|Repubblica di San Marino|
|Republic of San Marino|
|Motto : Libertas ( Latin for "freedom")|
|Form of government||republic|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||Foreign Minister Nicola Renzi|
|population||33,420 (February 29, 2020)|
|Population density||546.2 inhabitants per km²|
gross domestic product
|currency||Euro (EUR), Scudo only used for commemorative coins|
|founding||September 3, 301|
(from the Roman Empire )
|National anthem||Inno Nazionale della Repubblica|
|National holiday||September 3|
UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
|ISO 3166||SM , SMR, 674|
San Marino (officially Republic of San Marino , Italian Repubblica di San Marino , nickname La Serenissima , `` the most exalted '' ) is probably the oldest existing republic in the world with a history that, according to tradition, dates back to the year 301 when it was founded by Saint Marinus going back. It is completely surrounded by Italy as an enclave and lies between the regions of Emilia-Romagna ( Province of Rimini ) and Marche ( Province of Pesaro and Urbino ), near the Adriatic coast near Rimini . With an area of around 60 square kilometers, San Marino is the fifth smallest state in the world and is one of the six European dwarf states and one of the smallest states on earth in terms of population with a population of around 30,000. The capital is the city of the same name , the official language is Italian.
The rock ridge of the UNESCO World Heritage belonging Monte Titano crown the three forts Guaita , Cesta and Montale . The state is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Council of Europe and the Latin Union , but not the European Union , but still uses the euro as its currency. In terms of nominal GDP per capita, San Marino is one of the richest countries in the world, has no national debt and one of the lowest unemployment rates in the world.
The country is often mistakenly viewed as a city-state, but does not match the characteristics of such a state. The Republic of San Marino is located on the eastern roof of the Etruscan Apennines . The central area of the country is almost completely traversed in a north-south direction by the steeply sloping, approximately seven-kilometer-long limestone ridge of Monte Titano , which, at 739 meters, is the highest point in the republic. The lowest point is the Torrente Ausa at 55 meters. San Marino is located at 43 ° 56 'North and 12 ° 27' East. The national territory has approximately the shape of an irregular pentagon and is mostly hilly. It is 61.19 square kilometers. The border with Italy is 39 kilometers long. Two larger rivers have their source in the national territory: the Ausa and the Fiumicello . Furthermore, the rivers San Marino and Marano flow through the country, which borders on the two Italian regions of Emilia-Romagna in the northeast and Marken in the southwest. The capital San Marino is located on the Titano .
In San Marino there is a Mediterranean climate , which is somewhat cooler here than on the nearby coast due to the altitude. In summer the temperatures are between 20 ° C and 32 ° C, in winter between −2 ° C and 10 ° C. In warm summers, temperatures also rise to 35 ° C. In winter the temperature occasionally drops below −5 ° C. Then it can snow on Monte Titano. The rain falls evenly over the year, a total of about 550 millimeters per year.
Flora and fauna
The steep slopes of Monte Titano and the hilly landscape around the mountain range are relatively densely forested and bear the typical Mediterranean vegetation . It includes deciduous deciduous forest with maple and elm and evergreen trees with holm oaks and pines ; laurel , myrtle and lavender bushes as well as strawberry and olive trees grow in the evergreen scrub forest, the maquis .
The animal world of the country primarily includes species that are considered to be the cultural followers of humans and as such can also be found in the vicinity of human settlements. These include foxes , hares , hedgehogs and martens . Other species, such as deer and weasel, prefer the more dense forest areas as habitat. The bird fauna is rich in species. Falcons breed in rock niches or on tall trees, while songbirds include the nightingale , oriole , goldfinch , serpentine and linnet among others .
The residents of San Marino are ethnic Italians . Today, 83.1% San Marino citizens and 12% Italian citizens live in San Marino.
San Marino has 33,420 inhabitants (as of February 29, 2020). Of these, 4,064 live in the capital San Marino. The largest settlement is Serravalle with 10,894 inhabitants. 6,922 people live in Borgo Maggiore , 3,566 in Domagnano , 2,531 in Fiorentino , 2,152 in Acquaviva , 1,177 in Faetano , 1,144 in Chiesanuova and 970 in Montegiardino . The proportion of women in San Marino is 50.9%.
The population density is 536 inhabitants per square kilometer. The birth rate for the period from 2000 to 2004 was 10.6 per 1000 inhabitants, the death rate 6.8 per 1000 inhabitants, so that the population of San Marino is still growing today. Life expectancy at birth in 2016 was 80.7 years for men and 86.1 years for women. The average life expectancy is 83.3 years. According to the World Health Organization, San Marino is the country with the highest life expectancy for men.
The national language is Italian . Due to the strong tourist orientation of the state, almost every inhabitant speaks a foreign language fluently, mostly English , German or French . The Romagnol dialect , which is partly influenced by that of the neighboring Marche , is widespread mainly among older generations .
