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Missale secundum ritum ecclesiae Bremense (1511) in the Bremen Cathedral Museum
Missal (14th century) from the manuscript collection of the Gotha Research Library

A missal , also Latin Missal (plural Missalia, Missalien, Missalen ) or Missal (plural Missal ), is a liturgical book of the Latin Church and describes the Ordo missae for the celebration of the Eucharist on Sundays, holidays and workdays.

Content and definition

The missal mainly contains the ordinance of the Mass ( Latin ordo missae ), the prayers that are sung or spoken by the priest : Prayers with prefaces , daily prayer , prayer for gifts , closing prayer , prayer about the people, as well as the constant texts of the Ordinarium Missae : Kyrie eleison , Gloria , Credo , Sanctus , Our Father , Agnus Dei . The respective liturgical acts are described in the rubrics written in red (from Latin ruber 'red'). The related biblical readings appear in the missal itself and / or in separate liturgical books, the lectionaries .

Individual diocesan and religious rites have their own missals (e.g. Missale Aboense , Missale Parisiense , Missale secundum ritum ecclesie Bremense ). The Zittau missals are in the possession of the Christian-Weise-Bibliothek Zittau . These missalia, however, are Roman missals revised by local traditions; A distinction must be made between the independent rites of Milan and Toledo, which developed independently of Rome and which, of course, have also been influenced by the Roman missal in the course of history.

In the Protestant churches the liturgist's book for the celebration of the divine service is calledAgende ”. In the Byzantine - Orthodox churches the appropriate books as are Euchologion , Hieratikon or Leitourgikon referred.

Roman Missal


The missal for the Roman rite is the Missale Romanum in Latin and in Slavonic (manuscript: Berliner Missale Romanum , first printed in 1483) as well as in other languages, today in numerous national language editions.

Offertory, Secreta, Communio, Postcommunio, Introit, Oratio. Fragment of a 14th or 15th century missal (Helsinki University Library)

Missal books with the entire texts of the holy mass were created in the Middle Ages, when the private mass ( Missa solitaria ) became a common practice in the monasteries. They were role books for the celebrating priest, which contained not only the priestly prayers, but also the prayers and chants performed by other participants in the holy mass. a. Written in lessonaries and graduals . The mendicant orders that emerged in the High Middle Ages were wandering orders whose way of life had no Stabilitas loci . As they spread rapidly across Europe, they attached great importance to a uniform liturgy and adopted the urban Roman rites and texts that they brought to many countries. The Roman rite was soon the most common form of liturgy.

The Missale Romanum was first printed in 1474 in Milan under the title Missale secundum consuetudinem Romanae Curiae (at that time still without Rubricae generales and Ritus servandus ). This version goes back to the Missale curiae , that is, to the missal of the papal palace chapel compiled around 1220. The rubricistic regulations are based from 1501 on the Ordo servandus per sacerdotem in celebratione Missae sine cantu et ministris by Johannes Burckard from 1498 or 1502, i.e. originally on an Ordo missae for private masses .

Roman Missal, 1632

The Roman Missal was changed again and again between the Council of Trent (Tridentinum, 1545–1563) and the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). Adjustments have been made; so the texts for new festivals were recorded. The first missal from 1570 saw e.g. B. a communion of the believers does not exist. But soon after the priest's communion, the rite of communion for the sick was inserted for the faithful. The reform of the Holy Week liturgy brought about far-reaching changes by Pope Pius XII. in the 1950s and which was also reflected in the Missale Romanum . In 1959 the 33rd edition of the Missal was published.

The last edition of the Missale Romanum before the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council was that of Pope John XXIII. edited Editio typica from 1962. This edition (and no previous one) was published on July 7, 2007 by Pope Benedict XVI. in his Motu proprio Summorum pontificum again approved for use in a precisely defined framework as an extraordinary form of the Roman rite .

The present Roman Missal

The Second Vatican Council decided on a liturgical reform that led to a renewed Roman Missal (first edition 1970); it was made by Pope Paul VI. promulgated with the Apostolic Constitution Missale Romanum on April 3, 1969 and is therefore also called "Missale Paul VI." It is available in Latin and forms the basis for the native language edits. The provisions of the Constitution Missale Romanum came into force on November 30, 1969, the first Sunday in Advent ; the new Latin Editio typica appeared on March 26, 1970.

