Mediterranean, mostly northern, moderate, but sometimes very violent winds blow. In spring, a hot, dry desert wind can also blow, the Khamsin , which brings with it dense, yellow clouds of sand and dust from the south.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Alexandria
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 18.8 19.6 21.4 24.1 26.7 29.2 30.0 30.7 29.7 27.9 24.7 20.5 O 25.3
Min. Temperature (° C) 9.6 9.9 11.8 14.0 16.9 20.9 22.9 23.3 21.7 18.6 15.5 11.5 O 16.4
Precipitation ( mm ) 50 24 14th 3 1 0 0 0 0 10 37 56 Σ 195
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 6.7 7.8 8.8 10.1 10.8 11.8 12.0 11.8 10.7 9.6 8.2 6.6 O 9.6
Rainy days ( d ) 8th 5 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 4th 8th Σ 31
Water temperature (° C) 17th 16 16 18th 20th 23 25th 26th 26th 24 22nd 19th O 21
Humidity ( % ) 70 69 67 67 68 70 73 73 68 70 72 72 O 69.9
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


With 5.04 million inhabitants in the actual city, Alexandria is today the second largest city in North Africa after Cairo , with 5.36 million inhabitants in the agglomeration the fourth largest metropolitan area in North Africa and the tenth largest in the whole of Africa. For 2050, a population of over 8.7 million people is expected in the agglomeration.

Population development of Alexandria
year Inhabitant (city)
1976 (census) 2,318,655
1986 (census) 2,917,327
1996 (census) 3,328,196
2006 (census) 4,110,015
2008 (calculation) 4,247,414
2009 (calculation) 4,317,398
2017 (calculation) 5,039,975


Hellenistic period

Pharos lighthouse (reconstruction)

The first settlement of today's urban area probably took place between 2700 and 2200 BC. Instead of. 331 BC The general and Macedonian king Alexander the Great founded Alexandria on the site of the Egyptian settlement Rachotis (Raqote), whereby he himself determined the location of the marketplace and the main traffic axes. The previous small town from pre-Ptolemaic times probably already had port facilities in the north and west of the island of Pharos . Traditionally, the 25th Tybi ( first peret month ), April 7th July was the founding date  . / April 2nd greg. 331 BC Chr.

Alexandria was built according to plans by the Greek architect Deinokrates . In 331 BC Alexander left the city, moved east with his army and was not to return until his death. The official Kleomenes von Naukratis briefly took over the government and supervised the construction of the city. Ptolemy I (305–283 BC) had Alexander's body transferred and buried him in a golden coffin. The grave was probably located in the city's royal mausoleum , which is believed to be on the site of today's Nebi Daniel Mosque. It was not until Ptolemy II , that is, between 285 and 246 BC. Alexandria was completed to the planned extent, but between 320 and 311 it became the residential city of the Ptolemaic kings and retained this function until the end of the Ptolemaic Empire .

The Greek polis Alexandria was formally not considered part of Egypt, but was always referred to as "Alexandria near Egypt" for centuries ; this only changed in Roman times. In the heyday around 300 BC From AD 395 to AD 395, Alexandria was an economic, intellectual and political center of the Hellenistic world, even under Roman rule. Famous buildings such as the lighthouse of Pharos (built approx. 299-279 BC), the Museion with the large ( Alexandrian ) library and numerous theaters, palaces and temples made the city known throughout the ancient Mediterranean. A canal built at the same time as the city brought fresh water from the westernmost estuary of the Nile and fed an extensive system of cisterns . In good times, i. H. if the sewer worked, the function of these cisterns was different from the usual one; Cisterns normally serve as collecting tanks for rainwater, while the Alexandrian cisterns served as settling basins to clarify the naturally cloudy water of the Nile.

