Gregory XII. (* around 1335 in Venice ; † October 18, 1417 in Recanati ; originally Angelo Correr ) was Pope from November 30, 1406 to July 4, 1415 . In the years before, from 1390 to 1406, he was the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople .
Angelo Correr came from a Venetian patrician family and was the son of Niccolo di Pietro Correr and his wife Polissena. After studying in Bologna in 1377, he was appointed dean of the cathedral chapter of Corone , which belonged to the Venetian domain. 1380 he was appointed Bishop of Castello chosen was 1390, the Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople Opel awarded, held in the following years, often at the Curia in Rome and was in 1405 the Rector of the brands named by Pope Innocent VII. To Cardinal priests charged.
His pontificate is shaped by the occidental schism . The twelve-day conclave in November 1406, which Gregory XII. elected was under the sign of this division of the church: 14 of 18 cardinals had appeared and they all swore in the conclave before the election to stand for the union of the church and, if necessary, to lay down the tiara . Against this background, the aged Patriarch of Venice Angelo Correr was elected Pope on November 30, 1406.
Pope Gregory, who after Gregory XI. called because this brought the papacy back from Avignon to Rome, initially wanted to meet with antipope Benedict XIII. meet in Savona , but the Pope's nephews feared that the decrepit Gregory was not up to his opponent and therefore prevented the meeting. Also the kings Sigismund of Hungary and Ladislaus of Naples , son of the murdered Charles III. , did not want this meeting, because they feared a renewed strength of the French influence on the papacy.
On March 25, 1409, seven cardinals of Pope Gregory and seventeen of Pope Benedict met in Pisa for a council , deposed the two popes of Rome and Avignon and elected the Archbishop of Milan, Petros Philargis de Candia , as Alexander V. the chair of Peter. Alexander V's successor was Baldassare Cossa in 1410 as Johannes XXIII.
In 1411 the Hungarian King Sigismund also became King of Germany. One of his plans was to end the schism for good. He promised himself the imperial crown from this. Sigismund met Pope Johannes in Lodi on December 10, 1413 and forced him to convene a council in Constance . Pope Gregory abdicated on July 4, 1415 to make a new election possible at the council.
As the only one of the three popes claiming legitimacy at that time, John XXIII. participate in this church meeting. However, he fled from Constance to Freiburg on March 20, 1415 and was declared deposed by the council on May 29, 1415. After his capture in Breisach, he was arrested until the new Pope was elected. In Perpignan , King Sigismund tried unsuccessfully to persuade Pope Benedict to abdicate. But the council deposed Benedict, who had refused to go to Constance at all, on July 26, 1417. In Constance, Oddo di Colonna was elected as Martin V as the only legitimate Pope.
- Ansgar Frenken: Gregor XII. In: Karl-Heinz Braun, Mathias Herweg, Hans W. Hubert, Joachim Schneider, Thomas Zotz (eds.): The Council of Constance. Essays. 1414-1418. World event of the Middle Ages . Theiss Verlag, Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-8062-2849-6 , pp. 116-120.
- Gherardo Ortalli: Gregorio XII, papa. In: Mario Caravale (ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 59: Graziano – Grossi Gondi. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2002.
- Gherardo Ortalli: Gregorio XII. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi. Volume 2: Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2000, pp. 584-593 ( treccani.it ).
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : GREGOR XII., Pope. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 322-323.
- Michael Ott: Pope Gregory XII (ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). . In: Catholic Encyclopedia , Volume 7, Robert Appleton Company, New York 1910.
- Publications on Gregory XII. in the opac of the Regesta Imperii
- Literature by and about Gregory XII. in the catalog of the German National Library
- Entry to Gregory XII. on catholic-hierarchy.org
- Ansgar Frenken: Gregor XII. In: Karl-Heinz Braun, Mathias Herweg, Hans W. Hubert, Joachim Schneider, Thomas Zotz (eds.): The Council of Constance. Essays. 1414-1418. World event of the Middle Ages . Theiss Verlag, Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-8062-2849-6 , pp. 116–120, here pp. 116–117.
|Pierre Girard de Puy||
Cardinal Bishop of Frascati
|Ludwig von Bar||
Cardinal Bishop of Porto
|Antonio II Correr|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Correr, Angelo; Corrario, Angelo|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Pope (1406-1415)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1335|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Venice|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 18, 1417|
|Place of death||Recanati|