The forerunner for the German version was a 1965 advance edition ("1965 rite"), which followed from 1971 to 1973 "study texts". In 1975 the final German "missal" appeared.

The 1970 Missal offers significantly more texts to choose from than the earlier editions, such as around 90 prefations (instead of 11 in the 1570 Missal, to which a further five were added in the 20th century) and four Eucharistic prayers . The new texts are only to a lesser extent new creations, but a large number of very old texts have been taken up again. What is new is that the celebration of the parish mass and no longer the silent mass consistently represents the basic form of the holy mass.

The 1970 Missal was preceded by the Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani (IGMR) , which is important for the celebration and understanding of the Mass (3rd edition 2002). The German version is called General Introduction to the Roman Missal (AEM), in future the Basic Order of the Roman Missal (GORM). It also contains the Normae universales de anno liturgico et de calendario , translated into German under the title Basic Order of the Church Year and the General Roman Calendar . The Institutio Generalis Missalis Romanae is not a rubricistic text, but a theological declaration of the Mass that can be viewed as a “manual of the theology of the Eucharist”. According to the liturgical scholar Angelus Häußling OSB, the missal is no longer a pure “clergy book”, but the most important prayer book of all Catholic Christians.

The structure of the missal is similar to that of its predecessor: In the middle of the book are still the ordo missae , the texts of the entire course of the holy mass with the rubrics and the texts of the ordinarium as well as the most important prefations . Precede the Propriumstexte of times in the church year ( Proprium de tempore ) in chronological order, starting with the Advent and ending with the Sundays in Ordinary Time . The Ordo missae are followed by the Proprium texts for the Holy Feasts ( Proprium de Sanctis ), the general Holy Masses ( Commune Masses ) and measurement forms for specific occasions and occasions (traditionally called Votive Masses ).

The German-language edition (1975) of the renewed Missale Romanum is entitled The Celebration of Holy Mass and consists (like its Latin model) of two parts:

  1. the book for the hand of the celebrating priest (Sacerdos celebrans) : missal for the dioceses of the German-speaking area ; it contains many texts also in Latin and its structure is based on the structure of the Latin Editio typica ;
  2. the book with the biblical texts for the liturgical service of the mass: mass lesson for the dioceses of the German-speaking area .

A third Editio typica of the renewed Latin Missale Romanum was published in 2002 under Pope John Paul II. A revision of the German missal that was closely based on the Latin wording in accordance with the translator's instruction Liturgiam authenticam of the Holy See from 2001 was refused by the responsible bishops' conferences in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in the summer 2013 license to practice medicine. This followed from the fact that the ritual fascicle , which was also created on the basis of Liturgiam authenticam , was the church burial ceremony in the dioceses of the German-speaking area. Second authentic edition (2009) had to be replaced after failure in the reality of worship by a book of the same title with the subtitle Manuals , which was published in 2012 on behalf of the aforementioned bishops' conferences alone.

As far as the illustration of the missal books published after the Second Vatican Council is concerned, the Latin and vernacular editions before 2002 are only poorly illustrated, mostly with black and white pictures, or concentrated entirely on the text as in Germany and France. Since 2005, many editions of the Editio typica tertia have been illustrated in color, especially in the English-speaking world.

Folk missals

In the German-speaking world, bilingual “Volksmessbuch” appeared from the end of the 19th century as part of the liturgical movement . These folk missal books were intended to enable the laity to celebrate Holy Mass and the church year more consciously.

The most widespread was the " Schott ", first published in 1884 by the Benedictine P.  Anselm Schott under the title "The missal of the holy church" . The "Schott" was then published in numerous editions as " The Complete Roman Missal, Latin and German, with general and special introductions following the missal by Anselm Schott OSB by monks of the Beuron Archabbey " as full text or in partial editions. Between 1927 and 1972 the Latin-German Volksmeßbuch was also published - the complete Roman missal for all days of the year, with explanations and a chorale appendix by P.  Urbanus Bomm .

The booklet Church Prayer, first published in 1928, also offered the texts of the Ordinarium of Holy Mass. These publications encouraged the active participation ( Participatio actuosa ) of lay people in the liturgy, suggested by Pope Pius X , and favored the various forms of communal mass that arose from the 1920s.

