|Motto : ძალა ერთობაშია - dsala ertobaschia ( "The power lies in unity")|
Regional official language: Abkhazian
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||semi-presidential system|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
|surface||69,700 1 ( 118th ) km²
57,215 2 ( 121st ) km²
|population||3,729,635 2 (as of January 2015)|
|Population density||53.5 1 ( 101st ) inhabitants per km²
65.2 2 ( 93rd ) inhabitants per km²
|Population development||−0.05% (2016)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.769 ( 70th ) (2016)|
|independence||May 26, 1918 (declaration)
April 9, 1991 (recovery)
|National holiday||May 26th (Independence Day 1918)|
|Time zone||UTC + 4|
|ISO 3166||GE , GEO, 268|
|Telephone code||+995 (for Abkhazia : +7)|
1 = including Abkhazia and South Ossetia
2 = excluding Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Georgia ([ geɔrgi̯ən ], Georgian საქართველო , Sakartvelo , IPA : [ sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ ] ) after the Russian name Грузия (, Grusija ) earlier occasionally Grusia or Gruzinia called one is Eurasian state on the border between Europe and Asia in South Caucasus , east of the Black Sea and south of the Greater Caucasus . It is bordered by Russia to the north, Turkey and Armenia to the south, and Azerbaijan to the east. The regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia are renegade (fallen away) and are only recognized as sovereign by Russia and a few other states.
With around 3.7 million inhabitants (2015) on an area of 57,215 km² (excluding the breakaway parts of the country) Georgia is rather sparsely populated. More than a quarter of the population lives in the capital region around Tbilisi , other large cities are Batumi , Kutaisi and Rustawi .
Location and special features
Georgia is located in the Middle East , but its residents call it the balcony of Europe . At 69,700 square kilometers, its area roughly corresponds to that of Bavaria . Mountains and foothills cover 87 percent of the country. In the north lies the southern capping of the Greater Caucasus . In the south are the western ridges of the Lesser Caucasus and the edge of the volcanic Armenian highlands . Between the two high mountains that stretches to the west Colchian lowlands (after the ancient Colchis s), to the east Kur-Araz Lowland , extending into the Innerkarteli- that Unterkarteli- and Alsasani level divided. West and East Georgia are separated by the Lichi Mountain Range, which extends north to south.
Relief map of Georgia with the main cities
The highest mountain is the Shchara in the Greater Caucasus with 5201 meters. The longest river in Georgia is the total of 1364 km long Kura (Georgian Mtkvari ), which crosses the country in its upper reaches from the south (Lesser Caucasus) to the east for 351 kilometers. Other rivers are the Alasani (351 km), the Rioni (333 km) and the Enguri (213 km). The largest lake is Parawani, at an altitude of 2073 meters, with an area of 37.5 square kilometers. The Werjowkina -Höhle is 2,212 meters, the deepest known cave in the world.
Largest cities are Tbilisi (1,082,400 inhabitants), Batumi (154,600 inhabitants), Kutaisi (147,900 inhabitants), Rustavi (126,000 inhabitants), Sukhumi (63,300 inhabitants), Gori (48,300 inhabitants), Zugdidi (42,700 inhabitants) and Poti (41,500 Inhabitants) (as of 2016). In 2016, 53.8% of the population lived in cities or urban areas.
The autonomous republic of Adjara is located in the southwest of Georgia , Abkhazia in the northwest and South Ossetia in the north . Abkhazia and South Ossetia are currently not under the control of the Georgian government; the state sovereignty claimed by both areas is recognized by five states and underlined by 6,000 to 10,000 soldiers of the Russian armed forces .
The Caucasus protects Georgia from cold air waves from the north and allows the Black Sea to warm the country. The climatic zones range from a subtropical and humid climate in the west to a dry and temperate continental climate in the east. The average air temperature fluctuates between 15 ° C in the west and 11 ° C to 13 ° C in the east. The average rainfall in the west is 3000 mm, in the east 400 mm. The Spring in Georgia is short with abrupt climate changes, the summer often scorching hot. The autumn is sunny-warm, the winter with little snow.
Flora and fauna
Georgia has a high biodiversity thanks to different climate zones . Enclosed valleys favored the development of endemic (only native to this region) plants and animal species. The WWF ranks Georgia among the 238 most important ecoregions in the world. The IUCN has named it as a global center of plant diversity and designated BirdLife International as a worldwide endemic bird area.
44 percent of the country is covered with forest , five percent of which is primeval forest . 40 percent of the forests have been preserved in their original structure. In the lower mountain areas mainly deciduous forests ( oaks , beeches ) grow , in higher altitudes conifers ( spruces and firs , including the Nordmann fir ). Above the tree line, subalpine and alpine meadows spread out. The mountains in the south, the lowlands and the Transcaucasian Depression were once steppes . Today they are mostly cultivated.
The country has around 4100 plant species. Of these, around 1000 are endemic there and 1000 in the Caucasus. According to a census by the WWF , around 400 tree and shrub species are at home in Georgia alone. 61 of them are endemic, 60 species are considered threatened worldwide and have been added to the Red List .
Georgia is home to hundreds of different vertebrate species . These include around 322 species of birds, 84 species of fish, 52 species of reptiles, 13 species of amphibians and around 105 species of mammals. The latter include predators such as brown bears , wolves , lynxes , golden jackals and the very rare Caucasian leopards ; Asiatic lions and Caspian tigers disappeared in historical times. Of the striped hyenas , which have become rare since the middle of the 20th century , one or two animals could still be detected on the Georgian side of the dry border area with Azerbaijan in the 1950s-1970s. Wetlands are home to the now rare otter . The Caucasus Black Grouse , endemic to the eponymous mountain range, has its largest population in Georgia. There are also several endemic species of lizards . The country is very species-rich in invertebrates. So far, 600 species of spiders have been identified.
Environment and nature protection
In environmental protection , there are many unsolved problems. These include air pollution , especially in the industrial environment of Rustavi , the heavy pollution of the Kura and the Black Sea near Poti and Batumi . The drinking water supply is inadequate. Many soils are contaminated by toxic chemicals. In the southern Caucasus there is no overarching land use plan that separates the protected nature from agricultural and industrial areas. Large-scale forest areas are being cleared for illegal exports to Turkey.