The Roman Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion in San Marino, but not the state religion . The national territory is the territory of the Catholic Diocese of San Marino-Montefeltro , which forms a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia . 92.3% percent of the population are Catholics, 4.7% belong to other religious communities and 3.0% do not belong to any religion.
According to the later tradition, Marinus , a Dalmatian stone cutter from the island of Rab , is said to have come to work in the then up-and-coming Rimini around the year 300 . Even before the last persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire began under Emperor Diocletian in 303 , the Christian Marinus supposedly withdrew to the nearby Mount Titano . After the persecution of Christians began, it is said that other persecuted people joined him, and so the first Christian community was formed on the mountain. September 3, 301 is given as the official date of foundation. When the situation calmed down in 311 with the Edict of Tolerance of Nicomedia , according to legend, Marinus was appointed a deacon by the Bishop of Rimini, Gaudentius , and was given the titano by a Roman patrician who converted to Christianity , who according to tradition gives the anachronistic name Donna Felicissima . After the death of their namesake in the autumn of 366, the Republic of San Marino is said to have been founded, citing his legendary last words: “ Relinquo vos liberos ab utroque homine ” (German: “I leave you free from both people”).
Historians consider this story to be a later invention. The first evidence of the existence of a Christian community on Mount Titano comes from Eugippius , who in his Vita Sancti Severini , completed around the year 511, also reports of a monk on that same mountain. Later documents such as the Feretran judgment of 885 bear witness to an organized and proud public life. According to the ruling, neighboring bishops were unable to enforce claims on San Marinese land.
In the first centuries the best protection against enemies was the obscurity of the small community. Nevertheless, the construction of fortifications began in the 10th century. Confirmation of this can be found in a document from King Berengar II from the year 951 and in a bull from Pope Honorius II from 1126. In 1371 Cardinal Anglico wrote that the city “lies on a very high boulder with three huge castles on the top ( Torri ) ". Over time, these three were strongholds further expanded and the water supply autarkisiert , by huge cisterns were beaten to store rain water into the stone. Cisterns that were built between 1472 and 1478 can still be found below the government palace.
Rise of the Republic
Around the year 1200 an area enlargement was necessary due to the steadily growing population. Two castelli and lands near the mountain were therefore bought. At that time, San Marino was already a city republic with its own codes of law. The oldest handwritten code of law dates from the year 1295. In the following 300 years, the legal regulations were further refined; the sixth and last code of law, published on September 21, 1600, with its six books and 314 headings, testifies to detailed legislative activity. The laws were passed by a council of heads of families, the Arengo , on behalf of the people. So standing on murder and treason , the death penalty . Even the disposal of dirty water and garbage on public roads, which was still common in the rest of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages , was punishable. To protect the republic there was already a well-trained army at that time - any man between 14 and 60 years of age could be called up for military service. In 1243 - based on the ancient Roman consular principle - two "Capitani Reggenti" were elected as joint heads of state for six months each. This has been maintained until today.
Struggle for independence
The Ghibellines and Guelphs , who actually lived together peacefully in San Marino , were first incited against each other by the discord between church and emperor in Italy in the middle of the 13th century, which led to the Ghibellines, who were loyal to the emperor, banning the Guelphs. The fact that the greater part of the population was Ghibelline was probably also due to the fact that in previous centuries San Marino had to defend itself again and again against the neighboring bishops, to collect taxes or to try to conquer the area. The conflict culminated in the excommunication of the San Marines by Pope Innocent IV in 1247. They were absolved of it two years later in Perugia , but peace did not return between the citizens of San Marino, and three would be in the next 100 years further excommunications follow.
The second half of the 13th century was a difficult time for San Marino. The Guelf Republic of Rimini, under the rule of the Malatesta family , tried to take San Marino, and only an alliance of San Marino with the Ghibelline Guido of Montefeltro and later his son Federico could save San Marino. The fighting continued until 1299. In the following years there were further efforts to subdue San Marino. In 1291 the canon Teodorico wanted to subjugate the San Marines for the Pope and make them taxable. This could only be prevented with a judgment of the then famous legal scholar Palamede from Rimini, who was commissioned to settle the dispute. Five years later, in 1296, the city bailiffs of the Bishop of Montefeltro tried to conquer the area for themselves. This was again helped by the judgment of Palamedes, which at the request of the San Marines to Pope Boniface VIII was once again declared to be legally binding. The Pope finally recognized the full sovereignty and freedom of San Marino. In the period that followed, the neighboring regions tried again and again to conquer San Marino - each time without success. When in 1303 some ambassadors from the Feretran (Montefeltrian) Church were captured after invading San Marinese territory, the conflict flared up again. The fighting lasted until 1320, when San Marino, thanks to its excellently trained army , was able to force Bishop Uberto (or Liberto) to peace. The enemies of San Marino eventually realized that the territory could not be taken militarily and tried diplomacy. The republic was offered church forgiveness, tax exemption for property outside its territory and other rights such as commercial law. In return, a number of refugees from Urbino who had found accommodation in San Marino were asked to be extradited. San Marino rejects this and so there was further hostility, especially with the Malatesta family, up to the end of the 14th century. But when that same family under Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta fell out of favor with both the Pope and the King of Naples 100 years later, the San Marines seized the opportunity, signed an alliance with the Church on September 21, 1461 and went to war back on. In 1463 the war ended in favor of the San Marines and Pope Pius II awarded the republic the three Castelli Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle. In the same year the Castello Faetano also voluntarily joined the small republic. This was the last war and the last territorial expansion of San Marino.