Diodorus reports of 300,000 free inhabitants in the late Hellenistic period, with the population consisting of very different ethnic groups. During the imperial era, Alexandria was temporarily the second largest city in the empire after Rome. The population is estimated in serious studies at around half a million inhabitants in late antiquity , free and slaves . Some estimates even assume a total population of 600,000 to 750,000 people. The city fortifications were expanded several times, in the greatest extent the southern city limits bordered on Lake Mareotis. Ancient Alexandria consisted of several districts for specific population groups. In addition to the residential area of ​​the Egyptians, called Rhakotis, and the Greek Neapolis, there was also a quarter of the Jews. In Alexandria, since the 3rd century BC, most of the Greek translation of the Israelites' holy scriptures known as the Septuagint was made .

Alexandria in Roman times

Roman rule

In the year 30 BC The city was captured by Octavian , who had prevailed in a power struggle in the Roman Empire and incorporated the city - like all of Egypt - into the Roman Empire.

Serapis on Roman provincial coin, Alexandria, tetradrachm made of silver, Emperor Hadrianus

In Roman times, a Jewish uprising under Emperor Trajan ushered in a gradual, temporary decline. The city was badly damaged by the unrest and trade came to a standstill. Trajan's successor Hadrian initiated the reconstruction and was limited to three fifths of the old city area. Religious conflicts arose again under the emperors Decius and Valerian : There are reports of two severe persecution of Christians , but violent riots also occurred within the faith groups of the Roman (polytheistic) religion.

In 365 it was devastated by a tsunami as a result of the severe earthquake off Crete , which was described by the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus .

In 380 and 392 AD, Christianity became the state religion in the Roman Empire. As a result, temples were destroyed by a group of Christians against imperial orders, especially the main shrine of the god Serapis in Alexandria (probably 393). During this time there were some attacks by pagans on Christians and several attacks by Christians on pagans. A well-known victim was the pagan philosopher and scientist Hypatia , who was embroiled in internal Christian controversies in the 5th century and murdered by angry Christians. Alexandria was already the seat of a patriarch at this time and developed into one of the most important Christian centers. Until the Islamic conquest, it was the second most important bishopric in Christendom after Rome. After the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the city was a center of Monophysitism for over 200 years . At the same time, important representatives of Neo-Platonism ( School of Alexandria ) worked there until the 7th century . Alexandria remained an important city in Eastern Roman times .

Caliphate Empire

After the conquest of Egypt by the Persian Sassanid Empire in 619, Eastern Rome / Byzantium was able to regain the country in 629, but in 642 the Arabs took Alexandria as part of the Islamic expansion . Another Byzantine reconquest finally failed in 645/46. In the period that followed, the city lost its dominant position in Egypt to Cairo , but remained important. Egypt soon achieved a largely independent position within the caliphate empire .

An earthquake in 796 caused serious damage to the Pharos lighthouse.

The papal seat of the Coptic Church was moved from Alexandria to Cairo in 1047, although the Coptic popes continue to refer to themselves as the Patriarchs of Alexandria.

A severe earthquake in Lower Egypt in 1309 finally rendered the lighthouse unusable. A fort was built from its stones. A travel report by Ibn Batuta (1304-1369) refers to a recent renewal of the canal from the Nile.

King Peter I of Cyprus initiated (1362) and led a crusade against Alexandria in which the city was stormed and sacked on October 9, 1365. When, after three days, an army of Bahri-Mameluks approached, the crusaders and their booty embarked on their fleet and withdrew.

The anarchic conditions in the Middle Ages are reflected in the alternation of the dynasties that formed the sultans of Egypt at that time. These included the Umayyads , Abbasids , Tulunids , Ichschididen , Fatimids , who were overthrown by Saladin in 1171 , the Ayyubids and, from the middle of the 13th century, various branches of the Mamluks . At the same time, Alexandria was an intellectual center for Muslim scholars from east and west . The scholar Abu Tahir al-Silafi spent most of his life here in the 12th century. The vizier Ibn as-Sallar had the first madrasa built under Shafiite law around 1150 , which was named after al-Salafi.