Georgia has eleven state nature reserves . The largest is the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park in the Lesser Caucasus (85,000 hectares). It was built with the help of Germany and the World Wide Fund for Nature and opened in 2001. It is one of the largest contiguous nature reserves in Asia. The Tusheti National Park covers 83,007 hectares, the Vashlovani National Park 25,112 hectares and the Tusheti Protected Area 27,903 hectares. The oldest national park in Georgia is the Lagodechi National Park with 17,688 hectares.
Georgia has around 3.7 million inhabitants (2014). Since independence in 1991, more than a million people have left the country. Between 2000 and 2005, the Georgian population decreased by about one percent annually. Above all, residents with a high level of education who were initially able to find jobs in other CIS countries - later also in Western Europe and the USA - left Georgia. The largest Georgian community outside the country exists in Moscow , around 300,000 people according to Russian figures. Georgia was an agricultural country until World War II . In 1921 the politician Karl Kautsky called Georgia a social democratic peasant republic . With the industrialization decreed by Stalin , more and more people moved to the big cities. Today, 57 percent of the population live in urban areas, 43 percent in villages and rural areas.
Civil wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia resulted in around 250,000 people fleeing or being displaced from their homes. In 2004 Georgia hosted around 230,000 displaced persons from Abkhazia and 12,200 from South Ossetia. There were also around 3,000 refugees from Chechnya .
The country also suffered significant population loss for other reasons. The socio-economic situation in Georgia, which has deteriorated since 1990, has not only led to an increase in diseases with an equally rising mortality rate , but also to a considerable loss due to migration. In 1994, 62 percent of all Georgian emigrants turned to Israel and in 1995 the destination Greece held a share of 42 percent among the emigrants.
Traditionally, several ethnic groups live on the territory of Georgia. This makes Georgia a multi-ethnic country. It is home to over 26 ethnic groups: 83.8 percent of the population are Georgians (in eastern Georgia, Georgians represent 74.81% of the population, in the west of the country, however, 97.33%), 6.5 percent Azerbaijanis , 5.7 percent Armenians , 1.55 percent Russians , 0.9 percent Ossetians , 0.1 percent Abkhazians , 0.1 percent Assyrians and 1.51 percent belong to other ethnic groups such as B. Pontus Greeks , Lasen , Kurds , Jews ( Georgian Jews and some Ashkenazim ) and others (2002 census). After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the opening of the borders, a large part of the Greeks emigrated to Greece and a large part of the Georgian Jews to Israel . In the 2005 census, the number of Abkhazians was found to be 125,000 (approx. 2.7%).
In the phases of nationalism from 1918 to 1921, during the Second World War and in the early 1990s, many ethnic groups in Georgia were discriminated against. In 1941, the Soviet dictator Stalin deported 40,000 Caucasian Germans and in 1944 expelled the Meshes from Georgia. Georgia has since ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities . However, the parliament decided (ineffective under international law) restrictions on the application of Articles 10 and 11, which recognize the right of national minorities to use their mother tongue.
In some regions of Georgia, non-Georgian ethnic groups form the majority. About as many Azerbaijanis live in Niederkartlien as Georgians. In the Samtskhe-Javakheti region , which borders Armenia, the Armenians are even somewhat in the majority. Protests and riots broke out in 2005 and 2006 in the historical province of Javakheti , which is over 90% Armenian . The demonstrators called for economic equality and political autonomy . Another issue was disadvantage in the Georgian-speaking higher education system; this problem is also causing criticism internationally.
Since 1989, many members of minorities, especially Russians, have left the country. The proportion of the population of Russian origin in the Georgian population fell within 13 years from 6.32% to only 1.55%. The social mobility of the Russian diaspora and their high level of education made it relatively easy to reach economically better off Russia with a Russian passport. The number of Greeks, Armenians, Ukrainians, Jews and Ossetians living in Georgia has also fallen massively since the country gained independence. In 2017, 2% of the population was born abroad.
The official language is Georgian , which is spoken by around 4 million people. It belongs to the South Caucasian language family and has its own alphabet , which has been documented since the 5th century AD, but is probably much older.
In addition, 23 languages from six different language families are spoken in Georgia. The most important are Azerbaijani (approx. 300,000 speakers), Armenian (approx. 250,000 speakers), Abkhazian (approx. 100,000 speakers), Ossetian (approx. 100,000 speakers) and Russian .
Georgia is a Christian country, Christianity was declared the state religion of Iberia as early as 337 . Orthodoxy has been a symbol of the nation since the early Middle Ages . 84 percent of the population belong to the autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church . The patriarch of the church is Ilia II. On every Independence Day he stands with the government on the podium and he blesses the parliament at the beginning of a legislative period . If religious freedom is constitutionally guaranteed, a concordat ensures a prominent position for Georgian orthodoxy, which is the only religious community to be granted tax exemption and a form of organization under public law. This special status was enshrined in a constitutional agreement in October 2002, which practically declared Christian orthodoxy to be the state religion .
Around 376,000 Georgians live in Adjara, some of whose ancestors converted to Sunni Islam under Ottoman rule . 9.9 percent of the population of Georgia are Muslims ; In addition to the Adjars, some of whom are Sunni, this includes the large Shiite minority of the Azeris .
3.9 percent are distributed among the religious communities of the Armenians (200,000 people in the Armenian Apostolic Church ), the Catholics (a total of 0.8 percent of the population, of which 60,000 people are Armenian Catholic Church , 50,050 Roman Rite , 3000 Chaldean Catholic Church ), the Protestants ( Evangelical Lutheran Church , Baptists and Pentecostal Movement ), Yazidis , Jews (around 10,000 in 2004) and Jehovah's Witnesses (18,619 in 2016).
In the 1990s, church buildings by religious minorities , including Catholics, were expropriated and given to the Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church . Again and again there are religiously motivated riots against minorities, including against Jehovah's Witnesses and against the Baptists. Until 2004, Georgia was on a list of the US Commission on Religious Freedom in the World ( USCIRF ), which names those countries where religious freedom is least guaranteed. It was only after Georgia's law enforcement agencies acted that the number of robberies subsided and Georgia was removed from the list. On July 7, 2011, non-Orthodox religious communities that have a historical connection to the country or have a corresponding status in a member country of the Council of Europe (Catholics, Baptists, Jews, Muslims and the Armenian Apostolic religious community) were legally protected. The Council of Europe expressly welcomed the protection of religious minorities in Georgia that this guaranteed.
