The Koran (the Germanized form of Arabic القرآن al-Qur'ān , DMG al-Qurʾān 'the reading, recitation ', [ al-qurˈʔaːn ]) is the holy scripture of Islam which, according to the belief of Muslims, is the literal revelation of God (Arabic الله, Allah ) to the prophet Mohammed contains. It is written in a special rhyming prose called Sajj in Arabic. The Koran consists of 114 suras , which in turn consist of a different number of verses (آيات / āya , pl. āyāt ). The orthographically standardized Cairin Koran edition of the Cairo Azhar University from 1924 is decisive for all modern editions .
An important characteristic of the Quran is its self-referentiality . This means that the Koran addresses itself in many places. Most of the doctrines of the Muslims with regard to the Koran are also based on such self-referential statements in the Koran. According to the belief of the Sunni Muslims, the Koran is the uncreated speech of God, or at least an expression of it. A minority of Muslims, on the other hand, is of the opinion that the Koran was created .
The Koran as the basis of belief
The Koran is the main source of Islamic law , the Sharia , another source of the Sharia is the Sunna of the Prophet Mohammed. In addition, the Koran is also regarded as an aesthetic model for Arabic rhetoric and poetry. His language also had a strong influence on the development of Arabic grammar . In addition to the preserved fragments of the pre-Islamic poets, the Koranic Arabic was and is a guideline for the correctness of linguistic expression.
In Arabic, the Koran is given the attribute karīm (“noble, worthy”). The term “the Holy Qur'an” is common among German-speaking Muslims.
According to the tradition of Muhammad's cousin Ibn ʿAbbās and his disciple Mujāhid ibn Jabr , the first revelation took place in the cave in Mount Hira . It is the first five verses of sura 96 . It begins with the words:
« اقرأ باسم ربّك الّذي خلق »
"Iqraʾ bi-smi rabbika 'llaḏī ḫalaq"
"Carry on in the name of your Lord who created!"
It is widely believed that Muhammad could neither read nor write, which is why Muslims believe that the Archangel Gabriel gave him the command to recite / recite what was previously written in his heart. Hence the name of the Koran: “Reading / Recitation”.
According to Islamic tradition, the Sira literature and the Koran exegesis ( Tafsir ), Mohammed emerged from the cave after the first revelation, and the Archangel Gabriel stood up in all directions before him. Mohammed is said to have been so shaken by this experience that he returned home trembling to his wife Khadijah , who wrapped him in a blanket, whereupon sura 74 was revealed:
“Whoever covered yourself up (with the upper garment) stand up and warn (your countrymen against God's punishment)! And praise your Lord ... "
According to tradition, ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib was an eyewitness to the first revelation. In the following 22 years the entire Quran was revealed to Mohammed, with many verses referring to current events of the time. Other verses tell of the prophets ( Adam , Abraham , Noah , Joseph , Moses , ʿĪsā ibn Maryam ( Jesus ) and others) and still others contain prescriptions and general principles of belief. The Koran is addressed to all people. Non-believers and members of other religions are also addressed.
Classification of the text
Suras and verses
The suras and their names
The Koran consists of 114 named suras . While in the non-Islamic world the suras are usually named with their number when quoting the Koran, in publications by Muslims when quoting the Koran, reference is usually made to their Arabic name. The naming of the sura is based on a certain word that occurs in it, but does not necessarily describe its main content. On the one hand, many suras are to be regarded as incoherent in terms of content - the sura An-Nisā ' (women), for example, contains some important passages from the Koran with reference to women, but otherwise also speaks about inheritance law and general beliefs. Likewise the second sura ( al-Baqara - The Cow), which contains a story with a cow as a sacrifice, but conveys a large part of the legal rules and beliefs. On the other hand, it happens that consecutive suras, such as Ad-Duhā and Ash-Sharh , deal with the same subject - in this case the memory of the blessings of God - and are therefore often read together.