When the Jews of Spain had to leave their homeland after the Alhambra Edict of 1492, a considerable number of these Sephardim settled in Alexandria.

Ottoman Empire and European Colonial Powers

The Mamluks retained the internal administration of Egypt even after the conquest by the Ottomans in 1517. However, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire made it difficult for Europe to trade with India and China and thus led to the exploration and establishment of the sea ​​route to India ( Goa Portuguese colony since 1510). With the discontinuation of lucrative land transport from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, the importance of the port of Alexandria dwindled . In addition, Egypt fell into general stagnation as an Ottoman province under Mamluk rule. The former metropolis of Alexandria became an insignificant small town.

Napoleon Bonaparte landed near Alexandria in 1798 during his Egyptian expedition , conquered the city and defeated the Mameluks, but lost the naval battle at Abukir against the British , who besieged and conquered Alexandria in 1801. After the weakness of the Mamluk and the Ottoman Empire became apparent, Muhammad Ali Pasha , commander of the Albanian Guard of the Ottoman Empire in Egypt, took control of the province while maintaining Ottoman sovereignty. He called himself the first khedive and is considered the creator of modern Egypt. He initiated the restoration, partly also re-routing, of the freshwater channel from the Nile, since then called the Mahmudiyakanal . During his reign, Egypt's first modern shipyard was built at the port of Alexandria.

The weakness of the Ottoman Empire caused the European colonial powers to try to gain influence and control over Egypt's main Mediterranean port, both by peaceful means and by force. Abbas I , the grandson and successor of Muhammad Ali, commissioned Robert Stephenson to build a railway from Alexandria to Cairo. The first section between Alexandria and Kafr El-Zayat on the Rosette arm of the Nile was opened in 1854. British merchants arrived at the construction of the Alexandria tram , which began operating in 1863. Both railways were the first of their kind both in the Ottoman Empire and in Africa.

City plan of Alexandria 1882 (The Gazebo)

Since the opening of the Suez Canal, built as a French project, on November 17, 1869, Alexandria was back on a main route of world trade.

In the 1870s the Egyptian government got into increasing financial distress and thus dependence on European powers (1875 sale of the Egyptian Suez Canal shares to Great Britain). In 1881 there was then the Urabi uprising against the newly established Khedive Tawfiq and the European influence. As a result, a British Mediterranean fleet shot Alexandria on November 11-13. July 1882 in ruins, but mostly affected the districts inhabited by Europeans. On July 13th, troops of the fleet landed in the city, defeated the Egyptian garrison despite being outnumbered and gained control. After the rebellion was completely put down, the Egyptian government was a British-controlled puppet government .

Economically, Alexandria was looking up under British control. Industrialization and increased trade ensured prosperity and population growth.

20th century

Photo of aviation pioneer Walter Mittelholzer in 1929

In the 1920s, people immigrated unterschiedlichster nationalities to Alexandria, still from the originating from the Ottomanenzeit surrender system , d. H. the right to dual citizenship , benefited, especially Greeks and Italians. The Jewish community, located since antiquity and strengthened by the exodus from Spain at the end of the 15th century, also experienced further immigration. The Sephardim contributed considerably to the financial and economic life of Alexandria with the establishment of banks and companies. A “social and economic elite formation of the Jewish Alexandrians” developed increasingly.

In the course of the general emancipation of the colonial peoples and as a reaction to the establishment of the State of Israel , the movement of pan-Arabism developed in Egypt in 1948 , which worsened the living conditions for the ethnic minorities in Egypt. The population of Alexandria increased rapidly from the middle of the 20th century and rose to over four million, while 50,000 Jews left Alexandria forever as part of "Operation Kadesh" in October 1956. Gamal Abdel Nasser initiated his "socialist course" with nationalization and nationalism enactments, whereby many lost their fortunes and the city of Alexandria became impoverished.