Early hominid finds from the Paleolithic ( Dmanisi ) date from the area of today's Georgia . The Neolithic begins as early as the 8th millennium. Metal processing began in the early third millennium BC. With the Early Bronze Age Kura Araxes culture . It is believed that the first ironworking was done by the Chalyber tribe . He became known for his skillful blacksmiths .
In the sixth century BC The states of Colchis (West Georgia) and Iberia (East Georgia) arose . Later the Romans subjugated the country. In 327 Christianity became the state religion. The Romans were followed as conquerors by the Persians , Byzantines and Arabs .
Middle Ages (11th to 18th centuries)
At the end of the tenth century, Georgia was united in its "golden age". The long-standing dependence on the Byzantine Empire was shaken off. Under Dawit the Builder and Queen Tamar , Georgia became the strongest power in Transcaucasia between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries . A Mongol invasion under Timur followed . In the 16th century Georgia split into the kingdoms of Imereti , Kakheti and Kartlien and five principalities that were under Ottoman and Iranian influence.
Modern times (18th and 19th centuries)
In 1783, Eastern Georgia (Kartlien-Kakheti) concluded a protection treaty with Russia . In 1801 Kartlien-Kakheti was annexed by decree of the tsar and his royal family dethroned. The regions in the west of the country remained independent of the state for a decade. It was not until 1810 that Russia conquered the Georgian Kingdom of Imereti . It took Russia another 54 years to gain complete control of western Georgia. The Guria region was abolished in 1828, Mingrelia in 1857. The Svaneti region was annexed in the Caucasus War between 1857 and 1859, the Principality of Abkhazia in 1864. In the Russian Empire , the western part of Georgia belonged to the Kutaisi governorate , the eastern part to the Tbilisi governorate .
First and Second Republic (20th Century)
After the October Revolution , Georgia declared itself independent and a democratic republic on May 26, 1918. Article 1 of the law of November 22, 1918 on elections to legislative bodies, which guaranteed the right to vote and stand for women , was adopted by the National Council and the Council of Ministers. On February 16, 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by the Red Army and incorporated into the Soviet Union , initially, from 1922 to 1936, as a part of the Transcaucasian SFSR , then, after its dissolution, as the Georgian SSR , which continued until the end of the Soviet Union existed in 1991. In the Union of the Soviet Union, Georgia experienced industrialization, Georgian agriculture specialized in the export of southern fruits and the republic became one of the most important tourist and vacation regions in the country.
A strong Georgian independence movement developed during the late 1980s. On April 9, 1991, before the August coup in Moscow , which accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union , Georgia declared itself independent again. Wars of secession broke out in Abkhazia and South Ossetia . Due to Russia's strong military presence, the Georgian government still has no control over parts of its territory.
Georgia's first president after regaining independence, Swiad Gamsakhurdia , was replaced by a coup . His successor was the former Georgian Communist Party leader and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze . He initiated democratic reforms. However, the economy stagnated at a low level. There was also widespread corruption and regular election fraud.
Since the 21st century
In November 2003, Shevardnadze was ousted from power by the Rose Revolution . In January 2004, Mikheil Saakashvili was elected the new president with 96 percent of the vote. Zurab Schwania became Prime Minister . Successful Georgians abroad were brought into the country as ministers for important reform areas. The government chose to reduce bureaucracy (and thus the disempowerment of old elites and networks) and economic liberalization as its primary political goals. The drastic tightening of the state administration enabled the financing of the state apparatus to be put on a stable basis. The systematic rise in salaries and social security made possible by this made civil service attractive for young and qualified workers, which led to a strengthening of state institutions. The privatization of the state sector was driven by a counter-elite, who returned from the diaspora and had contacts to important foreign investors, but who also enriched themselves extremely through these projects. National debt fell for the first time in 2004.
Corruption and crime were vigorously pursued, although many measures were directed against representatives of the opposition and radical measures were taken. In April 2004, all 16,000 traffic police officers were released without notice. However, this led to the “Georgian Mafia” operating more intensively in Western Europe, which in 2010 led to Operation Java . During this period Georgia rose Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International from place 133 in 2004 to No. 51 in 2012, higher than Italy, Latvia and the Czech Republic. The earlier ubiquitous everyday corruption ("petty corruption") has practically disappeared. According to Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index , Georgia was ranked 44th out of 176 countries in 2016, along with Latvia , with 57 out of a maximum of 100 points.
Saakashvili also succeeded in driving out the Ajarian ruler Aslan Abashidze and reuniting Ajaria with Georgia. Prime Minister Schwania died on February 3, 2005. Finance Minister Zurab Noghaideli took over the office . However, dissatisfaction with the new government soon took on a shape similar to that in 2003. After mass protests against the government from November 2 to 7, 2007 , Lado Gurgenidze became the new prime minister. President Saakashvili resigned on November 25th to clear the way for new presidential elections on January 5th, 2008 . The official final result of these elections declared the previous incumbent Saakashvili the election winner with 53.47 percent of the votes counted.
In August 2008 the South Ossetia conflict escalated again and an open war broke out with Russia , initiated by Georgia according to a later EU report . As a result, Russia recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and would like to include both areas in the Eurasian Union . This would require Belarus, Kazakhstan and Armenia to also recognize their independence, which would bring them into an open confrontation with Georgia. "That is why Moscow has now hatched the plan to" integrate "the two areas more closely," said Dawit Ussupashvili (in October 2014) , "a further step towards definitive annexation for Georgia. Ten years after the unsuccessful attack by Georgian troops on South Ossetia, on August 8, 2018, both the USA and Canada, through the foreign ministries, demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
After two terms in office, Saakashvili was no longer allowed to run for the 2013 presidential election; his successor was Giorgi Margwelaschwili from November 2013 to December 2018 . This was replaced by Salome Zurabishvili .
In October 2019, Georgia suffered a noticeably large-scale cyber attack that affected more than 2,000 Georgian websites. Some of the start pages have been replaced by a message about Saakashvili's alleged return. The TV channels Imedia and Maestro were also attacked and could no longer broadcast.