The arrangement of the suras does not follow any pattern of content; rather, the suras, with the exception of the first sura Al-Fātiha , are roughly ordered according to their length (starting with the longest). For example, Sura 108, with only three verses and 42 or 43 letters, is the shortest if a Hamza is counted as a letter here. Many other suras also deviate from the arrangement according to length, which is seen by Muslims as a sign that the arrangement was not arbitrary. Muslims are convinced that this is how the arrangement of the suras was narrated from Prophet Muhammad. It is therefore undesirable in prayer to recite a later sura before an earlier sura. In contrast to the Tanakh of the Jews and the Bible of the Christians , which largely consist of chronologically ordered history books, there is no such order either within the suras or in their arrangement, although the chronological order of the suras is assumed to be determinable.
With the exception of sura 9 , all suras of the Qur'an begin with the Basmala formula ( bi-smi llāhi r-rahmâni r-rahīm /بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم / ,In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.'). At the beginning of 29 suras there are certain separate letters which, because of their unexplained meaning, have also been called "mysterious" or "enigmatic letters". In modern editions of the Koran, in addition to the name, the number of verses and the place of revelation - Mecca or Medina - are given at the beginning of the suras.
The different verses
The suras each consist of a different number of verses ( āyāt , so-called āya ). There are basically seven different systems of verse counting, which arose as early as the 8th century and are named after the major centers of Koran learning: Kufa , Basra , Damascus , Homs , Mecca , Medina I and Medina II. However, there are only two of these systems fixed, unambiguous total verse numbers, namely 6,236 for Kufa and 6,204 for Basra. Today's verse counting is usually based on the Egyptian standard edition published in 1924 , which follows the Kufic verse counting. In addition to these verses, there is another verse in the older orientalist literature that goes back to Gustav Flügel and is not committed to any Islamic verse tradition. The translation of the Koran by Max Henning , published by Reclam Verlag, offers a synopsis of the Cairinian and the Flügel counting .
Another form of counting can be found in the Ahmadiyya edition of the Koran. Unlike in the Egyptian standard edition, the basmala is counted as the first verse, which means that the counting of the following verses is shifted by one verse (e.g. 2:30 → 2:31). In the Koran editions, which are based on the Egyptian edition, the Basmala is only counted as a separate verse in the first sura Al-Fātiha . Since the verse numbers are not considered part of the revelation, they are excluded from the revelation text in the often artistically ornamented Koran books with a border. Other page numbers also remain outside of the revelation text, which is clearly delimited.
Divisions for liturgical purposes
While suras and verses have very different lengths, there are various other divisions of the Quran that divide the text into sections of equal length. They are mainly used in the liturgy and serve as units of measurement for determining prayer expenses . The most important such units of measurement are the 30th part of the Koran, called Juzʾ (جزء / ǧuzʾ , pluralأجزاء / aǧzāʾ ), and the 60th part of the Koran, called Hizb (حزب / ḥizb , pluralأحزاب / aḥzāb ). The boundaries between the individual Juzʾ and Hizb sections are usually in the middle of a sura.
The division of the Koran into thirty parts is particularly important for the month of Ramadan , because it is a popular practice to do a chatma, i.e. a complete reading of the Koran, over the thirty nights of Ramadan. Juzʾ and Hizb divisions are usually marked on the edges of the Koran copies, sometimes even the individual quarters of the Hizb are marked.
For the common recitation of the Koran on solemn occasions, the Juzʾ sections were often filed individually and placed in a special wooden box called Rabʿa . Various Muslim rulers such as Sultan Kait-Bay or Sultan Murad III. had such Rabʿa boxes made in precious designs and donated them to the holy places in Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. There trained Koran readers were tasked with reciting from it every day.
From reading to book
The Koran was written over a period of almost two decades. According to the place of revelation, a distinction is made between Meccan and Medinan suras (see Nöldeke's chronology ). The Meccan suras are again divided into early, middle and late Meccan suras.
