Council of Trent
Council of Trent
December 13, 1545–4. December 1563
|Convened by||Pope Paul III , Pope Julius III. , Pope Pius IV.|
|Attendees||In the last sessions :
6 cardinals , 3 patriarchs ,
25 archbishops , 169 bishops ,
7 religious generals , 7 abbots and
17 teaching and reform decrees
The Council of Trento (Tridentinum) , which the Roman Catholic Church counts as the 19th ecumenical council , took place between 1545 and 1563 in three conference periods (25 sessions). The main reason was the need to respond to the demands and teachings of the Reformation .
It is named after the city of Trento ( Italian Trento , Latin Tridentum ), where the council met - apart from two sessions in Bologna . The council began in Trento on December 13, 1545 and was concluded on December 4, 1563.
The 5th Lateran Council (1512–1517) had begun the church reform , but it essentially failed, so that immediately after its end the reformers' demands for renewal were loud and, especially in the German-speaking area, achieved their enormous widespread effect, which led to unity threatened to divide the Church.
After long diplomatic negotiations with the secular powers that had to ensure peace during the council, Pope Paul III. the council originally announced on November 1, 1542 in Trento. On the one hand, Trento fulfilled the emperor's demand for a council on German soil - Trento was located south of the Alps, but within the empire - and, on the other hand, the Pope's demand for a meeting place relatively close to Rome: Trento could be reached by courier within three days. The Speyer bishop Philipp von Flersheim had proposed the city. Because of the war between the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of France, the invitation to the council had to be postponed to March 15, 1545 (Bull “Laetare Jerusalem ”). It was not really opened until December 13, 1545.
Overview of the process and decisions
At the opening of the council, the question of objectives between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was controversial. The emperor insisted on resolutions for an effective church reform in order to settle the unrest in the empire, while the pope considered a condemnation of Protestant teachings to be urgent. Under the leadership of the Legates Del Monte , Cervini and Pole , the Council Fathers agreed to discuss the related questions of doctrine and the necessary reform measures at the same time.
First Trento conference period (1545–1547)
Around 100 prelates with voting rights and just as many theologians from all the remaining Catholic countries in Europe, except Switzerland, Poland and Hungary, took part. The majority of the participants came from Italy. German bishops were not present. Only the procurators of the Archbishop of Trier and the Bishop of Augsburg took part in the first conference period, albeit in an advisory capacity.
Rules of Procedure
At the beginning of the council there were neither rules of procedure nor a clear program. It only developed gradually, but never uniformly and completely. Freedom of speech was a concern of Paul III from the start. : "At the council everyone is free to express his opinion on matters of faith and morals, even if he advocates a heresy, only he must submit to the judgment of the council." That this freedom was taken seriously is also shown by education of oppositions at the council. It was also quickly clear about the participants and the right to vote: Cardinals, bishops and archbishops, superior general of the mendicant orders and, if only with one vote, the three abbots of the Cassinese congregation were entitled to vote. Episcopal procurators and representatives of other bodies, such as chapters and universities, were excluded from voting. Participants through collaboration were the council theologians of the Congregation for Theology. From January 1547 this congregation replaced the elected deputations for the formulation of the decrees. The Congregation for Theologians preceded the General Congregation of the Council Fathers with voting rights to answer theological questions and controversies.
- Session I.
- Opening session Ceremonial opening, clarification of the question of voting rights and the rules of the council; regarding external protection, housing and price regulation. In addition, the council adopts a code of conduct for the council participants.
- Session II
- Debate on the order of the tasks to be dealt with On the list of topics were above all the definition of Catholic teaching, the reform of the Church and the initiation of peace. After long discussions with one another and with the Pope, the council participants decide to deal with (theological) dogma and (practical church) reform at the same time . So now the "false doctrines" are processed, which are related to the "doctrines of faith".
- Formation of a particular congregation
- In each case three “classes” meet under the chairmanship of a legate in order to discuss the issue to be dealt with in a small group. Only then will it be discussed in the General Congregation.
- Session III
- Decree adopting the Nicaeno-Constantinopolitan Creed
- Session IV
- Decree on Scripture and Tradition Scripture (scriptura) and tradition (traditio) are defined as having equal rights. The council thus opposes the Reformation writing principle “ sola scriptura ” and instead sticks to tradition as the unwritten transmission of belief and custom.