Georgia is a democratic republic with a strong presidential system and centralized administration. It is viewed by critics as a defective democracy . Access to politics is formally secured through free and secret elections, but political and civil rights as well as the control of violence are often restricted. In autumn 2007, President Saakashvili was accused by his former defense minister, Irakli Okruashvili, who had previously been arrested in Berlin, of having commissioned murders. The opposition parties boycotted parliament in protest against what they believed to be a fraudulent election in May 2008 . International election observers, however, found only minor irregularities. After a tough election campaign, under pressure from the international community, “fair and free elections” finally took place in Georgia on October 1, 2012, followed by a peaceful change of power for the first time in this Caucasus country.
Georgia, like Israel and some other Eastern European and Asian states, is described as an ethnic democracy in which “the dominance of an ethnic group is institutionalized” . In the 2019 Democracy Index of the British newspaper The Economist, Georgia ranks 89th out of 167 countries and is therefore a "hybrid regime" with both democratic and authoritarian elements. In recent years, Georgia has seen a downward trend in this ranking: In 2017, the state was ranked 79th.
The President nominates the Prime Minister, who is confirmed by Parliament. The head of government heads a cabinet made up of 14 ministers and several government committees. Since November 2003, the head of government has been Surab Schwania in the function of a "Minister of State", in February 2004 he was given the rank of Prime Minister . At the beginning of February 2005 he died under dubious circumstances. On February 17, 2005, Zurab Noghaideli was elected Prime Minister by Parliament on the proposal of the President. Noghaideli resigned on November 16, 2007 "for health reasons"; Observers suspected mass protests as the real reason. On November 16, 2007, the President proposed Lado Gurgenidze to Parliament as his successor. On October 27, 2008 Gurgenidze, who had promised to fight unemployment and, in view of the global financial crisis, to stabilize Georgia's financial situation, resigned from the post of Prime Minister. President Saakashvili nominated Grigol Mgaloblishvili as prime minister; he resigned from his office after a few months. Saakashvili nominated Nika Gilauri , who was confirmed by the Georgian parliament on February 6, 2009. Gilauri was in office until June 30, 2012. After his resignation, Saakashvili nominated the previous Interior Minister Vano Merabishvili as Prime Minister. This also served only a short time.
After the victory of the Georgian Dream in the parliamentary elections on October 1, 2012, Saakashvili nominated its chairman, billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili , as prime minister. Ivanishvili resigned from the post of prime minister on November 20, 2013 in favor of his interior minister, Irakli Gharibashvili . In the presidential election on October 27, 2013 , Giorgi Margwelashvili received 62.1% of the votes; he took office on November 17, 2013.
On December 23, 2015, Gharibashvili resigned without giving any reason. On December 29, 2015, parliament elected the previous Foreign Minister, Giorgi Kwirikashvili, as Prime Minister. He continued to hold this office after his party's victory in the parliamentary elections in October 2016 . On June 13, 2018, he announced his resignation. Mamuka Bakhtadze was his successor from June 20, 2018 until his resignation on September 2, 2019 . On September 8, 2019, Giorgi Gacharia was re- elected as Prime Minister.
houses of Parliament
In the parliamentary elections on October 1, 2012, the opposition alliance Georgian Dream , founded by billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili , won a landslide. With 54.85 percent it won 83 seats in parliament and thus has an absolute majority. The previous ruling party United National Movement (ENM) gained 40.43 percent and forms the opposition with 67 seats. The other parties failed because of the threshold clause , which is 5 percent in parliamentary elections. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) assessed the election as free and democratic. The last elections took place in October 2016 ; with them, the Georgian dream achieved a three-quarters majority of the seats.
Georgia's foreign policy is shaped by the desire to make its independence from Russia irreversible. Immediately after Georgia was founded in 1991, Russia supported separatist movements in Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Adjara. In 1993 Georgia joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Relations with Russia remained at a low level and worsened, especially after the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003, which brought the goal of bringing back the breakaway regions back to the fore. At the beginning of 2007, Russia closed all border crossings, thereby increasing the embargo policy. Finally, in August 2008, there was a military conflict with Russia (“ Georgian War ”), as a result of which Georgia left the CIS.
The West cared little about Georgia until 1995. Increased oil production in Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan brought the state in the southern Caucasus back to the fore as a transit country for shipping the black gold in the mid-1990s. The NATO concluded with Georgia on a strategic partnership. Georgia has been linked to NATO since 2004 through an Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP). In 2006 Georgia switched to a new level of cooperation with NATO, the Intensive Dialogue (ID). Georgia plans to join the European Union (EU) in the future . It became a member of the Council of Europe and belongs to the EU programs European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) and TRACECA . Georgia joined the Eastern Partnership in May 2009 . An economic and political association agreement between Georgia and the EU was signed on June 27, 2014 in Brussels.
The US has 1999 Silk Road Strategy Act set out a strong political, economic and security ties between the South Caucasus countries ... and to develop the West . Georgia has received US military aid since 1994 and US military instructors have been serving various programs in Georgia since 2002. As of 2004, the country was represented in Iraq with 2,500 soldiers .
Georgia, along with Ukraine and Azerbaijan, has a special relationship with the group of new friends of Georgia : Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Poland and Romania . Since 2006 Georgia has been expanding its ties to Iran and the Arab world . It ties in with its traditional role as a mediator between Orient and Occident . Political relations with Iran are not easy because of the pro-Western orientation of Georgian foreign policy. In 2008, for example, relations deteriorated for a short while after the Georgian government arrested Iranian citizens who had been accused of smuggling and money laundering, among other things, and extradited them to the United States. During his visit to Tehran in January 2010, Georgia's Foreign Minister at the time, Grigol Vashadze, apologized to the Iranian leadership for this case.
At the end of September 2006 Georgian-Russian relations deteriorated dramatically when the Georgian authorities suspected four officers of espionage for the Russian Federation, arrested them and turned them over to an OSCE mediator. The subsequent mass expulsion of Georgian citizens by Russia was condemned by the European Court of Human Rights in 2014 . Georgia has lifted the visa requirement for Russia, Moscow not yet until October 2014.
Georgia has been a member of the United Nations since 1992 and belongs to the following international organizations: GUAM , OSCE , IMF , World Bank , EBRD , WTO , Council of Europe and Black Sea economic cooperation .
Georgia is divided into nine regions ( Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti , Guria , Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti , Imereti , Samtskhe-Javakheti , Mtskheta-Mtianeti , Shida Kartli , Kvemo Kartli , Kakheti ), the capital region of Tbilisi and the two autonomous republics of Abkhazia and Adjara . From an administrative point of view, the South Ossetia area is mainly part of the Inner Kartlien region.