Today Alexandria is next to Cairo as the most important city in Egypt, with an international airport and an important seaport .


Ancient Alexandria

Once the streets were ideally laid out in a right-angled system and crossed by two 30 m wide main axes. A dam, the Heptastadion , connected the island of Pharos to the mainland and formed the western border of the main port, Portus Magnus . At the port was the city center with the royal quarter, palaces and public buildings. The Ptolemies extended the palace buildings to include other stately buildings and parks. In the harbor basin was the small island of Antirhodos with a palace. In the Roman era, some theaters were built, including the Timoneion , which was built a little out into the sea. The Kaisareion (Latin: Caesareum ), a sanctuary for Julius Caesar , built by Cleopatra , stood on today's Raml-Platz . Its two obelisks , which stood in the forecourt of the temple, are now in London and New York City . The lighthouse of Pharos , one of the ancient wonders of the world, was built on a small island in the entrance to the Great Harbor ( lat . : PORTVS MAGNVS ) east of Pharos, at the current location of the Qāitbāy Citadel . With a height of 122 m, it is considered a technical masterpiece of antiquity.

Museion and Library

Library in Alexandria

The Great Library of Alexandria founded by Ptolemy II is famous to this day. Together with the Museion , she made the city the spiritual center of the ancient world. Over a million scrolls were stored in the library and formed the canon of the sciences of that time. The neighboring Museion ( Temple of the Muses ) was a national forum of artists, scientists and philosophers. It was the center of the Alexandrian School , where, for example, Heron , Ptolemy and Euclid taught and researched. The Alexandrian era is named after her.

The fate of the Great Library when Caesar was conquered is controversial. Some ancient sources speak of a fire during Caesar's conquest of the city in 48/47 BC. However, as Edward Parsons shows in his source analysis, only six out of 16 sources on Alexandria at that time support this hypothesis. The first of these sources was written about 100 years after the alleged incident, and the number of books allegedly lost varies from 40,000 (the first source) to 700,000, or the entire library ( Aulus Gellius ). The last source (the church historian Orosius ) again speaks of 40,000 books. The Museion of Alexandria, to which the library was attached, certainly continued to exist, as several directors of the Museion are known from post-Christian times and Plutarch writes of a gift of 200,000 scrolls from the library of Pergamon to Caesar. The last known head of the Museion was Theon of Alexandria (c. 335–405).

In 391 all non-Christian temples in Alexandria were destroyed by the Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria ; This was preceded by bloody clashes between followers of traditional cults ("pagans") and Christians, probably deliberately fueled by Theophilos, up to the fact that finally pagans who had holed up in the Serapis shrine crucified Christians there. In order to calm the situation down, Emperor Theodosius I forgave them for these murders, but at the same time ordered the destruction of the temple. The destruction of the well-known Serapis shrine, which contained the daughter library, should have a clear beacon effect for the "pagans"; Whether the Museion (the “Temple of the Muses” and thus in all probability the library) was destroyed at this time is unknown, but it cannot have happened much earlier or later. In 642 the library burned after the Arabs conquered the city from the Byzantines (Eastern Romans).

Today's cityscape

Suez Canal Street in Alexandria, Egypt

In the eventful history of Alexandria, many historical buildings and art treasures have been lost over the centuries. Today's cityscape is dominated by buildings in the style of historicism , styles Liberty and Eclecticism from the 19th and 20th centuries. A Roman theater and the catacombs of Kom esch-Shuqafa have been preserved from ancient times . The most important museum in Alexandria is the Greco-Roman Museum of ancient architecture, sculpture and craftsmanship. In April 2002 the cultural center Bibliotheca Alexandrina was opened. Built under the auspices of UNESCO , it is intended to build on the glorious past of the ancient library. The area houses the library, museums and galleries, several research institutes, an event center and a planetarium.


In east Alexandria is the Qāitbāy Citadel , one of the few remaining citadels in the city from the 15th century.