The process of how the Koran became a book can be traced back to the early development of the Arabic term qurʾān , which is the basis of the German word “Koran”. It appears about 70 times in the Koran itself. Its original meaning is "lecture, reading, recitation" (cf. Kerygma ). In this sense he appears, for example, in two passages from the Middle Meccan period in which Allah turns to Mohammed:
"And do not rush to speak ( qurʾān ) before his inspiration is complete"
“Perform the prayer from the setting of the sun until the nightfall, and the recitation ( qurʾān ) at dawn. One should be present with her. "
In the Islamic teaching tradition, the word is accordingly used as a verbal noun for the Arabic verb qaraʾa (قرأ / 'Present, read') explained. Christoph Luxenberg has suggested that it is a borrowing from the Syrian word qeryânâ , which in the Christian liturgy denotes a pericopic reading . The fact is that the word is not attested in Arabic in pre-Quranic times.
In some verses, which also come from the Middle Meccan period, the term qurʾān already describes a text that has been read. Thus, in sura 72: 1f, the prophet is told that a group of jinn listened and then said: "Behold, we have heard a wonderful qurʾān that leads on the right path, and we now believe in him".
In the course of time, the term took on the meaning of a collection of revelations in book form. Thus the qurʾān is identified as the Arabic version of “the book” ( al-kitāb ) in various passages that are assigned to the early Medinan period (Sura 12: 1f; 41: 2f; 43: 2f) . In Sura 9: 111, a passage that is dated to the year 630, the qurnān finally appears as a holy book in a row with the Torah and the Gospel. The process of becoming a book is not yet complete, but it can be seen that the Koran was already understood as a book. Sura 5: 3 is considered to be one of the last revealed verses of the Koran. It is said of this verse that Mohammed first presented it to the faithful a few months before his death during the so-called farewell pilgrimage.
The collection of the Koran
Before the death of the Prophet Mohammed, various parts of the Koran had already been written down, and after consultation with all who had preserved the Koran both orally ( Haafiz ) and in writing, after Mohammed's death in 11 A.D. (632 A.D. ) BC) at the time of the first caliph Abū Bakr the first Koran code (مصحف muṣḥaf ) to keep it from getting lost or confused with other statements of the Prophet Mohammed.
The third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan (644–656), had these first Koran codices, which also z. Some of them were written in dialects other than the Quraishitic dialect - the dialect of the Prophet Mohammed - were collected and burned in order to then produce an officially valid Koran. At least two men had to testify with each verse that they had heard it directly from the mouth of the Prophet. However, six verses in the Koran have only been testified in this way by one witness, namely Zaid ibn Thābit , the former servant of the Prophet. The fact that these verses are in the Koran today is due to the fact that the caliph accepted the sole testimony of Zaid as an exception.
According to Islamic tradition, five copies of the Uthmanic Codex were sent to the various cities, namely to Medina, Mecca, Kufa , Basra and Damascus . At the same time, the order was issued to burn all private Koran records to prevent false traditions. It was previously assumed that the copy that was sent to Medina is now in Tashkent and that a second copy is kept in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul . Both copies, however, were written in Kufic script , which can be dated to the 9th century AD, and were therefore probably made 200 years after Mohammed at the earliest. In a library in Birmingham, the Cadbury Research Library, two sheets of parchment were discovered in a Quran edition from the late 7th century that could be dated to the period between 568 and 645 using the radiocarbon method. The sheets contain parts of Sura 18 to 20, written in ink in an early written form of Arabic, Hijazi. This makes them one of the oldest pieces of the Koran in the world.
Today's number and arrangement of the suras also go back to Uthman's editorial team. The Koran code of ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd , which was used for a while after the introduction of the Uthmanic code, only had 110 or 112 suras, which were arranged differently. Kharijite groups in Iran denied that Sura 12 and Sura 42 were part of the original Quran. Manuscript finds in the Great Mosque of San'a indicate that Koran codes from the first Muslim century (7th century AD) show significant differences in the orthography, readings (i.e., content), and arrangement of the suras.