Abkhazia is not under the control of the central government, but is controlled by a separatist government backed by Russia and not recognized internationally. In Adjara, too, there were separatist tendencies after the collapse of the Soviet Union . However, the Georgian central government managed to largely reintegrate the region into the Georgian state.
Georgia has ratified the UN Convention on Human Rights. Nevertheless, there is arbitrary authority in the country. Opposition party members and journalists have been subjected to harassment and disproportionate use of force by police , according to Amnesty International .
The right to freedom of expression is repeatedly attacked. Journalists covering the opposition demonstrations faced threats and violence from both authorities and opposition supporters in 2008, according to Amnesty International.
According to the 2016 Amnesty report, political antagonisms between supporters of the Georgian Dream and the United National Movement (UNB), the two leading parties in Georgia, intensified in 2015 . The mood heated up when some compromising videos emerged from the VNB's reign. In these the rape of inmates in a prison could be seen. This resulted in massive raids across the country on the offices of the largest opposition party.
In October 2015, the head of the main opposition television station Rustavi 2 stressed that he was being put under pressure by the government. Their goal is to oust him from his post. Without waiting for the final verdict of the Constitutional Court, the government in Tbilisi subsequently decided to fire the station's management staff and to appoint its own confidants to its administration.
The 2017 Amnesty International Report highlights the illegality of the Georgian judicial system. Above all, the partisan character of court decisions is denounced. According to this, the members of the United National Movement would usually be sentenced to imprisonment in court proceedings, while supporters of the Georgian Dream would be released on bail or fines.
The Georgian Armed Forces comprise nearly 37,000 professional soldiers in the armed services army , Air Force and National Guard . The active reserve comprises around 120,000 men and can be increased to 250,000 men in an emergency.
Since 2004, Georgia's armed forces have been modernized at an accelerated rate in accordance with NATO standards. While defense spending in 2003 was only 24 million US dollars , in 2013 it was just under 400 million US dollars, with 2.7% of GDP above the European average. In 2007, expenditure had increased to 22% of the national budget or 7% of the gross national product, specifically to more than 2.7 billion US dollars.
In pre-Christian times, trade between Georgia and the ancient world flourished. Goods were shipped via the Rioni from Kutaia, today's Kutaisi, to the port city of Phasis, today's Poti. Not only gold , silver , copper , manganese and iron were shipped from the Caucasus, at least since the 6th century BC. They also traded in Georgian wine.
Since around 1000 BC Iron processing prevailed. As early as the third century BC Georgia was the armory of antiquity .
The Soviet era and the transition to the market economy
In the 20th century, Georgia's economy focused on tourism in the Caucasus and the Black Sea , the cultivation of citrus fruits, grapes and tea, and the mining of hard coal , manganese and copper . To the west were cattle , east sheep bred. There was a small industrial sector that produced metals , machines , chemicals, and textiles .
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , Georgia suffered an extremely severe economic collapse compared to other successor states of the Soviet Union. In December 1990 Russia imposed an economic blockade on Georgia. Civil wars and independence struggles in Abkhazia, Ajaria, South Ossetia and western Georgia exacerbated the crisis. Production in industry and agriculture fell. The production volume slipped to a quarter of the 1989 level by 1994. Unemployment in the capital Tbilisi rose to 40 percent.
Help from the West came only in 1995 when the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) Georgia loans totaling 206 million US dollars and Germany in the amount of 50 million German marks granted. Between 1995 and 1997 the production volume rose to about 30 percent of the level in Soviet times; by 2001 it reached about 35 percent. 32 percent of the population lives below the poverty line , 13 to 15 percent of households live in extreme poverty (Statistics 2001). Salaries are not keeping pace with inflation, old-age pensions are around 19 euros per month, and civil war refugees receive a maximum of 6 euros per month. In October 1995 the Lari (GEL) was introduced as Georgia's new currency with the support of the IMF and the World Bank . Until the devaluation in 1998, the currency was stable against the US dollar (1: 1). The Lari is freely convertible.
Since the "velvet revolution" of 2003
After the Velvet Revolution of 2003, positive developments in the Georgian economy were evident. In particular, the bureaucracy has been reduced and Georgia has been on the top of the World Bank's Doing Business Index for years , for example in 2015 ahead of Switzerland or France. Georgia's economic policy reforms were also expressly praised in the World Bank's “Doing Business 2008” report during the 2007/08 observation period . The country improved from 112th to 18th place and is between Switzerland (16th) and Germany (20th). Direct investment in Georgia rose to $ 447.8 million in 2005 and more than $ 1 billion in 2006. The loan portfolio of the Georgian banks in 2007 amounted to more than 1.5 billion US dollars. However, the privatizations did not produce the expected proceeds by far. In 2014, 70 percent of Georgians lived on less than five dollars a day after adjusting for purchasing power. Although corruption rarely occurs in everyday life with the police, customs or judges, 70 percent of the agricultural areas were not registered, which prevents the bundling of small-scale agricultural production and means that a farmer only works half a hectare on average; the predominant form of economy is subsistence farming. The official unemployment rate is just under 15%, unofficial estimates are 30–50%. Industrial production is relatively small and developed.
Georgia's largest foreign trade partner is Turkey, followed by Russia, Azerbaijan and Germany (as of 2002). After the USA, Germany is Georgia's second most important partner in development cooperation . In early 2006, Georgia's external debt was $ 1.75 billion. Much of the money came from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development . Other creditors are the countries of the CIS , especially Turkmenistan and Russia. The total national debt at the end of 2011 was 10.1 billion US dollars.
An international transport corridor through the Black Sea ports of Poti and Batumi , a large oil pipeline from Azerbaijani Baku via Tbilisi to Ceyhan in Turkey, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline (BTC) and a gas pipeline running parallel to it are important for economic development . the South Caucasus pipeline . These pipelines make Georgia geostrategically important for the European Union and the USA, as they transport the oil and gas from the fields on the Caspian Sea past Russia to the west and thus reduce Europe's dependence on Russian exports.
After the recession of 2009 and another slump in 2012/13, the Georgian economy was able to recover. a. through the opening of the Russian market. Around 2014, 300,000 Russian tourists traveled to Georgia every year. The gross domestic product (GDP) of Georgia was around 17 billion US dollars in 2015. The gross domestic product per capita was $ 3,918 in the same year.