- Vulgate Secret The Latin Vulgate is determined to be the binding version of the Bible . For the council, the Vulgate is considered to have been tried and tested in the Church, among other things because it is reliable and dogmatically conclusive in practical use.
- All Bible editions, Bible explanations and theological books are subjected to preventive censorship in order to prevent the “Word of God” from being misused. A decision on the controversial Bible translations into national languages will not be made.
- Session V
- Decree on (Bible) reading and sermon Both priests and bishops are obliged to preach. Sermons by members of the mendicant orders outside their religious order require the permission of the bishop. Bishops are also given the right to take action against heretical preachers.
- Decree on Original Sin The council states that every human being as descendants of Adam is tainted with original sin from birth . The only exception is Mary, the Mother of God, who was “received immaculately” (Latin: immaculata conceptio ). Only through baptism in Jesus Christ can man be freed from the guilt of original sin. The decree also highlights the need for infant baptism .
- Session VI
- Decree on justification This decree has three levels, the teaching chapter is supplemented by 33 canons. The content is almost identical, because the teaching chapters offer a detailed explanation of the canons.
- 1. The sinner cannot redeem himself, he is dependent on God's grace. But the human being has to participate out of his free will. He must accept God's offer of grace and believe revelation. He must recognize sin, fear, hope and love, want to receive baptism and begin a new life, because baptism here is not only remission of sins, but also sanctification and renewal of man. What is special here is "(...) God's righteousness, not how he is just himself, but how he makes us just."
- 2. The grace of justification grows when man obeys God's commandments. But even if a person was justified with the first justification, he is still capable of sin and must tremble for his eternal salvation. That he can still do it is again only thanks to God's grace.
- 3. The acquired grace of justification can be lost again through any serious sin. However, eternal life can still be obtained if one repents.
- Decree on the residence obligation With this decree the council responds to the maladministration of the accumulation of benefices . In some cases, bishops and priests had never visited their diocese or parish and still received the associated income. With the decree, the council now obliges bishops and priests to observe their pastoral duties associated with benefices. Clergymen who do not meet their residence and visitation obligations are deprived of part of their income. In addition, bishops outside their diocese are only allowed to hold services and consecrations with the permission of the local bishop.
- Session VII
- Decree on the Sacraments The Council Fathers confirm the seven number of sacraments : Baptism , Confirmation , Eucharist , Penance , Anointing of the Sick , Consecration and Marriage .
- In this session, the council goes into the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation in more detail by condemning rebaptism and again establishing Confirmation as an episcopal task.
- Session VIII
- Decision to translate the council to Bologna Trento is not very popular as a conference venue and is no longer safe due to the outbreak of the Schmalkaldic War . The relocation decision is justified, however, with the outbreak of typhus. If the Council Fathers had not voted for a translation ("transfer" to Bologna), the council would most likely have ended at this point.
Bolognese conference period (1547–1549)
The withdrawal to Bologna, in the Papal States, meant a further tightening of the relationship between Pope and Emperor. Only shortly before, before the Emperor's victory over the Schmalkaldic League , Paul III. terminated the alliance with Charles V and withdrew his auxiliaries from the empire. The Pope wanted to support the emperor in subjugating the Protestants, but not let him become too powerful. In order to avoid an even bigger rift in the relationship between the empire and Rome, Paul ordered that no new decrees be published in Bologna, but that the issues should be discussed without an official resolution.
- Session IX
- Debates on the Eucharist and on the canons on the real presence
- Session X
- Discussions and discussions on the canons on the sacrament of penance, the anointing of the sick, consecration and marriage.
- In addition, deputations were formed to discuss the abuses in the celebration of mass and the orders, indulgences, the dispensation of the sacraments and secular violence, but without being able to complete this work.
- In February 1548, after the emperor protested, the Pope ordered the suspension of the Bolognese negotiations. The council was thus formally provisionally closed in September 1549.
- But even without the adoption of reform decrees, the Bolognese negotiations were groundbreaking for the further course of the council, because the basics for many of the later resolutions were already discussed in detail here.
Second Trento conference period (1551–1552)
After his victory over the Schmalkaldic League, Charles V had meanwhile begun to regulate the religious conditions in his empire himself, without the authorization of the Pope. With the Augsburg Interim in 1548, however, it failed due to the resistance of the Protestants and could not bring about church renewal. With the death of Paul III. However, the opportunity arose to revive the council. Julius III. then, in accordance with the wishes of the emperor, had the council resumed in Trento in 1551.
