Gregory XII.

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Gregory XII. in Schedel's world chronicle

Gregory XII. (* around 1335 in Venice ; † October 18, 1417 in Recanati ; originally Angelo Correr ) was Pope from November 30, 1406 to July 4,  1415 . In the years before, from 1390 to 1406, he was the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople .


Angelo Correr came from a Venetian patrician family and was the son of Niccolo di Pietro Correr and his wife Polissena. After studying in Bologna in 1377, he was appointed dean of the cathedral chapter of Corone , which belonged to the Venetian domain. 1380 he was appointed Bishop of Castello chosen was 1390, the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople Opel awarded, held in the following years, often at the Curia in Rome and was in 1405 the Rector of the brands named by Pope Innocent VII. To Cardinal priests charged.

His pontificate is shaped by the occidental schism . The twelve-day conclave in November 1406, which Gregory XII. elected was under the sign of this division of the church: 14 of 18 cardinals had appeared and they all swore in the conclave before the election to stand for the union of the church and, if necessary, to lay down the tiara . Against this background, the aged Patriarch of Venice Angelo Correr was elected Pope on November 30, 1406.

Pope Gregory, who after Gregory XI. called because this brought the papacy back from Avignon to Rome, initially wanted to meet with antipope Benedict XIII. meet in Savona , but the Pope's nephews feared that the decrepit Gregory was not up to his opponent and therefore prevented the meeting. Also the kings Sigismund of Hungary and Ladislaus of Naples , son of the murdered Charles III. , did not want this meeting, because they feared a renewed strength of the French influence on the papacy.

On March 25, 1409, seven cardinals of Pope Gregory and seventeen of Pope Benedict met in Pisa for a council , deposed the two popes of Rome and Avignon and elected the Archbishop of Milan, Petros Philargis de Candia , as Alexander V. the chair of Peter. Alexander V's successor was Baldassare Cossa in 1410 as Johannes XXIII.

In 1411 the Hungarian King Sigismund also became King of Germany. One of his plans was to end the schism for good. He promised himself the imperial crown from this. Sigismund met Pope Johannes in Lodi on December 10, 1413 and forced him to convene a council in Constance . Pope Gregory abdicated on July 4, 1415 to make a new election possible at the council.

As the only one of the three popes claiming legitimacy at that time, John XXIII. participate in this church meeting. However, he fled from Constance to Freiburg on March 20, 1415 and was declared deposed by the council on May 29, 1415. After his capture in Breisach, he was arrested until the new Pope was elected. In Perpignan , King Sigismund tried unsuccessfully to persuade Pope Benedict to abdicate. But the council deposed Benedict, who had refused to go to Constance at all, on July 26, 1417. In Constance, Oddo di Colonna was elected as Martin V as the only legitimate Pope.

After his resignation as Pope, Gregory XII. appointed Bishop of Macerata and Cardinal Bishop of Frascati and Porto . He died in 1417 and was buried in the Cathedral of San Flaviano in Recanati.

Popes of the Western Schism
Johannes XXIII. (Gegenpapst) Johannes XXIII. (Gegenpapst) Alexander V. (Gegenpapst) Martin V. Gregor XII. Innozenz VII. Innozenz VII. Bonifatius IX. Urban VI. Gregor XI. Benedikt XIII. (Gegenpapst) Clemens VII. (Gegenpapst)
Map of the territorial situation of the European schism from 1378 to 1417 .


Web links

Commons : Gregory XII.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ansgar Frenken: Gregor XII. In: Karl-Heinz Braun, Mathias Herweg, Hans W. Hubert, Joachim Schneider, Thomas Zotz (eds.): The Council of Constance. Essays. 1414-1418. World event of the Middle Ages . Theiss Verlag, Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-8062-2849-6 , pp. 116–120, here pp. 116–117.
predecessor Office successor
Innocent VII Pope
Martin V.
Pierre Girard de Puy Cardinal Bishop of Frascati
Baldassare Cossa
Ludwig von Bar Cardinal Bishop of Porto
Antonio II Correr