In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Georgia ranks 67th out of 137 countries (2017-2018). In 2017, Georgia ranked 13th out of 180 countries in the Economic Freedom Index .
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|7.90 billion||11.39 billion||18.23 billion||20.56 billion||23.76 billion||24.81 billion||24.08 billion||25.90 billion||28.35 billion||30.70 billion||32.25 billion||34.35 billion||35.72 billion||37.21 billion||39.70 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditures equivalent to US $ 4,571 million , which was offset by income equivalent to US $ 4,266 million. This results in a budget deficit of 1.9% of GDP . The national debt in 2016 was $ 6.38 billion, or 44.9% of GDP. The foreign trade volume had increased several times.
The share of government expenditure (in% of GDP) in the following areas was:
As in most of the successor states of the Soviet Union , the road network in Georgia is relatively poorly developed. Four-lane sections are mainly to be found in the metropolitan region of Tbilisi. In 2006 the total length of the Georgian road network was 20,329 km, of which around 39% were paved. The length of the international trunk roads is 1,495 km, the state internal roads 3,354 km and around 15,480 km are local roads.
The rail network of the Georgian railway company Sakartwelos Rkinigsa has a total length of 1612 km (97.7% in "Russian" broad gauge ) and is almost completely electrified . According to the geographic conditions, the main traffic axis runs in a west-east direction.
The railway infrastructure includes 126 stations , 45 tunnels and 1,714 bridges. The main lines connect the Georgian capital Tbilisi with Batumi and Poti on the Black Sea, with Baku on the Caspian Sea and with Armenia.
Domestic connections exist between Tbilisi and Batumi as well as Tbilisi and Kutaisi. There are regular flights from Natakhtari Airfield to the tourist town of Mestia .
Thanks to the favorable climatic conditions and the attractive geographical location, Georgian seaports have good development opportunities. According to the Georgian government, a total of 48.4 million tons of sea freight were transported in Georgia in 2010, 7% more than in the previous year. By far the most important container transshipment point is the Poti harbor with 92.8%, with a growth of 21.4% p. a. Even if Batumi handles significantly fewer containers, the turnover in 2010 grew by 84.1% year-on-year.
Poti on the Black Sea is an important transport hub on the way from west to east and is intended to become “Georgia's maritime gateway” in the future. Today the port has a protective wall and is therefore independent of the weather conditions.
The seaport of Batumi is located in the southeast of the Black Sea on the Georgian sea coast and the total area is 22.2 hectares. In the future, the new port for the export and transit of oil and three cargo terminals are to be built on the port site. Today the port has three oil terminals. The goods are transported by road and rail. Up to 100,000 TEU per year can be handled in Batumi. Four cargo terminals and the passenger port are also part of the port's infrastructure. Foreign investors are also planning to add a refinery.
Antiquity, the Middle Ages
Golden goblets and ornate swords were already being made in ancient times in what is now Georgia. The country was rich in metallic mineral resources and had been processing them since the 6th century BC. Chr. , Fueling trade. Greek and Roman travelers described paved roads, tiled houses, large cities, and fortresses.
The Georgian culture of the Middle Ages was influenced by Byzantine . The early one- and three-aisled basilicas (Nekresi, Dsweli Shuamta) from the 4th century stand on the foundations of ancient temples, are small and have an almost square floor plan. Large cross-domed churches were built in the 10th and 11th centuries (Svetizochweli, Alawerdi and Bagrati cathedral).
Georgian literature is divided into an epoch without writing, an early feudal literature in the 5th to 11th centuries, a literature of high feudalism in the 11th to 13th centuries, a late feudal literature in the 16th to the middle of the 19th century, a literature of the Modern times from the middle of the 19th century to the first quarter of the 20th century and a literature of the present.
- Middle Ages and early modern times
The oldest surviving book in Georgian literature is the Martyrdom of St. Shushanik , a hagiography from the 5th century. Georgian literature reached its heyday in the 11th and 12th centuries at the time of King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar . The latter finance minister, Schota Rustaveli , wrote The Recke in a Tiger Skin ( Tariel , Georgian Vepchistqaosani ), an epic on chivalry and nobility that rise above religion and nation (printed in Tbilisi in 1793). Giorgi Aphoni translated lyrical poems from the Greek as early as the 11th century.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani renewed Georgia's literature from the spirit of storytelling. His pupil, King Wachtang VI. , set up the country's first printing house in 1709 and had La Fontaine's fables published . A translation of the Bible supposedly begun in the 10th century appeared in Moscow in 1743.
- Under Russian rule
The publication of Georgian newspapers and books was severely limited under Russian rule until 1917. Melanie Badridse wrote the novel Kato and Ana (Tiflis 1857) in 1857, Bishop Joseb of Tiflis the poem Did-Mourawiani , the story of Mouraw Giorgi Saakadze , a personality of the 17th century (1850). Prominent Georgian writers of the second half of the 19th century were the poet, playwright and representative of the Georgian national movement Ilia Chavchavadze ( You, my dearest homeland, what are you so sad about - 1872, The Lake of Basaleti - 1883, The mother of Georgia - 1881, The Hermit - 1883, Letters of a Traveler - 1863), the popular playwright Akaki Tsereteli ( Tornike Eristawi , The Little Kakheti , Natela , Suliko , The Tutor ) and the writer of popular melodramatic novels Aleksandre Qasbegi ( Elgudscha - 1881, Eliso - 1882, The Parricide - 1882, The Morning After the Wedding 1882).
- During the Soviet period
Between 1915 and 1921 an avant-garde influenced by symbolism developed around the group Blue Horns ( Tsisperi Kantsebi ). However, this tendency was suppressed after the communist seizure of power; most of the members of the group turned to a patriotic realism. However, many were persecuted in the 1930s, were tortured to death like Tizian Tabidze (1893–1937) or committed suicide like Paolo Iaschwili (1894–1937).
The group's founder, Grigol Robakidse , holds a special position . He studied in Leipzig and Dorpat before the First World War and emigrated to Germany in 1931. He also wrote in German ( Das Schlangenhemd - 1928, Die gemordete Seele - 1933) and emigrated to Switzerland in 1945 because of his collaboration with the Nazi regime. His image today fluctuates between exuberant admiration and violent rejection.