Today's issues

Missale Romanum Pope Paul VI. (Latin), 1970
Missal for the dioceses of the German-speaking area
  • Missale Romanum ex decreto Sacrosancti Oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II instauratum auctoritate Pauli PP. VI promulgatum. Editio typica. Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1970; Editio typica altera 1975; Editio typica tertia ( Ioannis Pauli PP. II cura recognitum ) 2002.
  • Missale Romanum ex decreto… promulgatum. Lectionarium. 3 vol. Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis 1970–1972. 2nd edition: 1981.
  • The celebration of Holy Mass. Missal for the dioceses of the German-speaking area. Authentic edition for liturgical use. Part I: Sundays and public holidays in German and Latin. Holy Week German. Part II: The German missal for all days of the year except for Holy Week. Einsiedeln u. a. 1975; 2nd edition 1988.
  • The celebration of Holy Mass. Missal. For the dioceses of the German-speaking area. Authentic edition for liturgical use. Holy Week and Easter Octave. Supplemented by the celebration of baptism and confirmation as well as the consecration of the oils. Solothurn u. a. 1996.
  • The celebration of Holy Mass. Measurement lecturer for the dioceses of the German-speaking area. Authentic edition for liturgical use. 8 vols. Einsiedeln u. a. 1982-1986.

Special forms

Pope Benedict XVI published the Motu proprio Summorum Pontificum on July 7, 2007 , in which, among other things, the celebration of mass according to the Missale Romanum of 1962 (without the new version of the ordinance of 1965) as a special form (Latin: forma extraordinaria ) of the celebration of mass in the Roman rite within certain limits allows; It came into force on September 14, 2007, the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross , and replaces the regulations of "Quattuor abhinc annos" and "Ecclesia Dei" made under Pope John Paul II, which previously regulated the celebration of the 1962 Roman Missal.

In an accompanying letter, Benedict XVI. clear, “that of course that of Pope Paul VI. published and then reissued in two further editions by John Paul II. The ordinary form - the forma ordinaria - of the liturgy of the Holy Eucharist is and remains. ”The last version of the Roman Missal, which preceded the Council and was published under the authority of Pope John XXIII. Was promulgated in 1962 ( 1962 rite ), on the other hand, could be used as a forma extraordinaria ("special form") of the liturgical celebration. He also stated that it was inappropriate to refer to these versions of the Roman Missal as "two rites". Rather, it is a twofold usus (“custom, custom”) of one and the same rite.

For the Anglicans in full communion with the Church of Rome , after a few provisional arrangements, a separate Missal in the mother church tradition ( Book of Common Prayer ) was published in 2015 : "Divine Worship: The Missal". Its use has been mandatory in “Anglican Use” (alias: “Ordinariate Use”) since 2016.

Missale Ambrosianum and Missale Hispano-Mozarabicum

The churches of Toledo and Milan can also follow the Roman rite and use the Roman Missal (in its Latin origin and in the adapted national language version); They also have their own ritual that goes back to late antiquity and the early Middle Ages.

The church of Toledo maintains the Mozarabic, that of Milan the Ambrosian rite, also known as the old Spanish or Milanese liturgy. In the course of their development, both were influenced by the Roman Missal, albeit to different degrees, but were thoroughly renewed in their own liturgical reform in the wake of the Second Vatican Council .

Today's issues

  • Missale Hispano-Mozarabicum (edited by the Spanish Bishops' Conference and the Archbishop of Toledo). Barcelona 1991.
  • Messale Ambrosiano (ed. By the Archbishop of Milan, Giovanni Cardinal Colombo). Milan 1976 (two vol.).