In 1503, Cesare Borgia , the son of Pope Alexander VI, fell. , entered the republic and established a tyranny. However, it did not last long, as Borgia's army was defeated during a simultaneous uprising in the Duchy of Urbino - in which the San Marines also took part.
Relegation and new pride
On October 8, 1600, a newly drafted constitution came into force, the main features of which can still be found in the current constitution. Even at that time, the San Marines had to defend themselves against conquerors. In 1602 a protection treaty was signed with the church, which finally came into force in 1631. Despite this success, San Marino was not doing well during this period. Famous people emigrated, noble families died out and the cultural level sank in the following decades.
Only when the country was conquered again did the national pride of the San Marines revive. On October 17, 1739, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni , the then papal legate of Romagna , invaded the republic. This time the San Marinese turned to the Pope, who sent Cardinal Enrico Enriquez to San Marino to report on the situation there. On the basis of his statements, the Pope ordered Cardinal Alberoni to withdraw from San Marino, and so the republic was free again six months later on February 5, 1740.
When Napoleon gradually gained dominance over the entire Italian peninsula from 1796 and various republics were formed, the San Marines immediately concluded trade agreements with them to express their ties to Napoleon.
It is reported that during the Italian campaign , Napoleon ordered his troops to stop at the borders of the Republic of San Marino and not to cross them - the Corsican, by his own admission, was an admirer of the small state that had never been subject to anyone else. In a victorious mood, he offered the San Marines to reward them for their historical stubbornness with two cannons, several loads of grain, and territorial expansion to the sea. The self-confidently reluctant San Marines ignored the historic opportunity to enlarge their country - knowing full well that they would never live in peace with their neighbors again. They also sent the cannons back. Only the grain load found favor as a peaceful gift from Napoleon.
After the defeat of Napoleonic France, it was decided at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 that the pre-Napoleonic order should be restored in Italy - not only did the Spanish Bourbons regain the south of the peninsula and the Habsburgs the north, but San Marino also remained free.
While there were freedom movements in all parts of Italy during the Risorgimento , the Free Republic of San Marino offered refugees asylum. After the suppression of the revolutions of 1848/49, Giuseppe Garibaldi fled to San Marino and in 1861 also received the San Marinese citizenship.
After referendums in Sicily and northern Italy, in which both sub-areas had voted with an overwhelming majority for an annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, and after the Papal State had already been taken by Piedmontese troops up to today's region of Lazio , it took place on March 17th In 1861 the new Kingdom of Italy was finally proclaimed. As a always free republic, San Marino never wanted to participate in the unification of Italy and therefore remained sovereign. The later honorary citizen Abraham Lincoln wrote to the Capitani Reggenti: "Although your national territory is small: your state is one of the most honored in history". As early as March 22, 1862, the republic concluded far-reaching treaties with the kingdom, which laid down San Marino and the kingdom of Italy as equal partners. This convention was renewed on March 27, 1872.
In 1865 San Marino - the first sovereign European state still in existence today - abolished the death penalty . The last known use of the death penalty in San Marino was in 1468.
Fascism and World Wars
During the First World War , San Marino initially remained neutral, but signed a treaty proposed by Italy on May 24, 1915, according to which it undertook not to support any attitudes that could harm Italy in the war. So San Marino was not allowed to accept any Italian deserters. In return it was promised that the Italian authorities would not confiscate any material goods from citizens of San Marino for war purposes; Italian citizens did not enjoy this protection. In mid-1915, at the suggestion of the then student Giuliano Gozi, a group of young people (the figures vary between 10 and 15 young men) went to war. In addition, the Comitato pro fratelli combattenti (Committee for the Fighting Brothers) was set up, an organization that provides humanitarian aid for war refugees. When they set up a field hospital, Austria-Hungary declared war on San Marino. Two citizens of San Marino (Carlo Simoncini and Sady Serafini) were killed in the First World War.
Also a European curiosity goes back to the declaration of war in 1915: San Marino never was from that moment on officially at war with the Imperial German Reich concluded but peace, so that the state of war continues lasted, and therefore in 1939 with the outbreak of World War II with the German Empire still existed.
