The Shafiʿites or Shafiites ( Arabic الشافعية, DMG aš-šāfiʿīya ), out of date Schafeiten , are members of one of the four traditional schools of law ( Madhahib ) of Sunni Islam . The Shafiite school of law is numerically the second largest of the schools after the Hanafis . Most of the Shafiites are considered to be followers of Asharism . The Shafiite school goes back to Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī .
Sources and methods of legal finding
In the case of the defined sources of fiqh , the Koran and the Sunna as well as the conclusion by analogy ( qiyās ) traditionally play a major role, while the independent doctrinal opinion ( raʾy ) plays a smaller role.
Ash-Shāfidī made extensive and, as critics believe, insufficiently skeptical use of the hadiths , predominantly excluded Ra'y , the independent decision, and tried, as an eclectic, to mediate between independent legal finding and traditionalism. In contrast, the conclusion by analogy (qiyās) was his main instrument.
According to Lowry, ash-Shāfidīs Risāla is mainly about the legal-hermeneutic concept of bayān (explanation). According to this concept, the Islamic law is basically contained in the Koran and Sunna, whereby the individual legal rules result in five different ways from these sources: (1) from the Koran alone; (2) from the Koran and the Sunna together, both amounting to the same thing; (3) composed of the Koran and the Sunna, the Sunna explaining the Koran; (4) from the Sunnah alone; (5) from neither of the two legal sources. In the latter case, you need to make your own judgment ( ijtihad ).
Expansion of the Shafiite school of law
The Shafiʿite school of law is widespread in the areas bordering the Indian Ocean and in parts of the Middle East . Shāfiʿites make up the vast majority of Muslims in the Southeast Asian island world ( Indonesia , Malaysia , Brunei , Philippines , southern Thailand ), as well as in the coastal areas of southern India ( Kerala , Tamil Nadu ), on Sri Lanka , in East Africa and in the south of the Arabian Peninsula . In addition, the majority of the Kurds in Turkey , Syria , Iraq and Iran as well as some of the Zazas in Turkey and some Caucasian peoples such as Avars and Lesgians in Dagestan are Shafiʿites. Most of the Palestinians and residents of Jordan are also Shafiʿites. In addition, the Shafiʿite school of law is also widespread in Lower Egypt . There are also Shafiʿites as a minority in Lebanon and Mauritania .
The spread of the Shafiʿite school of law in Egypt, Palestine, Jordan and parts of Syria goes back to the work of the Sultan Saladin , who was a Shafiite Kurd.
List of well-known Shafiite scholars
In the Middle Ages, the Shafiʿites made up the majority of the outstanding scholars of Sunni Islam.
- Abū l-Hasan al-Ashʿarī
- Fachr ad-Din ar-Razi
- Ibn an-Nafis
- Ibn Kathīr
- Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj
- Ibn Hajar al-ʿAsqalānī
- Aḥmad Ibn-Muḥammad aṯ-Ṯaʿlabī
As well as in modern times:
- Norman Calder, Jawid Mojaddedi, Andrew Rippin: Classical Islam: A Sourcebook of Religious Literature ; London: Routledge, 2003. Section 7.1.
- Theodoor Willem Juynboll: Handbook of Islamic Law: according to the teachings of the Shafiʿite school with a general introduction . Brill / Harrassowitz, Leiden / Leipzig, 1910. Digitized
- Majid Khadduri: Islamic Jurisprudence: Shafi'i's Risala ; Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society , 1987; P. 286 ff.
- Rippin, Andrew: Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices ; London: Routledge, 2005 3 ; ISBN 0-415-34888-9 ; Pp. 90-93.
- Joseph Schacht: The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence ; Oxford: Oxford University, 1950; P. 16 ff.
- Mahmood Abd Majid: Tajdid Fiqh Al-Imam Al-Syafi'i ; Seminar pemikiran Tajdid Imam As Shafie, 2007.
- Ferdinand Wüstenfeld : The academies of the Arabs and their teachers. After excerpts from Ibn Shohba's classes of the sheepites. Göttingen 1837 - digitized
- ↑ Diwān Imām al-Shāfi'ī. Damascus, Syria: Karam Publishing House Verses are translated by Salma al-Helali
- ^ Otto, Jan Michiel (2010). Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present. pp. 151-158. ISBN 978-90-8728-057-4 .
- ^ Joseph Lowry: Early Islamic Legal Theory. The Risāla of Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī. Leiden 2007. - Cf. Lowry 23f.
- ↑ Ahmad A. Reidegeld: Handbuch Islam. Spohr-Verlag 2005, ISBN 3-927606-28-6 .