Pericopes (from Gr. Περιϰοπή perikopé - "round cut piece", derived from περικόπτειν - "cut around"), called capitula in the language of the Latin Middle Ages , are the sections of the Bible that are intended for reading in worship .
The reading of scriptures , which passed from the synagogue into the church, was first a continuous reading of the Bible text ( lectio continua ) in the old church , and since the 5th century, in connection with the idea of the church year, then increasingly a reading of selected sections ( lectio selecta ) . In order to fix the selection and to enable the finding of the sections in the biblical full texts, first pericopes were created according to the order of the festivals of the church year and added to the biblical full texts from which the reading was carried out. Such lists are called capitularia (capitularies) or Liber comitis (with comitis as an adjectival formation to comma "incision, section, pericope") and then also Comes ("companion") due to the reinterpretation of this apparently incomprehensible expression . By creating such indexes as separate books and writing out the text section to be read for each location, the lectionaries emerged from the pericope indexes by the 7th century at the latest and then increasingly replaced the biblical full texts as templates for the reading.
A complete Lectionary ( Lectionarium ) contains an epistolary ( Epistolarium "collection of Epistles") and a Gospel Lectionary ( Evangelistarium , also called "Pericopes" in the narrow sense, collection of Evangelienperikopen), both of which can exist as separate books and then in the literature sometimes referred to as a lectionary. Since the 8th century, the lectionary was often combined with other liturgical books, especially the sacramentary and later the gradual , to form a missal (missal), which largely supplanted the lectionary in the late Middle Ages. One of the most famous pericopes is that of Henry II, which has been a UNESCO World Document Heritage since 2003 .
The development up to the time of Charlemagne mainly owes the existence of the gospel pericopes and epistles prescribed for all Sundays and feast days in the church year of the Catholic Church. Martin Luther kept this with a few changes, while Ulrich Zwingli preached continuously on the Gospel of Matthew when he first appeared in the Reformation in 1519 . The Reformed Church, on the other hand, gave its preachers the free choice of a pericope. In the Evangelical Lutheran Church , too, attempts have recently been made with newly chosen sequences of biblical passages.
Pericopes in the Roman Catholic Church
According to the reading order of the Catholic Church for Sundays , the most important passages of the Bible are read every three years. There is a separate reading order for the weekdays, which, apart from the marked times of Advent and Lent and some days of remembrance of the saints, provides for two reading years for the first reading, each of which includes the same Gospel .
Pericopes in the Protestant Church in Germany
In the Protestant Church in Germany, six rows of pericopes have been in use since at least 1953 (mostly listed as I to VI). One row is in use for a church year, i.e. from 1st Advent to Eternal Sunday. According to the principle of consonance (of the sounding together), she assigns the readings for the Gospel (always from pericope row I), epistle (always from pericope row II) and OT, as well as the sermon text (from the current pericope row) on every Sunday and holiday. During the validity of Pericope Row I, the Gospel text and the sermon text are identical; while Pericope Series II is in effect, the epistle text and the sermon text. After six years the cycle starts all over again. For example, from 1st Advent 2012 to Eternal Sunday 2013, the pericope row V.
On the 1st of Advent, December 2nd, 2018, a new order of pericopes, the "Order of texts and songs for worship", was introduced, which is based on the previous order, but has been further developed for the present. In particular, the proportion of texts from the Old Testament has been significantly expanded and, for the first time, sections from Psalms are intended as sermon texts. The first row of pericopes I for the church year 2018/2019 begins on the 1st of Advent 2018.
Pericopes in the Danish folk church
The reading order of the Danish national church from 1992 consists of two annual series in which three readings (one from the Old Testament, one from the Apostles' letters and one from the Gospels) are given every Sunday. The three readings are coordinated in terms of content.
Pericopes in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
The reading order of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland from the year 2000 consists of three annual series in which three readings (one from the Old Testament, one from the Apostles' letters and one from the Gospels) are given every Sunday. The three readings are coordinated in terms of content.
- Karl-Heinrich Bieritz : The church year. Celebrations, memorials and holidays in the past and present. 3. Edition. CH Beck, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-406-34039-3 ( Beck series 447).
- Peter C. Bloth : The pericopes. In: Hans-Christoph Schmidt-Lauber , Michael Meyer-Blanck, Karl-Heinrich Bieritz (eds.): Handbook of Liturgy. Liturgical Science in Theology and Practice of the Church. 3rd completely revised and supplemented edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-525-57210-7 , pp. 720-730.
- Peter C. Bloth: Scripture reading. I: Christianity. In: Gerhard Müller et al. (Hrsg.): Theologische Realenzyklopädie . Vol. 30: Samuel - soul. de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 1999, ISBN 3-11-016243-1 , pp. 520-558.
- Reinhard Brandhorst: Reading of the Holy Scriptures in the church year. Lectionary for every day. Lutherisches Verlags-Haus, Hanover 1997, ISBN 3-7859-0744-3 ( Service 19).
- Mathias Christiansen (Ed.): Almanac of the good news. A companion through the church year. Monsenstein and Vannerdat publishing house , Münster 2006, ISBN 3-86582-219-3 .
- Evangelical service book. 3. Edition. Pocket edition. Evangelical Main Bible Society, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-7461-0141-7 .
- Elmar Nübold : Pericopes . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 8 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1999, Sp. 33 f .
- Meinolf Schumacher : Pericope. In: Jan-Dirk Müller (Hrsg.): Reallexikon der Deutschen Literaturwissenschaft . Volume 3: P - Z. Revised (3rd revised edition). de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2003, ISBN 3-11-015664-4 , pp. 43-45 ( digitized version ).
- Stefan Gehrig: Pericope. In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- The church year Information on the Protestant church year (private page)
- Information about the Catholic church year
- Compilation of current and historical reading orders (Engl.)
- Reading regulations of the Danish national church
- Reading Regulations of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
- Evangelical Church Hymns Edition for the Evangelical Church in Württemberg. With sermon texts. 12th edition 1961. Verlagkontor des Evangelisches Gesangbuch, Stuttgart 1953, p. Appendix, p. 139 .
- Liturgical Conference for the Evangelical Church in Germany (ed.): Pericope book according to the order of worship texts and songs. With introductory texts on Sundays and public holidays . Luther-Verlag, Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-7858-0741-5 , pp. XIX f .