By 1906, the 60 members of parliament were appointed for life and refilled independently. From this year onwards, political elections were introduced that were supposed to strengthen democracy. However, the right to vote had negative consequences for democracy as early as 1923. After the first two fascist Capitani Reggenti took office on April 1, 1923 , the fascist party ( Partito Fascista Sammarinese ) achieved an absolute majority in the April 4, 1923 elections. The republic later, despite its proximity to the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, did not provide any soldiers for the Italian army, and since the fascist government of San Marino was committed to neutrality despite everything, the republic remained officially neutral during World War II. In 1941/42 opposition forces managed to get back into parliament for the first time, which gave a boost to the anti-fascist resistance. On July 28, 1943, the San Marinese fascist party finally disbanded - three days after the fall of Mussolini . Subsequently, San Marino took in up to 100,000 refugees. Despite the neutrality and the marking of the national territory with huge white crosses, British bombers dropped several hundred bombs on San Marino on June 26, 1944, killing 60 people and injuring hundreds. The British government later admitted that this attack was unjustified. In September 1944 there was another fighting around San Marino, when German and Allied troops fought for the area. On September 19, the British 8th Army was finally able to take the area. The Allies stayed in San Marino until November 1944, among other things to help with the repatriation of the many refugees.
post war period
Since both constitution and legislation were left untouched by the fall of the fascist government, there were few fundamental political changes in the republic after the end of World War II.
One of them was the introduction of women's suffrage. Active women's suffrage was introduced by the law of December 23, 1958. However, women had to wait until the 1964 elections before they were allowed to vote for the first time: the law of April 29, 1959 stipulated that active women's suffrage should not take effect until January 1, 1960. The decision of April 29, 1959 was confirmed by Parliament on July 7th. The right to vote for women only became law on September 10, 1973.
An often forgotten fact is that the republic was ruled from 1947 to 1957 ( clashes of Rovereta ) and again from 1978 to 1986 by a left popular front including the communists . This in turn meant that the extremely anti-communist Spanish Franco government in the 1950s refused entry to Spain to all tourists and business travelers who had a San Marino stamp in their passports. At the end of the 1980s, the Communist Party of San Marinos renamed itself the Progressive Democratic Party .
Since the late 1950s, tourism has played an increasingly important role in San Marino. In 2005 over 2 million tourists visited the state with its 30,000 inhabitants. Tax revenues increased so that since 1975 all medical care has been offered free of charge. Today 60 percent of the republic's income flows directly or indirectly into the country through tourism. Most tourists come for day trips from the tourist centers of the nearby Adriatic Sea , such as Rimini and Pesaro . The republic - also a member of the United Nations since 1992 - is debt-free.
The political system of San Marino is that of a parliamentary representative democracy . It has been in the dating back to the 1600 Constitution , the oldest still valid republican constitution in the world, committed.
San Marino has always two heads of state, these are the for six months collegial reigning Captains Regent ( "governing captains", sometimes called "governing captains"). They are elected by parliament and their inauguration is on April 1st and October 1st of each year. This regulation goes back to a law from the year 1200, which was introduced to ensure that the people at the top of the state are not endowed with too much power for too long and that mutual control is also made possible.
The division of power works in a similar way to that of the consuls of the Roman Republic over 2000 years ago or the Federal Council , the Swiss directorate government with its principle of collegiality .
The old institution of the Arengo , originally the assembly of all heads of families, transferred its powers in March 1906 to the Consiglio Grande e Generale ("Great and General Council"). Today all eligible voters are called Arengo and convened twice a year on the Sunday after the inauguration of the Capitani Reggenti . The citizens of San Marino have the opportunity to submit proposals and requests of general interest to the Consiglio Grande.
The legislative power is the generals Consiglio Grande e exercised, whose 60 members are elected by the voting population (over 18 years) for five years. He also approves the state budget and appoints the Capitani Reggenti. After the election in June 2001, a coalition of Christian Democrats ( PDCS ) and Socialists ( PSS ) ruled the country. In 2005 the socialists and the ex-communist democrats ( PD ) merged to form the party of socialists and democrats ( PSD ). The New Communists ( RCS ) and the left party Zona Franca , which is part of the peace movement, agreed an electoral alliance; in the general election on June 4, 2006, they competed as United Left ( Sinistra Unita ). A center-left coalition made up of the PSD, the People's Alliance ( AP ) and the United Left has ruled since August 2006 . In November 2007, the Center Democrats ( DdC ), split off from the PDCS, joined the coalition. This lost its parliamentary majority when the AP left, so that early elections were held on November 9, 2008. A redesigned right to vote with a threshold clause increased to up to 3.5% and an allocation of at least 35 out of 60 seats to the party or coalition with the strongest vote applied to them . As a result of these changes, the parties ran for election in two coalitions, the right-wing Pact for San Marino ( Patto per San Marino ) and the left-wing Alliance for Reforms and Freedom ( Riforme e Libertà ). The Patto per San Marino won the parliamentary election with 54.22% of the vote and ruled until the early parliamentary election in December 2012. The newly formed coalition Bene Comune, to which the Christian Democratic PDCS , the liberal AP and the social democratic PSD belonged, won with 50.7 % gained an absolute majority and was in government until the end of 2016. Since 2015 there have been investigations into the Conto Mazzini . Numerous leading politicians were involved in this bribery and money laundering scandal. In June 2017, 20 of the 21 accused, including five former heads of state and 8 ex-ministers, were sentenced to prison terms of up to 9 years. When the Bene Commune coalition broke up due to internal differences at the end of 2016, new elections were held in November 2016. No coalition was able to achieve an absolute majority. The San Marino prima di Tutto coalition missed an absolute majority with 41.7%, and so there was a runoff election between it and the second-placed center-left alliance adesso.sm on December 4, 2016, with adesso.sm 57, Won 8% of the vote.
