|surface||9,694.06 km² ( 15. )|
|Residents||1,518,400 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||157 inhabitants / km²|
|president||Luca Ceriscioli ( PD )|
Relief map of the Marche region
The Marche ( Italian Marche ) are a region in central Italy . They lie between the Adriatic and the Apennines . In the north, the Marche borders on Emilia-Romagna and the Republic of San Marino , in the south on Abruzzo , and to the west are Tuscany , Umbria and Lazio . The region has an area of 9694 square kilometers and 1,518,400 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). It consists of the provinces of Ancona , Ascoli Piceno , Fermo , Macerata and Pesaro-Urbino . The capital is Ancona .
The brands are geographically divided into three parts. In the eastern part, on the Adriatic, there are coastal plains with the three cities of Ancona , Pesaro and Fano . To the west, in places immediately behind the coast, rises the hill country with the old towns of Urbino and Ascoli Piceno . The border with Umbria is formed by the Umbrian-Markesian Apennines on the border with Umbria, the highest point of which is the 2476 meter high Monte Vettore . The Abruzzo Apennines join in the southwest.
Place of pilgrimage
The great rivers of the Marche flow through the valleys named after them from the Apennines into the Adriatic. From north to south the Foglia flow into the port of Pesaro, the Metauro east of Fano, the Cesano near Cesano, part of Senigallia , the Misa in Senigallia, the Esino near Falconara Marittima , the Potenza near Porto Recanati , the Chienti south of Civitanova Marche , the Tenna near Porto Sant'Elpidio , the Aso near Pedaso and the Tronto south of San Benedetto del Tronto as the border river between the Marche and Abruzzo in the Adriatic Sea.
More than 30 sites (as of 2005) of artefacts from early human history range in the Marche from the Old Paleolithic (Contrada Paradiso in Jesi , Dorsale di Cingoli, Monte Conero , Ager cuprensis, “La Quercia”) to the Middle (warm period) Boccabianca, sites in the Esino and Potency valleys) up to the Upper Paleolithic . There is a large temporal gap between the settlement by Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals of the Moustérien and Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnon . During the last glacial period , human traces can also be found during the period of maximum ice expansion, namely on the eastern edge of the brand chain. There lived a particularly large number of people whose traces can be found in caves and abri , but also in the gorges of Rossa and Sentino. The Mesolithic , the phase of the last hunter cultures that existed several millennia after the last glacial period, is only represented by a single site, namely Pieve Torina .
The Marche area was inhabited by a rural population in the Neolithic . Important sites are the settlements of Monte Cappone, Castel Rosino or Coppetella. Finds near Tolentino show Mycenaean influence from the early 2nd millennium BC . In the early history, which can now be grasped by written sources, the Picenians lived in the Marche and northern Abruzzo. Extensive trade shaped their culture. Goods from the Etruscan region came to the Marche, as did Attic ceramics . Outstanding here is the alabastron with black-figure painting from the 6th century BC. Chr., In the Monteroberto was discovered or cylix , which is attributed to the painter of Ancona (460 v. Chr.), And from the cemetery of Pianello originates. Syracuse managed to found a colony with Ancona. Around 500 BC One of the oldest bronze sculptures in Italy was created with the Hercules of Castelbellino.
In Roman times, the Marche area belonged to Umbria et Ager Gallicus and Picenum . The Picenians, 299 BC Allied with Rome, after a defection from the Romans under Publius Sempronius Sophus in 269/68 BC. The Picenian capital, Asculum, was conquered. In the course of the Confederate War of the years 90 to 89 BC The Picenians received Roman citizenship .
The term "Marken" arose from the term Mark for a border area of the Holy Roman Empire . The name Marca appears for the first time in the Carolingian period, as Marca Fermana for the mountainous part of Picenum , Marca Camerinese for the northern area that included part of Umbria , and Marca Anconitana for the former Pentapolis .
In 1080 Robert Guiskard received the Marca Anconitana as a fief from Gregory VII , to whom Countess Mathilde von Tuszien ceded the brands Camerino and Fermo. It is documented for 1105 that Henry IV awarded the entire territory of the three brands under the name of Mark Ancona . Then it fell again to the church and was used as part of the Papal States by papal legate managed.
The Marches became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860 . On 4th / 5th November 1860 133,807 eligible voters for annexation to Italy, only 1212 against.
Administration and economy
The Marche region consists of the five provinces: As of December 31, 2019
(December 31, 2019)
density (inh / km²)
|Ascoli Piceno||Ascoli Piceno||IT-AP||33||206.363||1,228.23||168|
|Pesaro and Urbino||Pesaro||IT-PU||53||357.137||2,564.21||139|
When compared with the gross domestic product of the European Union, expressed in purchasing power standards , the region achieved an index of 93 in 2015 (EU-28: 100). With a value of 0.896, Marken ranks 7th among the 21 regions and autonomous provinces of Italy in the Human Development Index .
In 2017 the unemployment rate was 10.6%.
Flora and fauna, protected areas
- Convegno di studi storici Federico Barbarossa, Ancona e le Marche. Ancona, April 19-20, 1969 , Arti grafiche Città di Castello, Città di Castello 1972.
- Gino Luzzatto : Per una storia economica delle Marche. Scritti e note in Le Marche, 1902-1908 , edited by Paolo Giannotti, QuattroVenti, Urbino 1988.
- Michele Millozzi: Storia e storici delle Marche (1796-1966) , Deputazione di storia patria per le Marche, 1998.
- Gabriella Santoncini: L'unificazione nazionale nelle Marche. L'attività del Regio commissario generale straordinario Lorenzo Valerio: 12 September 1860-18 gennaio 1861 , Giuffrè, 2008.
- Roger Willemsen : The brands. An Adriatic cultural landscape between Urbino, Loreto and Ascoli Piceno. DuMont Reiseverlag, Ostfildern 1998.
- Web presence of the Marche region (Italian)
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Alberto Calvelli: Paleolitico , antiqui.it.
- Alberto Broglio, Mauro Coltorti, Marco Peresani, Mara Silvestrini: Il Paleolitico delle Marche , in: La Preistoria delle Marche. Atti XXVIII Riunione Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria , Florence 2005, pp. 25–51.
- Francesco Palestini: Studi sulle origini e sulla protostoria dell'odierna San Benedetto del Tronto , Rome 2016, p. 330.
- Mario Luni: Archeologia nelle Marche: dalla preistoria all'età tardoantica , Banca delle Marche, 2003, p. 177.
- Jörg Fisch: The right of peoples to self-determination or the domestication of an illusion. Beck, Munich 2010, p. 125, Table 3: “The plebiscites in connection with the Italian unification, 1860-1870”.
- Eurostat. Retrieved April 15, 2018 .
- Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved August 12, 2018 .
- Unemployment rate, by NUTS 2 regions. Retrieved November 5, 2018 .