For leisure activities

Sacred buildings

Historical building elements such as Roman wall tiles have been integrated into the city's numerous mosques, some of which stand on ancient ruins. The most important sacred building is the Abu-l-Abbas-al-Mursi Mosque .

  • Mosques (selection):
    • Tirbana Mosque
    • El Qayid Ibrahim Mosque
    • Attarin Mosque, is one of the oldest mosques in Alexandria. It was originally a church of St. Athanasius from the year 370, which was converted into a mosque.
St. Mark's Cathedral
  • Synagogues:
    • Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue , Nabi Daniel Straeet
    • Menasce Synagogue, Mancheya Place Ahmed Orabi (originally Jardins Français ). The synagogue was named after the banker Bohor Levi de Menasce , founder of the Sociéte Anonyme des Immeubles d'Égypte and builder of the Passage Menasce .
    • Eliahou Hazan Synagogue, Rue Belzoni 6. The synagogue was named after Bechor Eliahou Hazan , who was Alexandria's Chief Rabbi from 1888 to 1908. The synagogue was consecrated in 1937 and closed in 1958. In 1995 the synagogue was demolished.
    • Green Synagogue, Moharrem bey


Secular buildings

  • Shopping gallery passage Menasce built on the model of Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II ( Antonio Lasciac 1883–1887). named after one of the founders of the Sociéte Anonyme des Immeubles d'Égypte , who also owned the property - the banker Bohor Levi de Menasce . The building was described as the most elegant house that met all the demands of modern living ( “as most elegant and included all the desirables convenences of modern living” ). The large Italian commercial building ( "grand commercial Italian building" ) in the Egyptian city was completed from 1883 to 1887 in neo-baroque eclecticism according to designs by the Italian architect Antonio Lasciac . Mercedes Volait shows floor plan and pictures in her work.


Economy and education

Alexandria is the second most important industrial location in Egypt after Cairo. The textile, automotive, chemical, petrochemical and food industries are important branches of industry. Three quarters of Egyptian exports are processed through the port of Alexandria. The city is also an important seaside resort . The colleges of Alexandria are Alexandria University , Senghor University and the Arab Academy of Science, Technology and Maritime Transportation .


Tram network 1996

Two highways connect the city with Cairo. Railway lines lead to Cairo, Marsa Matruh and Port Said . Alexandria has two airports: Alexandria El Nouzha Airport (ALY) has been closed for renovations since December 2011; the smaller but more modern airport Burg al-ʿArab (HBE) exists in the western suburb of the same name for national and international flights and now serves the greater Alexandria area.

From here a busy railway line leads via Tanta to Cairo.

Local public transport in Alexandria is mainly carried by suburban trains and an extensive tram network . The trams are operated by the APTA company and are divided into an inner-city network (City line) and a suburban network (Ramleh line). In addition, local transport is handled by diesel-powered and CNG (gas) buses, private minibuses and shared taxis, which share the lanes with private transport.

Town twinning

sons and daughters of the town

Ancient Alexandria

Modern Alexandria


Web links

Commons : Alexandria  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Alexandria  - Travel Guide


  1. It is unclear whether Alexander founded the city before or after visiting the Siwa Oasis , or whether he himself was present at the official founding ceremony. See Günther Hölbl : Geschichte des Ptolemäerreiches Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1994, p. 10 and note 4, p. 281.