The most important authors of the 20th century are Galaktion Tabidse ( Meri , Der Mond von Mtatsminda , Ich und die Nacht , Peach Blossoms , Falben , Heimat ), Konstantine Gamsachurdia ( The Smile of Dionysus - 1925, Goethe's Life Novel - 1934, The Robbery of the Moon - 1935 , The right hand of the great master - 1939, vine blossom - 1956, Dawit the builder - 1942–1961), Tschabua Amiredschibi ( Data Tutaschchia - 1975), Otar Tschiladze ( A man walked my way - 1973, Everyone who finds me ... - 1976, The Iron Theater - 1981).
- Since regaining independence in 1992
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia gained independence, but it became one of the poorest countries in the post-Soviet states: There were no publishers and no financial aid for the publication of new works.
The bestselling author Aka Mortschiladze ( Die Reise nach Karabach - 1992, Dogs on Paliaschwili Straße - 1995, Santa Esperanza - 2006), Dawit Turaschwili ( Merani - 1991, Jeans Generation - 2001) and Dawit Gogibedaschwili (collection of poems Samkauli , audio book Fahrt me to heaven - 2006). The younger authors include Ekaterine Togonidze, Nino Harati vili and Tamta Melaschwili , who began to write in Germany.
In 2018, Georgia was the guest country at the Frankfurt Book Fair . On the occasion of the fair, over 100 books were translated from Georgian into German.
Theater, opera, music
Georgia has 58 professional stages, 39 of which are dedicated to drama . Already in the 3rd century BC BC theater was played in Georgia. The Georgian National Theater was founded in Tbilisi in 1791, and the State Opera and Ballet Theater in 1851 . The bass player Fyodor Chaliapin made his debut there as high priest in Giuseppe Verdi's Aida . The dancer Georgi Balantschiwadze became one of the most important international choreographers under the name George Balanchine . Artistic director of the Georgian National Ballet has been the prima ballerina of the Moscow Bolshoi Theater , Nino Ananiashvili , since 2004 .
Traditional Georgian music is polyphonic . The musical language is diverse and regionally extremely different. The voice guidance and harmony of Georgian singing are unique in the world. The development of Georgian polyphony precedes European polyphony by at least three hundred years. According to new research, in addition to its own notation system, it is based on independent theoretical principles with its own pitch system. In the words handed down in the texts of old songs, one suspects similarities with old Sumeric languages, which are of eminent interest for linguistics. Georgian music has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. In 2018, Georgia will be represented at the Eurovision Song Contest by the Iriao group , whose trademark is traditional polyphonic singing.
Important Georgian composers of the 20th century are Sakaria Paliashvili , who combined European classical and Georgian folk music, Otar Taktakishvili , who also leaned heavily on folk music, Sulchan Zinzadze , Sulchan Nassidze and the avant-garde Gija Kanscheli . Also, Aleksi Matschawariani to name, who sought a synthesis of elements of newer music and Georgian folklore.
The young generation of Georgian composers are drawing attention to themselves with electronic music. These include Nika Machaidze (artist name: Nikakoi ), TBA (born in Tusia Beridze) and Gogi.ge.org (born in Gogi Dzodsuaschwili). Since 2004, the Georgian- British singer-songwriter Katie Melua has been primarily successful in Western Europe .
Georgia's cinematic art is internationally recognized. On November 16, 1896, the first cinema was opened in Tbilisi. The first Georgian film was made in 1912. The film industry was concentrated in the Grusia film studios . International awards went to Tengis Abuladze ( Magdana's donkey - Cannes 1956 , Reue - Cannes 1987 ), Otar Iosseliani ( The grape harvest - Cannes 1966 , Briganten - Venice 1997 ), Nana Jordschadze ( 1001 recipes of a cook in love - Karlovy Vary 1997 , 27 Missing Kisses - Brussels 2001) and Dito Tsintsadze ( Gunshot - Festival Internacional de Cine de San Sebastián 2003).
With the decline of the Georgian economy , film production also collapsed. Many Georgian directors now work abroad. Since 2001 a national center for cinematography has taken over the film funding. It is subordinate to the Ministry of Culture. An independent committee of experts selects two feature film projects each year, 75 percent of which are financed by the center.
education and Science
In Georgia there are statistically 27.97 students out of 1000 inhabitants . That is more than in Germany or Switzerland . Georgia's government wants to drastically increase spending on education, which has been declining in recent years (2001: 2.3 percent of gross domestic product ). President Saakashvili called Georgia's wealth not gold and oil, but our talents, our intellect, our skills, our education and our educated people .
The most important scientific institutions are the Tbilisi State University with around 30,000 students in 18 faculties, the Georgian Technical University , the State Pedagogical University , the State Medical University and the State University of Language and Culture in Tbilisi, and the Akaki Tsereteli University of Kutaisi . The Georgian National Academy of Sciences has ten scientific departments and 63 research institutes.
The literacy rate in 2015 was over 99%.
Georgia has a long tradition in wrestling , the Greco-Roman style was influenced by the ancient Georgian ring style. Football is the most popular sport in Georgia. The national team is organized by the Georgian Football Association (GFF). This organizes the men's, women's and futsal national teams as well as the regional and national leagues . The first Georgian league is the Erovnuli League with ten participating teams. The record champions are Dinamo Tbilisi with six titles. The club plays its home games in the Boris Paitschadze National Stadium in Tbilisi. Modern football in Georgia was introduced in the early 20th century by English sailors who played in Poti.
About 20 kilometers from the capital, Tbilisi, is the race track Rustavi International Motor Park , named after the nearest town of Rustavi . The track, which was originally opened in 1978, was rebuilt in 2011–2012 in accordance with FIA rules and is considered the first professional racing track in the Caucasus region. Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili took part in the opening ceremony on April 29, 2012 and personally sat behind the wheel of a Formula 3 racing car.
Georgia's cuisine was considered the haute cuisine of Soviet cuisine . It is known for its quality and regional diversity. At the weekend, the families and their guests meet at a large table, the so-called Supra . The more important the occasion or the guests, the more traditional the dishes are. It is always served in abundance to demonstrate generosity. Although there are hamburger, kebab and pizza restaurants in Tbilisi, foreign cuisine has hardly found its way into Georgian food culture .