In addition to the participants already mentioned, 13 bishops from Germany and Switzerland were also present for the first time, as well as envoys from the Protestant imperial estates of Brandenburg , Württemberg , Strasbourg and Electoral Saxony . The predominance of the Italians was broken, the strongest group now formed the Spaniards, only then the Italians, then the Germans.
- Session XI
- Inauguration of the council on May 1, 1551 by President Marcello Crescenzio .
- Session XII
- The Council Fathers decided to publish a decree on the Eucharist in the following session XIII and to negotiate questions about reform.
- Session XIII
- Eucharistic decree In eleven canons and eight doctrinal chapters, the decree confirmed the real presence of Jesus in the Eucharist. The teaching that Jesus was only present when receiving the Eucharist (communion) was condemned . In addition, the council established the concept of transubstantiation as an appropriate expression for the change of essence. It was also allowed to keep the consecrated hosts to bring them to the sick, as well as the self-communion of the priests.
- The decision on communion under both forms, however, was postponed.
- Decree on the supervision of bishops over the morals of their subordinates and on procedural procedures
- Among other things, it was about the appeal of the courts in criminal and dismissal processes: In legal proceedings against bishops, if they are to be dismissed or to be removed from their office, the Pope is entitled to a decision.
- In addition: The Protestants present were granted safe conduct . So they could come and go unhindered. Furthermore, they had the right to present their articles in writing and orally, but they were unable to freely practice their religion in Trento.
- Session XIV
- Decree on the Sacrament of Penance The penance is done as part of the memory of their own baptism. It consists of repentance (contritio) , confession (confessio) and satisfaction (satisfactio) . The Council Fathers also demanded that all serious sins be confessed since baptism. The priestly absolution after penance was considered a judicial act.
- Decree on the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick or “Last Unction” The anointing of the sick was confirmed as a sacrament instituted by Christ. According to the teaching of the council, she lifts the sick again, gives them grace and eradicates sins.
- Decree on ordination, office and patronage law Among other things , the decree contains an improvement in patronage law , which entitles the holder to make decisions or participate in the filling of clerical posts. The council forbade the granting of patronage rights as a personal benefit (ex gratia) without actually building and equipping a church. In addition, the council stated that the main building load for the maintenance of a church lies with the patron, even before the contributions of the parishioners.
- Those who came to the monastery , on the other hand, were not entirely abolished.
- Session XV
- The Council Fathers promised the Protestants improved safe conduct. However, there were no theological disputes because, apart from Kurbrandenburg, the ambassadors refused to negotiate with the council presidium as long as their conditions for recognition of the council were not met. They demanded a free council not led by the Pope and a new debate on the doctrinal decisions that had already been made. However, the council wanted to avoid this and the negotiations continued to be postponed.
- Session XVI
- Suspension decision The council was adjourned indefinitely. Fear of the outbreak of war caused the German participants to leave, and the Council President Crescenzio was also seriously ill.
The council withdrew for the second time without any results worth mentioning. Only in teaching did the council members make decisions. The actual goals - the elimination of heresies, the unity of Christians in Germany or a fundamental Catholic reform - were not achieved. In addition, decrees that had already been passed were not yet binding because they had not been confirmed by the Pope.
Third Trento conference period (1562–1563)
Only Pius IV convened the council again. The convocation ten years after the suspension was not justified this time with the German problem, but with a French one. For Rome feared that the Reformation could prevail with the Calvinists in France. Acceptance of the call to the council was delayed: while Spain under Philip II was in favor of a continuation of the council, Ferdinand I and France spoke out in favor of a new council - Germany out of consideration for the Protestants, who feared for the continuation of the Augsburg religious peace, France hoping to find a compromise with the Huguenot party with a new councilto accomplish. Ultimately, the Council call was interpretable for both sides, and so they agreed, albeit hesitantly, to be appointed.
199 cardinals and bishops, 7 abbots and 7 generals - envoys of Protestant imperial estates waived their participation.
- Session XVII
- On January 18, 1562 the council was opened under the cardinals Gonzaga and Seripando .
- Session XVIII
- Decree on the selection of books Paul IV's Roman index was to be revised and a deputation was formed for this purpose. Authors affected by the index had the opportunity to defend themselves before the council.