Historic Missalia

Illustration designation Time of origin Place of origin Remarks
StoweMissalFol001r InitialPage.jpg
Stowe Missal around 750 Ireland the only surviving Celtic missal
Missal from silos 1151 Nájera , Spain oldest surviving Christian paper book
Skara 02.jpg
Missal Scarense around 1150/1160 England or North West France oldest manuscript preserved in Sweden
Saint Bernward of Hildesheim - Google Art Project.jpg
Stammheim Missal around 1170/1180 probably Hildesheim
Missal from Prince Novak 1368 Church Slavonic in Glagolitic script
Hrvoje's missal 1.jpg
Missale glagoliticum Hervoiae ducis Spalatensis 1404 Split Church Slavonic in Glagolitic script
Bohemian Missal 1410 Prague ?
Lusatian Missal 1435 Zittau ?
Missal of the Priest Mavra 1460 Vrbnik , Dalmatia Church Slavonic in Glagolitic script
Missale secundum consuetudinem Romane Curie 1474 Milan Missal for the Roman rite, letterpress
Missale speciale (Constantiense) Initium Canonis Missae.jpg
Missale speciale (formerly Constantiense) after 1473 Basel
Missale parisiense.jpg
Missale Parisiense 1481 Paris for the Archdiocese of Paris , further prints 1487, 1504, 1539, 1555, 1585, 1602
Missale Romanum Glagolitice.jpg
Missale Romanum Glagolitice 1483 Venice ? or Kosinj? Church Slavonic in Glagolitic script
Missale Slesvicense 1.jpg
Missale Slesvicense 1486 Schleswig for Denmark
Missale Aboense 1.jpg
Missal Aboense 1488 Lübeck for Finland
Lusatian Missal 1500 Zittau?
Missale secundum ritum ecclesie Bremense 1511 Bremen for the Archdiocese of Bremen

See also


  • The celebration of Holy Mass. Measurement lecturer. For the dioceses of the German-speaking area. Authentic edition for liturgical use . Herder, Freiburg et al. 1981 etc.
  • M. Sodi - A. Toniolo: Concordantia et Indices Missalis Romani (Editio typica tertia) . Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2002.
  • M. Sodi - A. Toniolo: Praenotanda Missalis Romani. Textus - Concordantia - Appendices (Editio typica tertia) . Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2002.
  • M. Barba: Il Messalo Romano. Tradizione e progresso nella terza edizione tipica . Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2004.
  • M. Barba: Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani. Textus - Synopsis - Variationes . Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Città del Vaticano 2006.
  • Hermann Reifenberg: Mass and missals in the Diocese of Mainz since the Gothic Age, with special emphasis on Würzburg and Bamberg . Aschendorff, Münster 1960.
  • Dominik Daschner: The printed missal books of southern Germany up to the adoption of the Missale Romanum Pius V. (1570) . Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 1995. ISBN 978-3-631-47990-2
  • Emil Joseph Lengeling : Missale Monasteriense 1300-1900: Catalog, texts and comparative studies . Aschendorff, Münster 1995. ISBN 978-3-402-04055-3
  • A. Ward - C. Johnson (edd.): Missalis Romani editio princeps. Mediolani 1474 prelis mandata. Reimpressio vaticani exemplaris introductione aliisque elementis aucta . Ed. Liturgiche, Roma 1996.
  • Ralf van Bühren : The pictorial equipment of the "Missale Romanum" after the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) , in: Liturgical books in the cultural history of Europe (library and science, 51), ed. by Hanns Peter Neuheuser. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2018, pp. 173–181.

Web links

Commons : Missal  - collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Missal  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Angelus A. Häußling OSB: Art. Missal in: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche , 3rd ed., Vol. 7, Sp. 283–286, here Sp. 283 f.
  2. ^ Josef Andreas Jungmann SJ: Missarum Sollemnia. A genetic explanation of the Roman mass . Vol. 1, 5th improved edition, Herder Verlag Wien-Freiburg-Basel 1962, pp. 132f f.
  3. ^ Liturgie.de: Tridentine liturgy. Background information.
  4. Missale Romanum ex decreto SS. Concilii Tridentini restitutum summorum pontificum cura recognitum , Editio 33, post typicam, Pustet Verlag, Ratisbonae (Regensburg), 1959 (55, 832, 228, 36, 37, 4 pages).
  5. Angelus A. Häussling : Missale . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 7 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, Sp. 284 f .
  6. IGMR
  7. AEM
  8. GORM
  9. Angelus Häussling: Missal . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 7 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, Sp. 285 .
  10. Ralf van Bühren , The pictorial equipment of the "Missale Romanum" after the Second Vatican Council , 2018.
  11. For example: Anselm Schott: The Missal of the Holy Church (Latin and German with liturgical explanations). Edited by Pius Bihlmeyer, 33rd edition, Freiburg im Breisgau 1928.