Typical starters are stuffed aubergines with walnut paste ( Badridschani ) and air-dried beef (Basturma) . Main dishes are shashlik (Georgian Mzwadi ), chicken stew with tomato and onion sauce (Tschachochbili) and mutton stew with eggplant (Tschanachi) . There is also walnut sauce (Basche) , Mirabellensoße ( tkemali ) and various peppers pastes ( ajika ) . Popular desserts are sweet sausages made from walnuts in grape juice puree (Tschurtschkella) or nuts with yoghurt (Matsoni) and honey. If you feel hungry, dumplings with minced meat filling ( khinkali ) , baked cheese bread ( khachapuri ) or a red bean soup ( lobio ) .
Traditional drinks are Georgian wine , sparkling wine , brandy and chacha , a pomace brandy . The banquet table is led by a tamada (German table master ), who makes artistic toasts during the meal. After each saying the glass is completely emptied and refilled. Anyone who no longer wants to drink indicates this by letting the full glass stand. Chaschi , a strong broth made from rumen with lots of garlic , is drunk against the hangover in the morning .
Public holidays are:
- January 1st ( New Year )
- January 7th (Orthodox Christmas )
- January 19 (Orthodox Epiphany )
- March 3rd ( Mother's Day )
- March 8 ( International Women's Day )
- April 9 (Georgian Independence Restoration Day)
- May 9 (Victory Day)
- May 12th ( St. Andrew's Day)
- May 26th ( Independence Day )
- August 28th (Mariamoba, Orthodox Assumption Day )
- October 14 (Mzchetoba, Georgian Orthodox festival)
- November 23 (Giorgoba, St. George's Day).
Orthodox Easter is mobile and also a public holiday (April 19, 2009, April 4, 2010, April 24, 2011, April 15, 2012).
UNESCO World Heritage Site in Georgia
- Historical monuments in Mtskheta (K / 1994)
- Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery in Kutaisi (K / 1994)
- Mountain villages of Upper Svaneti (K / 1996)
76 printed publications are published in Georgia. The newspapers and magazines are independent. Some still have state participation. The most popular daily newspapers are Kwiris Palitra , Alia , Achali Taoba , Asawal Dasawali , Resonansi and the sports newspaper Sarbieli . The print runs are between 10,000 and 12,000 copies. There are also daily newspapers of the various ethnic groups : Swobodnaja Gruzija and Vetscherny Tbilisi (both in Russian), Gürcistan (in Azerbaijani) and Wrastan (in Armenian).
There are 52 television stations licensed by the National Communication Commission of Georgia . This includes seven public service channels, including Georgian Public Broadcasting (SSM) and Ajarian TV, and two to three Russian programs. They are financed by the state. The most important private stations are Imedi TV , Rustawi 2 , Mse TV , Kawkasia and 202 TV . The public radio , Rustawi 2 and Mse TV are politically close to the government. The Georgian military has had its own nationwide television station Sakartwelo since 2008 . Since January 2011 the TV channel PIK has been broadcasting news in Russian from Tbilisi. The target group is in particular the residents of the northern Caucasus, which is part of the Russian Federation.
In addition to two public radio programs , the country has many private radio stations. They are mostly regionally oriented. This not only includes special interest channels, but also channels from various ethnic groups. Radio Nor in Ninozminda addresses Armenians in the Samtskhe -Javakheti region, and Radio AGFM addresses Azerbaijanis in the Lower Cartlia region. In Tbilisi, the stations produce Ewrika and Seljonaja Volna programs for the Russian-speaking population.
The Civil Georgia Internet service provides news in English, Georgian and Russian. However, the Internet did not play a major role in Georgia in 2004. Only five percent of the population owned a computer. About eight percent of the population used the Internet. In July 2004, 27 percent told opinion pollers that they had never heard of the Internet. In 2012, fixed-line Internet access was no more than 10 percent, but there were over four and a half million mobile connections with Internet access, which was more than the number of inhabitants. In 2016, 52.9 percent of the population used the Internet.
In addition to the state agency Sakinformi, there are the private agencies Caucasus Press and Prime News . All major international agencies employ people in the country.
Foreign TV channels are mostly offered via cable. This includes almost all important Russian channels ( ORT , NTW , TWZ ) and all leading western programs ( CNN , BBC , Deutsche Welle , ESPN , Eurosport ). Radio France Internationale operates an FM transmitter in Tbilisi (102.9 MHz). The state radio broadcasts the Georgian service of Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty and the Voice of America . The private radio stations Evrika and Zeljonaya Volna broadcast the programs of the BBC's Russian-language service . The foreign press is present at the kiosks mainly through Russian titles. The main Russian daily newspapers and entertainment papers are imported into Georgia. The Russian papers Argumenty i Fakty and Komsomolskaja Pravda have their own printing works in Georgia.
Freedom of the press
The Georgian Constitution of August 24, 1995 guarantees freedom of the press and prohibits censorship. At the same time, it forbids monopolizing the media or their distribution. The press law, as amended on June 17, 2004, makes it difficult for plaintiffs to prosecute journalists for their reporting. Previously, editors had been sentenced to high damages for alleged defamation.
In the Shevardnadze era there were repeated efforts by the state to intimidate the media. Journalist Giorgi Sanaia , editor and anchorman of Nachtkurier on the private television station Rustavi-2 , was murdered in July 2001 after he learned of a videotape accusing Interior Ministry officials of having smuggled drugs through Georgia. The editor-in-chief of the government-critical newspaper Meridiani was beaten up by strangers in February 2001 and his family was threatened by telephone. In May 2002 the editorial offices of Rustavi-2 in Tbilisi were shelled.
In the summer of 2004 the press was again intimidated. The Tbilisi Prosecutor's Office raided the offices of the Georgian Times newspaper after publishing several articles on the origins of the capital's then chief prosecutor Valery Grigalashvili . Grigalashvili was removed from his post two months later.
On the international press freedom ranking , Georgia was 99th in October 2010, in the 2012 ranking it deteriorated to 104th, but rose to 84th in 2014, 69th in 2015, and in 2016 64 and improved to 61st place in 2018.
The Georgian Trade Union Confederation , engl. Georgian Trade Union Confederation (GTUC) is a member of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). The number of members in the individual trade unions belonging to the GTUC is given as 151,872 members (as of November 2017).
The largest single union is the Education and Science Workers Free Trade Union. She is a member of the Education International .
Other member unions of the GTUC are u. a .:
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