The executive power lies with the Congresso di Stato 'State Congress' . Since December 27, 2016 incumbent government is of the electoral alliance adesso.sm asked. It consists of seven ministers ( Segretari di Stato ) appointed by the Consiglio Grande e Generale for five years. The Sinistra Socialista Democratica (SSD) provides three ministers, Repubblica Futura (RF), and CIVICO (C10) two ministers each.
The judicial power comes from the Consiglio dei XII 'Council of 12' . It is elected by the Consiglio Grande e Generale for the duration of one legislative period and is an administrative body and the highest judicial authority in the republic. Two representatives of the government ( Sindaci di Governo ) represent the state in court and in disputes over financial and property matters. The various levels of criminal justice are directed by the “Justice Commissioner” and the “Appellate Judge”; The civil justice is led by the judicial commissioner, the appellate judge and in the third instance by the “Council of 12”. The “first degree judge” has jurisdiction over administrative issues, followed by the appellate judge and the “council of 12”.
The territory of San Marino is divided into nine Castelli 'municipalities' , which correspond to the old parishes . Each Castello has a municipal council ( Giunta ) elected by the residents, chaired by a Capitano, elected for five years .
The unions are organized in the umbrella organization Centrale Sindacale Unitaria .
The Republic of San Marino currently has diplomatic and consular relations with over ninety countries. The diplomatic missions of the republic abroad usually have the rank of consulates or consulates general (e.g. the honorary consulate in Munich ).
San Marino is a member of numerous international organizations, including the UN , UNESCO , the Council of Europe , the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Court of Justice , the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Tourism Organization and even the International Whaling Commission .
The republic also maintains official relations with the European Union - although it is not a member state of the EU - and takes part in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe . San Marino has been a party to the European Patent Convention since July 1, 2009, so that European patents can also apply in San Marino.
The relations between San Marino and Germany are free of problems. The German ambassador to Italy is also accredited in San Marino. Consular relations are handled by the German Consulate General in Milan . The San Marinese ambassador for Germany is Gian Nicola Balestra , who has his official seat in Brussels . San Marino acquires special political importance for Germany through the benevolent support it gives German candidates in connection with elections to various bodies in the United Nations.
Since the territory of San Marino is completely surrounded by Italian territory, defense in the event of war is guaranteed by Italy. However, to symbolize independence, the state maintains a small army .
San Marino is divided into nine Castelli , independent communities.
San Marino is the capital of the small republic. World-famous monuments such as the government palace ( Palazzo Pubblico ) and the three castles, diverse museums and a unique panorama make this city a tourist center with two million visitors a year. You can buy almost anything in the over 1000 shops in the small town. On February 29, 2020, 4,064 people lived here.
The name of Castello Acquaviva comes from an important spring that is located at the foot of Montecerreto , a mountain covered with pine forest. According to legend, this is where the grotto is located, which was the first place of refuge for St. Marino. One of the world's best motocross tracks is located in this district, and down the valley on the banks of the San Marino stream is the important industrial center of Gualdicciolo . On February 29, 2020, 2,152 people were living in Acquaviva.
The village of Borgo Maggiore , to the north at the foot of Monte Titano, was formerly called Mercatale (market town) and is still one of the most important markets in San Marino. A cable car takes you from here directly to the Monte Titano in the city of San Marino. On February 29, 2020, 6,922 people lived here. Borgo Maggiore is thus the second largest town in San Marino.
The Castello Chiesa Nuova ( New Church ) occurred in the southwest of the Republic of voluntarily including area 1320 San Marino at. Until the 16th century the area was called Busignano . The economy of this small community with 1,144 inhabitants (February 29, 2020) is strongly characterized by agriculture. As a Castello, Chiesanuova also bears the name Penna Rossa (red feather) and has a red feather in its coat of arms.
Domagnano is a small village that was settled in Roman times. From here you can take photos of Monte Titano and the sea. 3,566 people lived in Domagnano on February 29, 2020. As a Castello, it alsobearsthe name Montelupo (Wolfsberg) and features a white wolf in front of a green mountain in its coat of arms.
The municipality of Faetano and its territory joined the republic in 1463. With 1,177 inhabitants (February 29, 2020), Faetano is one of the smaller Castelli, but offers a lot of green and a large lake.
The three municipalities of Fiorentino , with 2,531 inhabitants (February 29, 2020) in the south of the republic, Montegiardino , the smallest municipality with 970 inhabitants, and Serravalle , with 10,894 inhabitants the largest castle , were all conquered in 1463. In Serravalle , the country's largest city, is Dogana , the gateway to Italy.