- Furthermore, the council issued a free passage , also for those affected by the Inquisition, initially only for Germans (Protestants), then it was extended to all other nations.
- Sessio XIX and Sessio XX
- In these meetings, only adjournment decisions were made, because a crisis was looming on the issue of the residence obligation, which was taken up again. Half of the participants wanted to reduce the compulsory attendance to divine law (ius divinum) . However, this would have severely restricted the Pope's options for action. Pius IV saw the debate as an attack on his office and ultimately forbade it to continue.
- Session XXI
- Decree on communion in both forms Lay people and priests who do not read mass are not obliged by divine right to communicate under both forms of bread and wine; children do not have to take part in communion at all. In this context it was pointed out that in each of the two elements all of Christ is present. The decree also stated that the church could make rules on the distribution of the elements and prohibit the lay chalice. The final clarification of the lay chalice question was referred to the Pope by the council.
- Decree against maladministration in the diocesan area This reform decree deals with the granting of ordinations, the establishment of new parishes, the annual visitation of all benefices by the bishop and the fact that the indulgence should now be awarded free of charge.
- Session XXII
- Mass Offering Decree In the Mass Offering the atonement of Christ becomes present. It is offered by Christ himself through the ministry of the priest.
- It was also stated that the canon of the liturgy is “free from error” (Chapter 4), and that its celebration in honor of saints is permissible, since the sacrifice is offered to God alone.
- Furthermore, the private mass remains allowed, the use of the vernacular was rejected as inappropriate.
- Session XXIII
- Decree on the Sacrament of Ordination After the deaths of Gonzaga and Seripando, the council continued its work under Giovanni Morone . First the sacrament of ordination was confirmed as instituted by Christ. The council set the canonical age for receiving higher orders and required the establishment of seminaries . There should be at least one seminary in every diocese, which should primarily train poor priest candidates.
- The “new” residence decree After months of discussions and conflicts about the bishops' residence obligation, the council established the residence obligation as a divine right. If these are neglected, the bishop should expect heavy penalties.
- Session XXIV
- Tametsi Decree on the Sacrament of Marriage The Tametsi decree stipulates that spouses should mutually administer the sacrament of marriage to one another. However, their validity is only recognized if a marriage is carried out with a previous public announcement by a priest in the presence of several witnesses and the entry is made in the marriage register or in the trauma register. The church has the right to set up and name obstacles to marriage. Pastors were obliged to keep baptismal and trauma records (church records) .
- In addition: The council participants now also increasingly turned to internal church reform. In the reform decree of this session norms for the procedure of the appointment of bishops were laid down and the powers of the bishops vis-à-vis religious orders and other bodies were expanded when it came to pastoral matters. Other focal points were the episcopal visitations and the occupation of parishes .
- Session XXV
- The last session of the Council of Trent was brought forward and under time pressure. The Pope was seriously ill, and without him the council would have had to be broken off. For this reason, the outstanding issues were dealt with in a hurry.
- Decree on the place of purification The council emphasized the doctrine of the existence of a place of purification . The souls who are in so-called purgatory can be helped through intercession and mass offerings. However, superstitious and profitable practices such as the indulgence trade were condemned and banned .
- Decree on the veneration of saints saints and their relics are worthy of respect , just like their pictures; especially images of Christ, the Theotokos and other saints. Christian art is not just about objects of piety, rather it also supports church proclamation. For this reason it should not contain anything unusual, profane or immoral.
- Decree on indulgences The church has the power to grant indulgences . However, indulgences should not be awarded profitably; action should be taken against this immediately. Other abuses should be compiled by the bishops and forwarded to the Pope.
- Decree on the reform of the orders The Council Fathers dealt with both women's and men's monasteries in their decisions. Standards for the admission of new members were established. In addition, the decree contains provisions on the restoration of community life, the novitiate, the abolition of private property, the cloister of nuns and the proper election of religious superiors.
- Decree on the Duties of Bishops This decree contains instructions on how to conduct visitations and manage ecclesiastical hospitals. The reorganization of the patronage law was taken up again and the procedure against concubinarians was explained.
- The index of dangerous and suspicious books , the catechism , the missal and the breviary could not be completed . It was decided to hand over everything that had been worked out to the Pope so that he could complete it.