The Arabic script of the Uthman codex did not yet have any diacritical points, as they are used in today's Arabic script to distinguish consonants that look the same . This is why it was important to be able to speak the text orally, and the written form of the Rasm served primarily as a memory aid.
In the places with copies of the Uthmani Codex, different readings of the Koran developed . The Islamic tradition later recognized seven such reading traditions as "canonical". It was not until the beginning of the 8th century that the letters in the Koran text were provided with diacritical marks. The initiative for this went back to al-Hajjaj ibn Yūsuf , the governor of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik in Iraq , who wanted to remove all ambiguities in the tradition of the Koran in this way. The first evidence of the importance of the Koran in the public life of Muslims comes from this time, because Abd al-Malik had the coins he minted and the inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock that he built with Koran quotations (especially sura 112 ).
Theological discussions about the essence of the Koran
In the Koran itself there are some statements about its heavenly origin. Thus in Sura 85 : 22 of "a well-guarded tablet" ( lauh Mahfuz ) the speech, on which the Koran is to be located and in Sura 43 : 3f, it is stated that there is the Arabic Koran a "Urbuch" ( Umm al- kitāb ) that is with God. It is also stated that the Qur'an was revealed by God in the month of Ramadan (sura 2: 185) or on the “ night of destiny ” (sura 97 “ Al-Qadr ”). Later these statements were interpreted in the area of Sunni Islam in such a way that the Koran was sent down to the lowest celestial sphere on the “night of determination” and from here it was transmitted in parts to Mohammed during his twenty years of service as a prophet on the respective revelation occasions. From the above statements in the Koran it was generally concluded that the Koran has a supernatural being.
Around the middle of the 8th century, however, there were heated discussions when various theologians from among the Murji'a questioned the preexistence of the Koran and brought up the theory of the composition of the Koran (ḫalq al-Qurʾān) . While the traditionalists opposed this theory, it was adopted and further elaborated by the Muʿtazilites and Ibadites . The three caliphs al-Ma'mūn , al-Muʿtasim and al-Wāthiq even made the doctrine of the iniquity of the Koran an official doctrine in the Abbasid state and had all those who refused to profess it persecuted in the course of the mihna . In this situation, the theologian Ibn Kullāb developed an intermediate position by differentiating between the content of the revelation and its “form of expression” (ʿibāra) . He taught that only the former was uncreated and eternal in the beginning, while the expression of God's speech could vary in time. This teaching was later adopted by the Ashʿarites .
Although the Muʿtazilites denied the iniquity of the Koran, they developed the dogma of the “inimitability of the Koran” ( iʿdschāz al-qurʾān ). This was based on various passages in the Qur'an where the unbelievers are asked to admit that they are unable to produce anything equal to the Qur'an (cf. Sura 2: 223; 11:13), or where it is clearly stated that Even if humans and jinn got together, they could not produce anything of equal (compare sura 17:88). The Koran is thus also considered to be a “miracle of authentication” for the prophetic claim of Muhammad. This i'jaz -Dogma later found general spread of Islam.
Development of Islamic Koran Studies
A whole bundle of different sciences developed around the Koran. The science of Koran exegesis ( ʿilm at-tafsīr ) developed from the need for interpretation ( exegesis ) of the revelation content . Extensive commentaries, often filling dozens of volumes, were written from the 2nd Muslim century onwards (8th century AD); among the most famous are those of at-Tabarī (d. 923), az-Zamachscharī (d. 1144), Fachr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī (d. 1209), Qurtubi (d. 1272), al-Baidāwī (d. 1290) and Ibn Kathīr (d. 1373).
Research on the religious-historical background of the Koran
Modern western research deals particularly intensively with allusions to narratives from the environment of the Old Testament and the apocryphal gospels contained in the Koran. They are seen as evidence that the Qur'an has complex and close relationships with the “religious and spiritual life of the Middle East in late antiquity”.