Individual evidence

  1. Lecture at the German Historians 'Day 2012 on the Ptolemies' water policy (PDF; 879 kB)
  2. Exact topographical recording of the Nile Delta from 18 of the 45 sheets of the Carte topographique de l'Egypte, French, 1818
  3. The Brockhaus (Multimedia 2006)
  4. Egypt: Governments & Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved August 13, 2018 .
  5. on the Alexandria agglomeration (2009) ( Memento from December 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  6. World 101 largest Cities. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
  7. Abeer el-Shahawy: The Egyptian Museum of Cairo. A journey through ancient Egypt. Farid Atiya Press, Gizeh 2005, p. 271, 4th line from the bottom.
  8. Arrian Anabásis Aléxandrou 3.1.4-5; Pseudo- Callisthenes Alexander novel 1.31.5-1.32.6
  9. Pseudo-Kallisthenes, Alexander novel 1.32.7
  10. ^ Vitruvius , De architectura II praef. 4th
  11. ^ Theory of NGL Hammond, again cited in the below. source
  12. ^ Walter Scheidel (Ed.): Debating Roman Demography . Brill, Leiden 2001, ISBN 90-04-11525-0 , p. 183
  13. So with Hans Strelocke: Egypt. (= The great polyglot. Volume 126). Polyglott-Verlag, 13th edition, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-493-60126-3 , p. 226, z. 13-16, and Der Brockhaus. Mannheim 2006, sv "Alexandria"
  14. Alexandria: History ( Memento from July 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  15. ^ Diodor , Bibliothéke historiké 17, 52
  16. ^ Ian Shaw, Paul T Nicholson: Lexicon of Ancient Egypt. P. Reclam, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-15-010444-0 , p. 22f.
  17. Ammianus Marcellinus , "Res Gestae", October 26, 15-19
  18. ^ Edward J. Watts: Hypatia. Oxford 2017.
  19. a b c d e Susan Zerwinsky: The Goethe Institute Alexandria - Window to the Mediterranean and Europe. A look into the history of the house . On: , last accessed on September 17, 2015.
  20. H. Strelocke: Egypt. Munich 1987, p. 225 ff.
  21. Hartmut Leppin: Theodosius the Great. Primus, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-89678-471-4 , p. 169 ff.
  22. Alexandria - The city in Egypt. In: Alexandria Library, archived from the original on January 2, 2014 ; Retrieved December 5, 2013 .
  23. M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles . 1987, p. 145.
  24. Licio Amiani in his article on Lasciac. In: Arte del Novecento in Friuli. Volume 1: Il Liberty e gli anni venti. Del Bianco, Udine 1978, pp. 164-166, (see footnote 48 to M. Volait).
  25. M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles . 1987, p. 147.
  26. "You nom de l'un des fondateurs de la Sociéte Anonyme des Immeubles d'Égypte, qui en possédait le terrain"

    - M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles . P. 145.
  27. "Le banquier Bohor Levi de Menasce, en janvier 1883 ... en lieu et place des anciennes" okelles "du quartier Franc, allaient bientot surgir de nouveaux édifice, pour essential dus a des architectes italiens."

    - M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles . P. 144.
  28. a b

    " The commercial entity of the square is further emphasized by the two large ok - all modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria. These were the Grand Okalle Menasce by Antonio Lasciac in 1885… Lasciac's work for the Société des Immeubles d'Égypte, owner of the Okalle Menasce… The building, designed by Lasciac in Neo-Baroque eclectic styles, were described as most elegant and included all the desirables convenences of modern living . "

    - Khalil, 32-33
  29. The other grand commercial Italian building at the square is Okalle Menasce designed in (1885) by Antonio Lasciac who worked for the Societe des Immeubles d'Egypte, owners of the building. The building… is suffering from the disfigure due to the shopwindows and commercial signs… The main façade had some degradations and also the internal facades on the main court suffer from problems . "

    - Khalil, p. 79
  30. M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles. 1987, p. 150: Plans du rez-de-chaussée et de l'étage courant du passage Menasce .
  31. M. Volait: La communauté italienne et ses édiles. 1987, p. 151: Vue intérieure du passage Menasce (arch. A. Lasciac).
  32. districts. . LICHTENBERG: Partnership with Alexandria. A town partnership has now been concluded between Lichtenberg and the Egyptian metropolis of Alexandria. On: Archive - Districts from November 19, 2001, accessed on May 16, 2014.