- Conclusion of the council On December 4th, 1563, the council was solemnly closed in the Cathedral of Trento. The decrees were read out and officially accepted with the signature of the Council Fathers. All documents were confirmed orally in January 1564 and in writing on June 30, 1564 by the bull "Benedictus Deus" from Pope Pius IV .
After the conclusion of the council, the popes worked to implement and complete many of the resolutions. As early as March 1564, Pius IV invited the bishops present in Rome to reside in their dioceses. In addition, the first diocesan synods and episcopal visits were held. The orders brought their constitutions into line with the decisions of the council, and the index of forbidden books was published. The unfinished writings given to the Pope by the Council - the Catechism , the Breviary and the Missal - were revised under Pope Pius V (1565–1572).. He commissioned visitors to visit the dioceses. In addition, many provincial and diocesan synods were held during his tenure. In addition to the establishment of a large number of seminaries for the priests, schools were also set up which deliberately gave Catholic religious instruction. Gregory XIII. (1572–1585) set up reform nunciatures in Upper and Lower Germany and in Switzerland. He expanded Rome and, with the support of colleges, made it the center of Catholic science and clerical education for the whole church. Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590)reorganized the papal finances and reorganized the Roman Curia. For example, he set up a permanent congregation of cardinals and increased the number of cardinals from 24 to 70. In addition, Sixtus V urged all bishops to give regular, personal reports in Rome. In addition to structural innovations in the Vatican (including the obelisk on St. Peter's Square and the dome on St. Peter's Basilica) , he himself edited the Vulgate and published it as the Vulgate Sixtina , which, however, was replaced by a new version, the Sixto-Clementina , after his death .
Contrary to popular opinion, the council made a large number of dogmatic decisions, but relatively few practical ones. Only from the post-Tridentine phase of implementation did numerous obvious changes result, which, however, often attributed to the council itself, belong to the history of the council's reception .
Effects of the council
The most important actual practical decisions of the Council of Trent include, for example:
- Abolition of abuses in indulgence
- Prohibition of the accumulation of offices in the episcopate
- Establishment of seminaries for the better training of pastors (not implemented across the board until the 19th century)
- Introduction of the formal requirement for marriages: marriages must be concluded in the presence of witnesses before a priest.
The following changes in the church architecture are not decided by the council, but are to be regarded as an indirect effect of the council:
- Visibility of the high altar as the liturgical center of the entire church space (on the other hand, in the Middle Ages the presbytery and nave were separated by rood screens, so that only the rood altar was visible in the nave and the main altar in the presbytery)
- Storage of the holy of holies in the tabernacle on the altars, from the 19th century primarily on the high altar (in the Middle Ages, side sacrament houses or niches in the presbytery were common)
- Installation of benches in the nave (sermon and instruction were given greater weight)
- Installation of confessionals in the nave
These changes in the church space, as well as those of the external appearance of Roman Catholic church buildings, are to be seen in the context of the reception of the Council of Trent.
Post Tridentine Reforms
In their last session, the Council Fathers asked the Pope to approve the conciliar decrees and charged him with their implementation and implementation. The council resolutions would have remained “largely paper” had it not been for a reform-minded papacy to implement them. In addition to the points mentioned above, this includes:
- (1564) Professio fidei Tridentina : Confession which should be made by every spiritual minister (and which included obedience to the Pope);
- (1564) Index librorum prohibitorum : Directory of forbidden books;
- (1566) Catechism Romanus : the Roman Catechism ;
- (1568) Breviarum Romanum : an improved breviary (book of hours);
- (1570) Missal Romanum : a missal that unifies the Latin Mass liturgy (only allowing a few local peculiarities if these have existed for several centuries);
- Establishment of a college of cardinals for the authentic interpretation of the Council's decisions;
- under Pope Gregory XIII. (1572–1585) Instruction to the nuncios to monitor the observance of the council resolutions in the respective country.
300 year celebration
In 1845 a 300th anniversary of the council took place in Trento by the prince-bishop Johann Nepomuk von Tschiderer , who was beatified there .
Theologically clarifying, but explosive towards the Lutherans were u. a. the decree on the canonical writings , which made the Catholic canon binding and emphasized the importance of tradition as a source of divine revelation , and that on the doctrine of justification . A joint declaration by the Roman Catholic Church and the Lutheran World Federation was issued in 1999 on the latter . A contemporary criticism of the Curia and striving for church reform is in the work of the Italian religious Paolo Sarpi clearly, who as one of the first ecumenists decidedly advocated an understanding between Protestants and Catholics.