Heinrich Speyer has shown that the Koran, in its description of the fall of Iblis, heavily revised the Treasure Cave , a Syrian text from the 6th century, and the life of Adam and Eve , an early Jewish and Christian revised before 400 AD Book, is coined.
- in the earliest Meccan times mainly Gnostic elements,
- borrowed from Jewish and Christian devotional literature and hymns in the middle to late Meccan period ,
- in the late Meccan period, subjects of pagan-Arabic hanistism ,
- and in the last few months Mecca and Medina again borrowings from Judaism.
According to Nagel's opinion, the poet Umaiya ibn Abī s-Salt is particularly important among the Hanīfs, whose images and themes the Koran takes up .
Translations of the Koran
A real translation of the Koran is considered impossible in traditional Islamic theology, since every translation also contains an interpretation. It is therefore recommended to study the Quran in the original Arabic text. For example, some Sufis believe that it is more beneficial to look at the Arabic letters of a Quran text even if one does not understand Arabic than to read a bad translation. However, various Persian and Turkish translations of the Koran were made as early as the Middle Ages.
Translations into German
The first translation into German comes from the Nuremberg pastor Salomon Schweigger in 1616. He translated the first Italian version from 1547 by Andrea Arrivabene , which in turn was based on a Latin translation from the 12th century. The orientalist Friedrich Rückert translated large parts of the Koran into German in the first half of the 19th century. Rückert's translation tries to reproduce the sound of the Koranic Arabic in German, but has left out passages at its own discretion. Rudi Paret , whose translation (first edition 1962) is considered to be the most reliable philologically in professional circles, puts the additional translation options or the literal meaning (marked with a w.) In brackets after ambiguous passages.
In 1939 a translation of the Koran was published by the Ahmadiyya community; it is considered to be the first German translation of the Koran published by Muslims. This was followed by further translations, including a. by the Arab-Christian theology professor Adel Theodor Khoury (traditional, supported by the Islamic World Congress ), by Lazarus Goldschmidt , by Ahmad von Denffer and by Max Henning (Reclam), which was also published in the GDR in 1968 .
Henning's translation has been revised and annotated by Murad Wilfried Hofmann . The revision is valued by many of his co-religionists from the German-speaking area, and in some cases clearly criticized by Islamic studies. A contemporary translation, which also brings the Arabic text and at the same time a selection of important commentaries translated into German for each verse, was published by a group of German-speaking Muslims under the direction of Fatima Grimm under the title The Meaning of the Koran . Muhammad Rassoul has published another translation in the Islamic Library under the title The Approximate Meaning of Al-Qur'an Al-Karim . This is the translation that can be found on the website of the Central Council of Muslims in Germany .
The Koran for children and adults , an adaptation in contemporary German that is also aimed at children and young people, was created in 2008 by Islamic scholars Lamya Kaddor and Rabeya Müller . According to Lamya Kaddor, the new translation should “combine respect for the holy book of Muslims with an understandable approach”.
- Quran recitation
- Readings of the Koran
- List of personal names in the Koran
- Revisionist School of Islamic Studies
- Satanic verses
- Gotthelf Bergsträßer , Otto Pretzl: The history of the Koran text . Part 3 of: Theodor Nöldeke: History of the Qorāns . 2nd edition, Dieterich, Leipzig 1938, ( full text as PDF file ). Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim 1961,
- Hartmut Bobzin : The Koran. An introduction (= CH Beck knowledge . Volume 2109 ). Beck, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-406-72913-3 .
- Michael Celler: The Koran for non-Muslims. Newly worded and commented by Michael Celler . Hans-Jürgen Maurer, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-929345-45-2 .
- Michael Cook : The Koran. A short introduction (= Reclams Universal Library . Volume 18652 ). Reclam, Ditzingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-15-018652-7 .
- Arthur Jeffery : The Qur'ān as scripture . Books for Libraries, New York 1980, ISBN 0-8369-9263-6 .