San Marino has no natural resources. The state land is used primarily for agriculture and forestry. Until the 1960s, the San Marinese lived mainly from agriculture, cattle breeding and the quarrying of stones from the local quarries. Since then, there has been a steady upswing in craft and trade in San Marino, but also in industry - not least due to the strong influx of tourists: around 2 million tourists visit the small republic every year (2018: 1,874,115).
Grain , wine , olives and fruit are grown in San Marino ; Cattle and pig breeding is also widespread. The most important products of craft businesses and medium-sized industry are ceramic products , tiles , furniture , confectionery , liqueurs , paints and varnishes , textiles ( silk ) and clothing . The main exports are wine and wool , handicrafts and postage stamps . The state finances itself through the sale of San Marinese postage stamps, which contribute ten percent to the gross national income , and through further tourism income: 60 percent of the foreign currency comes into the country directly and indirectly through tourism , taxes are almost not collected. Mainly finished products and consumer goods are imported, but also gold for the many goldsmiths and jewelers.
The median income per capita in 2008 was $ 50,670. 52 percent of the population work in the service sector, 41 percent in industry and 7 percent in the primary sector.
The country's main trading partner is Italy.
Until the European Monetary Union, the currency was the San Marinese lira , which, like the Vatican lira, was a nominally independent currency, but was in fact linked to the Italian lira with a fixed exchange rate ; all three currencies circulated equally in all three countries. From 1972, after a 34-year break, San Marino minted its own coins again. Later gold coins were also minted, but they were only valid on the territory of San Marino. The euro has been in effect in San Marino since January 1st, 2002. San Marino issues its own euro coins with a country-specific reverse .
Until January 2010, San Marino was officially a tax haven . In 2000, the OECD classified the country as a tax haven as defined in the 1998 OECD report. In the course of the intensified international fight against tax evasion, San Marino was classified as a tax haven by the OECD at the G-20 summit on April 2, 2009 in London , which, however, is still committed to international tax standards with regard to income and wealth taxes has not implemented. After the country had reached the minimum number of twelve bilateral tax agreements required by the OECD in January 2010, the OECD classified it as a country that has largely implemented international tax standards. The German-San-Marine Agreement on Assistance in Tax and Criminal Tax Matters through Information Exchange (TIEA) has been in force since December 23, 2011. There is still no bilateral tax treaty with the United States and Italy, among others. So San Marino continues to serve as an important hub for the evasion of income tax, but also VAT, of Italian people and companies. From January to mid-August 2010, the Italian financial police uncovered around 800 cases. In the 330 cases that were finally examined, incomes totaling 850 million euros, which were hidden from the Italian tax authorities , as well as 240 million euros of unpaid VAT were revealed. In October 2009, the Italian tax authority Agenzia delle Entrate stated the number of Italian citizens who have their tax residence in a country classified by Italy as a tax haven as 29,158 people. With 8,490 people, San Marino has the highest proportion. In the meantime, Italians have withdrawn € 5.7 billion from San Marinese banks, which is half of these banks' deposits.
On December 8, 2015, an anti-tax evasion agreement was signed between the European Union and San Marino. This agreement aims to put an end to mutual banking secrecy between San Marino and the EU. As of the year 2017 which are Member States of the European Union and San Marino mutually data of bank customers on their own territory of the other Party provide. Pierre Moscovici , EU Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs , believes that by signing this agreement , San Marino has shown that it is ready and interested in combating tax evasion .
Italy pays compensation to ensure that the republic does not exploit its independence too much in economic and financial policy and does not use its sovereignty to the detriment of Italy. The nine banks operating in the country are mainly focused on domestic business. International transactions are processed through Italian banks.
San Marino has no national debt .
In 2011, a record deficit of 20 million euros was generated (due to the financial crisis and the halving of the deposits of San-Marinese banks).
In 2006, the health system's share of government spending was 7.2% of GDP.
Until 1944, San Marino had a single-track, narrow-gauge (950 mm) and electrified railway line that led from the capital to Rimini, where there was a connection to the Italian railway network. There were six train stations in the republic: Dogana, Serravalle, Domagnano, Valdragone, Borgo Maggiore and San Marino . The railway line was partially destroyed by bombing in the Second World War and then shut down.
Each municipality ( Castello ) has a local bus service . There are also regular international bus connections between the capital, San Marino, and Rimini train station , which - in San Marino territory - stop in San Marino city, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano, Serravalle and Dogana. The buses run according to a fixed timetable every 75 minutes (as of summer 2016). In summer there are 12 pairs of trips a day between 6:45 and 20:30 from Rimini and San Marino. In winter there are 10 pairs of trips on weekdays between 8:10 am and 7:25 pm from Rimini and 8:00 am and 7:15 pm from San Marino. An additional morning trip starts at 6:45 am at the former station in San Marino. On Sundays and public holidays there are eight connections in both directions - the first journey starts at 8:00 a.m. from San Marino or 8:10 a.m. from Rimini and the last at 6:00 p.m. from San Marino or 6:10 p.m. From Rimini. The journeys between Rimini and San Marino take between 50 and 60 minutes. At night there is no public transport in San Marino.
