List of ecumenical councils
This list of ecumenical councils includes the generally recognized councils. Ecumenical (Greek: οἰκουμένη oikoumene "the (whole) inhabited (sc. Earth)", "world") means in this sense a worldwide acceptance of the Council's resolutions. The generally recognized ecumenical councils are accepted by the Orthodox Churches and the Roman Catholic Church . The Protestant churches generally do not have a fixed list of recognized councils, but recognize the results of the first four councils from the first five centuries.
This list also includes the councils of the Roman Catholic Church that were no longer accepted by the Orthodox Church. Since they apply to the entire global Roman Catholic Church, these are also called ecumenical councils.
The Eastern Orthodox churches only recognize the councils up to Ephesus or Chalcedon.
Generally recognized ecumenical councils
Further ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church
|869||Constantinople IV||Photius schism||
|1123||Lateran I||Investiture controversy , crusade||Calixt II.|
|1139||Lateran II||Arnold of Brescia||Innocent II|
|1179||Lateran III||Albigensians , Waldensians||Alexander III|
|1215||Lateran IV||Crusade, dealing with heretics,
marriage obstacles , church wedding,
schism , analogy
|1245||Lyon I||Friedrich II. , Crusade||
Louis the Saint
|1274||Lyon II||Union Council, d. H. Attempted reconciliation between the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Church:
two points of contention were the poenis purgatoriae / purgatorium , which was named magisterial for the first time in the Council, and the emergence of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son ( Filioque ).
|1311-1313||Council of Vienne||Abolition of the Knights Templar , confirmation of Corpus Christi||
Jan Hus , Wyclif
End of the Great Western Schism through the election of Martin V.
|1431-1449||Council of Basel / Ferrara / Florence||Religious peace with the supporters of Jan Hus
Theological Union with the Greek Orthodox Church, which was not accepted
|1512-1517||Lateran V||Reform proposals to expand episcopal power over the papal. The council served as a concession to the conciliar movement .||
Counter-Reformation and Catholic reform , decree on original sin, decree on justification (divine grace and human cooperation, contrary to the Reformation principle sola gratia ),
decree on the sacraments, residence obligation for bishops, establishment of seminaries.
Plan to develop a uniform missal (Roman Missal from 1570)
|1869-1870||Vatican I.||Infallibility and primacy of jurisdiction of the Pope||
about 700 Council Fathers
Dialogue with people of different faith
Apostolate of the lay
Church in today's world
Freedom of religion
a total of around 2500 Council Fathers, as well as 315–450 theological advisors , and observers from other churches
- Klaus Schatz: General Councils - Focal Points of Church History, Paderborn ²2008.