- Lamya Kaddor and Rabeya Müller : The Koran for children and adults . Beck , Munich, 1st edition 2008, 3rd edition 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-57222-7
- Ingrid Mattson: The Story of the Qur'an: Its History and Place in Muslim Life . Wiley-Blackwell, 2nd edition, 2013, ISBN 978-0-470-67349-2 .
- Tilman Nagel : The Koran. Introduction - texts - explanations . Beck, Munich, 1998, ISBN 3-406-43886-5
- Tilman Nagel (Ed.): The Koran and its religious and cultural environment . Oldenbourg, Munich, 2010. Digitized
- Angelika Neuwirth : Koran . In: Helmut Gätje (Ed.): Outline of Arabic Philology. Volume II. Literary Studies. Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-88226-145-5 , pp. 96-135.
- Angelika Neuwirth: The Koran as a text of late antiquity. A European approach . Insel, Berlin 2010.
- Angelika Neuwirth: Studies on the composition of the Meccan suras: The literary form of the Koran - a testimony to its historicity? (= Studies on the History and Culture of the Islamic Orient. New Series, Volume 10). 2nd edition, expanded by an introduction to the history of the Koran, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York NY 2007, ISBN 3-11-019233-0 .
- Theodor Nöldeke , Friedrich Schwally (arr.): History of the Qorāns. Three parts in one volume . Olms, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2005, ISBN 3-487-00105-5 .
- Wilhelm Rudolph : The dependence of the Qoran on Judaism and Christianity . Stuttgart 1922 ( online at archive.org ).
- Nicolai Sinai: The Holy Scriptures of Islam. The most important facts about the Koran (= Herder spectrum . Volume 6512 ). Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2012, ISBN 978-3-451-06512-5 .
- Heinrich Speyer: The biblical stories in the Qoran . Schulze & Co, Graefenhainchen 1931. Reprinted by Olms, Hildesheim 1988.
- John Edward Wansbrough , Andrew Rippin (arr.): Quranic studies. Sources and methods of scriptural interpretation . Prometheus Books, Amherst NY 2004, ISBN 1-59102-201-0 .
- Alford T. Welch : al-Qurʾān. In The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2nd edition, Volume 5, Brill, Leiden / Boston 1960-2006, pp 400-429.
- Hans Zirker : The Koran. Approaches and readings. 1st edition, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1999, ISBN 3-534-14309-4 .
German translations of the Koran
- Oldest German translations
- New translations
- The Koran . Retransmitted from the Arabic by Hartmut Bobzin with the assistance of Katharina Bobzin. With 121 calligraphies by Shahid Alam (= New Oriental Library ). Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-58044-4 (Arabic: Qur ʼ ān . Translated by Hartmut Bobzin).
- The Koran . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-021156-8 (Arabic: Qur ʼ ān.Translated by Rudi Paret ).
- The message of the Koran . Translation and commentary. Patmos, Düsseldorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-491-72540-9 (English: Qur ʼ ān, The message of the Qur ʼ an . Translated by Muhammad Asad , Ahmad von Denffer , Yusuf Kuhn).
- The Koran . Introduction and remarks by Annemarie Schimmel. Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 978-3-15-054206-4 .
- The Koran . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2007, ISBN 978-3-534-20459-5 (Arabic: Qur ʼ ān . Translated by Hans Zirker ).
- Murad Wilfried Hofmann (Ed.): The Koran. The holy book of Islam . Hugendubel, Kreuzlingen; Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7205-3042-2 (Arabic: Qur ʼ ān.Translated by Max Henning ).
- Hartmut Bobzin (Ed.): The Koran . With explanatory notes from Wolfdietrich Fischer. Ergon-Verlag , Würzburg 2000, ISBN 3-933563-70-4 (Arabic: Qur ʼ ān . Translated by Friedrich Rückert ).