The road network has a length of 220 km. A toll-free expressway, the Superstrada di San Marino , connects the state border at Dogana with Borgo Maggiore . There is also a two-lane bypass around the city of San Marino , at the foot of Mount Titano . The road network of San Marino makes it easy to reach ports, airports and train stations in the Emilia-Romagna region . An expressway ( Strada Statale 72 ) connects San Marino with Rimini, 24 km away.
Road traffic regulations are similar to those in Italy.
The Rimini airport Although located on Italian territory, but is also the commercial airport in the Republic of San Marino. The only sports airfield Aviosuperficie Torraccia in the republic is located six kilometers northeast of the capital San Marino in the municipality of Domagnano in the district of Torraccia.
The culture of San Marino is shaped by its history and the desire for freedom of the San Marinese. Medieval days are held every year , and the introduction of the Capitani Reggenti is a big ceremony every six months. The Guardia del Consiglio Grande e Generale ( Guard of the Grand and General Council ) plays an important role in this . Founded after the liberation from the rule of Cardinal Giulio Alberoni in 1740, these voluntary San Marinese in historical uniforms are still responsible for the protection of the heads of state and the parliament and organize the celebrations for the introduction of the San Marino together with all the important secular and spiritual citizens of San Marino new captains of government. The national anthem , which was written in 1894 by Federico Consolo , a San Marinese violinist and composer , sounds , has no text and is therefore simply called Inno Nazionale della Repubblica (Italian for national anthem ). On the national holiday on September 3rd, there is a festival atmosphere and traditions are in the foreground. The San Marinese crossbowmen corps "I balestrieri", which has existed since 1295, holds demonstrations.
The heyday of San Marinese music was the 17th century, when, for example, Francesco Maria Marini da Pesaro wrote his Concerti Spirituali here, a collection of 27 concerts.
One of the numerous museums is the State Museum ( Museo di Stato ) in the Pergami Belluzzi palace with thousands of exhibits on the history of San Marino: finds from historical excavations, historical documents, coins and paintings. The so-called "Second Tower" houses a museum for historical weapons ( Museo delle Armi Antiche ) with more than 1500 exhibits on the history of weapons, primarily from the 15th to 17th centuries.
The private museums include one of the largest Ferrari museums with 25 original vehicles, engines, yearbooks and studies. The largest public collection of Abarth vehicles with over 30 copies is also located there.
Furthermore, a museum presents modern weapons from the First and Second World Wars , and a wax museum depicts scenes from the history of the republic. There is also a torture museum and the Museo dell'Emigrante della Repubblica di San Marino .
The church of San Francesco and the basilica of San Marino , built in 1836 in neoclassical style with the relics of the patron saint Marinus, as well as the Palazzo del Governo , the Tuscan-Gothic government palace on the Piazza della Libertà, are worth seeing . From the fortresses, which were built in the 11th and 13th centuries on the three peaks of Monte Titano, you have a wide view of the sea and the Italian interior.
In San Marino there is ten years of compulsory schooling, which is divided into five years of primary school, three years of lower secondary school and two years of upper secondary school. In order to obtain the university entrance qualification, the school must be attended for three more years. Alternatively, there is the option of completing a two-year vocational training course.
San Marino has had a small university since 1985, the Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino . The associated International Center for Semiotic and Cognitive Studies was founded in 1988 by the famous Italian author Umberto Eco . He taught at the university until 1995. Even before the university was founded, there was the privately initiated, government-supported Accademia Internazionale delle Scienze ( International Academy of Sciences in San Marino ), which later relocated its activities abroad.
With the Poste San Marino , the small state has had a completely independent postal system with its own infrastructure and its own stamps since 2013. The Republic only uses Italian postcodes for correspondence with other countries, which are aligned with the neighboring Italian province of Rimini . The Italian postcodes are:
- 47890 San Marino
- 47891 Dogana
- 47892 Acquaviva
- 47893 Borgo Maggiore
- 47894 Chiesanuova
- 47895 Domagnano
- 47896 Faetano
- 47897 Fiorentino
- 47898 Montegiardino
- 47899 Serravalle
Telephone exchange and internet
The San Marino telephone exchange is fully automated and integrated into the Italian network, both internally and internationally. The internal network is managed by Telecom Italia in accordance with a convention with San Marino and guaranteed by Telecom Italia San Marino SpA , a public company of San Marino belonging to the Telecom Italia group.
Radio and television
San Marino RTV , the public broadcaster, runs a television and radio station. San Marino RTV was founded in August 1991 by Eras (Ente per la Radiodiffusione Sammarinese), the San Marino radio communications service, with equal participation by RAI-Radiotelevisione Italiana . The first radio programs were broadcast from December 27, 1992 and on October 25, 1993 the 24-hour program was introduced. On April 24, 1993, the first television auditions began, almost a year later, on February 28, 1994, the regular television broadcasts. In July 1995 the television station joined the Eurovision . In 2008 the country took part in the Eurovision Song Contest in Belgrade for the first time . The San Marino RTV program is available as a live stream on the Internet.