- Josef Wohlmuth (ed.): Decrees of the ecumenical councils. Vol. 3: Councils of Modern Times. Paderborn 2002. Decrees in Latin and German translation
- Concilium Tridentinum. Diariorum, actorum, epistularum, tractatuum nova collectio. Edited by the Görres Society , 13 volumes, Freiburg 1901–2001. Source edition in original language
- Hubert Jedin: History of the Council of Trent. Vol. 2, Freiburg i. Br. 1957.
- Heinrich Denzinger, Adolf Schönmetzer (eds.): Enchiridion symbolorum definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum: Compendium of creeds and church teaching decisions. Latin-German, 35th edition, Freiburg i. Br. 1973.
- Ekkehard Mühlenberg: Art. Patronage , in: TRE 26, p. 109.
- Hubert Jedin : Origin and scope of the Trent decree on the veneration of images. In: Tübingen Theological Quarterly. 116, 1935, pp. 143-188, pp. 404-429.
- Georg Schreiber : The World Council of Trento. His becoming and working. 2 volumes. Freiburg 1951.
- Hubert Jedin: History of the Council of Trent. 4 volumes. Freiburg im Breisgau 1949–1975.
- Remigius Bäumer (Ed.): Concilium Tridentinum (= ways of research 313). WBG, Darmstadt 1979.
- Giuseppe Alberigo (ed.): History of the councils. From the Nicaenum to the Vaticanum II. Wiesbaden 1998, pp. 349–383.
- Paolo Prodi (ed.): The Council of Trento and the modern age. Writings of the Italian-German Historical Institute in Trient 16. Berlin 2001.
- John W. O'Malley: Trent. What happened at the council. Cambridge 2013.
- Gerhard Müller : Art. Tridentinum , in: TRE. 34, pp. 62-74.
- Erwin Iserloh, Josef Glazik, Hubert Jedin: Reformation, Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation. Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte IV. Freiburg 1967, pp. 485–533.
- Ralf van Bühren : Church building in Renaissance and Baroque. Liturgical reforms and their consequences for spatial planning, liturgical disposition and image furnishing after the Council of Trent , in: Operation on the living object. Rome's liturgical reforms from Trent to Vatican II, ed. by Stefan Heid, Berlin 2014, pp. 93–119.
- Hanns-Paul Ties: On the importance of the Council of Trent for the art of its time. Materials and open questions. In: Birgit Ulrike Münch, Andreas Tacke, Markwart Herzog, Sylvia Heudecker (Eds.): Of short duration? Case studies on temporary pre-modern art centers (Kunsthistorisches Forum Irsee, vol. 3). Petersberg 2016, pp. 103–125.
- Peter Walter, Günther Wassilowsky (ed.): The Council of Trient and the Catholic confessional culture (1563-2013). Scientific symposium on the occasion of the 450th anniversary of the conclusion of the Council of Trento, Freiburg i. Br. September 18-21, 2013 (Reformation history studies and texts 163), Münster 2016.
- Mathias Mütel: With the Church Fathers against Martin Luther? The debates about tradition and auctoritas patrum at the Council of Trient , Paderborn 2017 (= Council history . Series B., investigations)
- Hermine Stiefenhöfer: Philipp von Flersheim, Bishop of Speyer and prince provost of Weißenburg . Pilger-Verlag , Speyer 1941.
- Text decree Tametsi, German translation , accessed January 11, 2013.
- Ralf van Bühren : Church building in the Renaissance and Baroque. Liturgical reforms and their consequences for spatial planning, liturgical disposition and image decoration after the Council of Trent , 2014.
- After Johannes Wallmann : Church history in Germany since the Reformation . 7th edition, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2012 (UTB; 1355), ISBN 978-3-8252-3731-8 , p. 117 f.
- Andreea Badea: Interpretation sovereignty over Trento? Sforza Pallavicino versus Sarpi and the Roman Administration of Remembrance in the 17th Century . In: Peter Walter , Günther Wassilowsky (ed.): The Council of Trient and the Catholic confessional culture (1563–2013) . Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 2016, ISBN 978-3-402-11587-9 , pp. 83-106.