- Abullah Aymaz, Arhan Kardas and Fikret Yasar (eds.): The Koran. Complete translation with extensive commentary by Ali Ünal. Define-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2015, ISBN 978-6-05497303-3 (Turkish: Kur'an-i Kerim ve Meali . Translated by Fatima Grimm and Wilhelm Willeke).
The Koran on the Internet
- Web links to individual translations can be found under Koran translation
- Arabic text (print edition Cairo 1924), transliteration and German translation from Rudi Paret : Der Koran. German translation , Stuttgart 2nd edition 1979, under print , manuscripts and readings on corpuscoranicum.de .
- Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (ed.): Chronological-literary commentary on the Koran , ed. by Angelika Neuwirth with the assistance of Ali Aghaei and Tolou Khademalsharieh, translation of the suras by Nicolai Sinai [as part of the Corpus Coranicum ]. Beta version. On: corpuscoranicum.de .
- Virtual Manuscript Room, University of Birmingham: Islamic Arabic 1572 . 7th century, Islamic Arabic 1563 . 8 / 9th century, digitized manuscripts of two of the oldest editions of the Koran ( Kufi ) On: vmr.bham.ac.uk , accessed on September 22, 2014.
- Quran fragment of the University of Tübingen from the 7th century. Retrieved on July 30, 2015.
- Hans Zirker : Koran transliteration (PDF; 2.5 MB)
- Gold Koran BSB Munich
- Michael Marx, Nicolai Sinai: Islamic and Jewish Hermeneutics as Cultural Criticism. Historical explorations and methodological reflections on Korangenesis - ways of reconstructing the pre-canonical Koran. Berlin, January 21-25 , 2004. In: wiko-berlin.de . February 25, 2004 .
- Nicolai Sinai, Angelika Neuwirth: The early Meccan suras: Introduction to the commentary on the early Meccan suras. In: Corpus Coranicum .
Koran explained. In: Deutschlandfunk . (Series from March 1, 2015 to December 28, 2018).
- Thorsten Gerald Schneiders: Background to the program - The Koran and its translation into German. In: Deutschlandfunk broadcast “Koran explains”. March 1, 2015 .
- Resources for the Study of the Qur'an. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , archived from the original on October 19, 2018 .
- Tilman Nagel (Ed.): The Koran and its religious and cultural environment. (PDF, 14.9 MB) (= Writings of the Historisches Kolleg. Colloquia, No. 72). Oldenbourg, Munich, 2010 .
- Stefan Wild (Ed.): Self-referentiality in the Qurʾān . Wiesbaden 2006.
- Sura 2: 2: "This is the scripture, of which there is no doubt, (revealed) as guidance for those who fear God."
- Adel Theodor Khoury : The Koran . Volume 12. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1987, ISBN 3-579-00336-4 , p. 497.
- Revelation Order of the Qur'an. In: missionislam.com. Retrieved September 17, 2019 .
- Hans Bauer: About the arrangement of the suras and about the mysterious letters in the Qoran - About the arrangement of the suras and about the mysterious letters in the Qoran. In: Magazines of the German Oriental Society. No. 75, 1921, pp. 1-20; in the online archive of the University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt
- G. Bergstrasse, O. Pretzl: The story of the Koran text. Leipzig 1938, p. 237.
- Anton Spitaler : The counting of the Koran according to Islamic tradition. Beck, Munich 1935, p. 17f.
- G. Bergstrasse, O. Pretzl: The story of the Koran text. Leipzig 1938, p. 273.
- Alford T. Welch: al-Qurʾān. In The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 5, Leiden / Boston 1960-2006, p. 411a.
- The Koran . Translated from the Arabic by Max Henning. Introduction and remarks by Annemarie Schimmel . Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart, 1960.
- W. Montgomery Watt, Alford T. Welch: Islam I. Mohammed and the early days, Islamic law, religious life. Stuttgart 1980. p. 210.