There are still two private radio stations on VHF. In 1997 there were about 16,000 radio sets and about 9,000 television sets. The Italian radio stations can also be received in the republic.
The two main San Marino dailies are La Tribuna Sammarinese and San Marino Oggi . The Corriere di Informazione Sammarinese and the Resto del Carlino are written in Italy, but contain information pages about San Marino.
The most popular sport in San Marino is soccer . The internationally best-known sporting event in the country was in Imola taking place (Italy) Grand Prix of San Marino in the Formula 1 , but it did take place in 2006 for the last time. San Marino also has a baseball team.
Although San Marino has just 30,000 inhabitants, there is a national championship organized by the FSGC ( Federazione Sammarinese Giuoco Calcio , founded 1931) with 15 teams. In the first phase of the championship, the teams compete in two groups with seven and eight teams respectively. The three best teams each then take part in a final round. The San Marino champions take part in the 1st round of qualifying for the UEFA Champions League , but so far no San Marino team has been able to prevail in the 1st round.
A San Marino national team has existed since 1986. The first game against the Canadian Olympic team they lost 0-1. The San Marino eleven played their first official game as a national team in FIFA on November 14, 1990 against Switzerland in qualifying for the 1992 European Championship - San Marino lost 4-0. A high point in San Marino football history was the 1-0 lead against England on November 17, 1993. After just eight seconds, Davide Gualtieri scored the fastest goal in international history. However, San Marino also lost this game (1: 7). The team suffered the biggest defeat in a European Championship qualifier at the Stadio Olimpico in Serravalle against Germany on September 6, 2006 with a 0:13. The team consists almost exclusively of amateurs , currently (2011) there is only one full professional with Andy Selva who plays in the second Italian division.
The national team has only ever won once: on April 29, 2004, the Liechtenstein national team was beaten 1-0 in a friendly game under coach Giampaolo Mazza . Statistics also show a draw against Liechtenstein, Latvia , Estonia and Turkey . On the other hand there are 83 defeats. In March 2017, the San Marinos team was in 203rd place in the FIFA world rankings with 17 points.
Between 1981 and 2006 was 100 kilometers northwest of San Marino in Imola the Grand Prix of San Marino of Formula 1 instead. In 1980 the Italian Grand Prix was moved from Monza to Imola. Due to many complaints, this decision was reversed a year later. In order not to have to do without Imola and thus the Ferrari home game , the San Marino Grand Prix was launched, which has been held regularly in Imola since 1981. In the racing calendar for 2007 , the race was canceled together with the European Grand Prix , the second German race. In 1994 , the two Formula 1 drivers Roland Ratzenberger (Austria) and the three-time world champion Ayrton Senna (Brazil) had a fatal accident during the GP weekend .
Since 2007 is in Misano near Rimini again the Grand Prix of San Marino for motorcycles within the motorcycle world championship held, the Superbike World Championship carries in Misano annually their San Marino race from. The San-Marinese Manuel Poggiali , who lives in Chiesanuova, was motorcycle world champion in 2001 and 2003 . Alex De Angelis is currently considered to be the greatest San Marinese talent on the motorcycle scene.
The AS Juvenes San Marino operation last under the name of the sponsor Saeco Macchine per Caffè in the years 1989 to 2004, an international professional cycling team , which later went to 1997 with san-marinesischer and with Italian license.
- J. Theodore Bent: A freak of freedom or The republic of San Marino , Kennikat Pr., Port Washington, NY. 1970, ISBN 0-8046-0879-2 .
- Fabio Foresti: Quella nostra sancta libertà. Lingue, storia e società nella Repubblica di San Marino. Biblioteca e ricerca. Quaderni della Segretaria di Stato per la Pubblica Istruzione, Affari Sociali. Istituti Culturali e Giustizia 6. Aiep, San Marino 1998. ISBN 88-86051-66-2
- Friedrich Kochwasser: San Marino. The oldest and smallest republic in the world. Erdmann, Herrenalb in the Black Forest 1961.
- Günter Weitershagen: San Marino and the introduction of the euro. Libertas Paper. Bd. 33. Libertas, Sindelfingen 2000. ISBN 3-921929-37-7
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- Website of the Republic of San Marino
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of San Marino website (Italian, English)
- Website of the Consiglio Grande e Generale (Italian)
- Website of the Guardia del Consiglio Grande e Generale (Italian, English)
- Website of the Federazione Balestrieri Sammarinesi (Italian, English)
- Università degli Studi website (Italian)
- San Marino State Tourist Board website (multilingual)
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on San Marino
- Country profile of the Federal Statistical Office
- Weather in San Marino
- San Marino in the judgment of old travelogues and in old views
- European Commission - Declaration: Combating tax evasion: EU and Republic of San Marino sign new agreement on tax transparency
- International Monetary Fund : http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/01/weodata/index.aspx
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