- To the Rabʿa of Sultan Murad III. from 1592 for the al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem. See here: Discover Islamic Art - Virtual Museum
- On the recitation of the Rabʿa by Sultan Kait-Bay, cf. Quṭb al-Dīn al-Nahrawālī: Kitāb al-I'lām bi-a'lām bayt Allāh al-ḥarām. Ed. F. Desert field. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1857, p. 225.
- Quoted from Hartmut Bobzin: The Koran. An introduction. Munich 2007, p. 19.
- Alford T. Welch: al-Qurʾān. In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 5, Leiden / Boston 1960-2006, p. 400b.
- T. Nöldeke, F. Schwally: History of the Qorāns. Volume I, Hildesheim a. a. 2005, p. 225 .
- Alford T. Welch: al-Qurʾān. In: The encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume 5, Leiden / Boston 1960-2006, p. 401a.
- T. Nöldeke, F. Schwally: History of the Qorāns. Volume I, Hildesheim a. a. 2005, p. 227 .
- Birmingham Qur'an manuscript dated among the oldest in the world. In: birmingham.ac.uk . Birmingham University. July 22, 2015, accessed November 30, 2019.
- Theodor Nöldeke : History of the Qoran. With a literary-historical appendix about the Muslim sources and the more recent Christian research. 3 volumes; New edition Dietrich, Leipzig 1909/38. Volume 2, pp. 39-42.
- Josef van Ess : Theology and society in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam. Volume 1, De Gruyter, Berlin 1991, p. 33.
- Hartmut Bobzin: The Koran. An introduction. Munich 2007, p. 104.
- Josef van Ess : Theology and society in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam. Volume 1, Berlin 1991, p. 12.
- Hans Zirker : The Koran. Approaches and readings. Darmstadt 1999, p. 46 and the chapter on the “manner of sending him down” ( kaifīyat inzāli-hī ) in as-Suyūṭī : al-Itqān fī ʿulūm al-qurʾān. Part 1; Cairo 1978; P. 53.
- Hartmut Bobzin: The Koran. An introduction. Munich 2007, p. 118f.
- Josef van Ess: Theology and society in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam. Volume 4, Berlin 1991, pp. 605-612.
- Nagel: The Koran and its religious and cultural environment . 2010, p. VIII.
- Speyer: The biblical stories in the Qoran . 1931, pp. 54-58.
- Nagel: The Koran and its religious and cultural environment . 2010, p. VIII.
- Nagel: The Koran and its religious and cultural environment . 2010, pp. XIII-XVI.
- Amit Dey: Bengali Translation of the Quran and the Impact of Print Culture on Muslim Society in the Nineteenth Century. In: Societal Studies. No. 4, 2012, pp. 1299-1315.
- See for example Johann Büssow , Stefan Rosiny, Christian Saßmannshausen: ORIENTATION - A guide for students of Islamic studies at the Free University of Berlin. (PDF; 543 KB) 9th edition. In: geschkult.fu-berlin.de. 2016, p. 30 , accessed on October 3, 2019 .
- The Koran. Arabic-German. Translation, introduction and explanation by Maulana Sadr ud-Din , Verlag der Moslemische Revue (self-printed), Berlin 1939; 3rd unchanged edition 2006, without ISBN.
- Mirza Baschir ud-Din Mahmud Ahmad (ed.): Koran. The Holy Quran. Islam International Publications, 1954; Finally: Mirza Masrur Ahmad : Koran the holy Quran; Arabic and German. 8th, revised paperback edition, Verlag Der Islam, Frankfurt a. M. 2013, ISBN 978-3-921458-00-6 .
- The Koran (= Reclam's Universal Library. Volume 351). Reclam, Leipzig 1968, .
- Hartmut Kistenfeger: “I didn't like translating some passages” ; Focus interview with Hartmut Bobzin; In: Focus. No. 12, 2010, p. 64.
- Jos Schnurer: Lamya Kaddor and Rabeya Müller: The Koran. For children and parents. Review. In: socialnet.de . accessed on May 11, 2020.