A student (from the Latin studens "striving (for), interested (for), striving for", in the plural studentes ) is a person who is enrolled in an institution of the tertiary education sector and is receiving an academic education there or is getting one undergoes higher education .
Most of those enrolled are studying to qualify for professions that require, or at least desirable, degrees or state exams . As part of their studies, they usually attend courses in the buildings of the respective educational institution. Distance learning is an exception .
The course requires matriculation (enrollment), which is linked to certain requirements. With the enrollment, a person receives the status of a student, which is confirmed by the issue of a student ID (Austrian also ID for students , in Switzerland legitimation card ). This status expires with de- registration.
Legal status of students
Members of the universities , i.e. students, professors but also employees such as For example, the book printers were not considered citizens of the university town until the 19th century, but of their university. Therefore, students who violated the current order were punished by the university and were not taken to the city prison but to the university's dungeon .
This situation often gave rise to conflicts with city residents. Students were notorious for drinking alcohol, nightly noise, and wild pranks. They were punished relatively mildly by the university for this, which is why they were often unpopular with the urban population, even if one could earn good money from them.
When the universities were first established, these institutions had to cover a much wider range of education than they do today. The preparatory school system was neither developed nor standardized. The entry requirements at the universities were low. The first-year students also had completely different ideas about the level of education they were aiming for. In many cases, the university took over the tasks of today's high school .
In the Middle Ages there were different types of students at universities. The most common type, also known as scholaris simplex , was content with a short study of the basic scientific terms lasting less than two years at the “Artistic Faculty”, named after the septem artes liberales , the “seven liberal arts”, which were then considered necessary linguistic and mathematical tools were considered. This faculty - from which the "Philosophical Faculty" later developed - was responsible for the basic education of students for many centuries. Only those who had successfully completed it could then be accepted into the specialized vocational training of the “higher” faculties - theology, medicine or law.
The second most common type of student actually aspired to such a degree from the arts or philosophy faculty after about two to two and a half years. Under the guidance of his master's degree, he was able to achieve a bachelor's degree . With this degree you could at least work as a private teacher or run your own school. Admission to the colleges in Spain, France and England as a supervisor for other first-year students was also possible.
The third type of student stayed on the faculty, continued to study, and taught or provided other academic support. After another two or three years he was able to obtain a master's degree. This degree made it possible to study at one of the “higher” faculties, but at the same time was associated with a teaching obligation. In the course of time, however, it was increasingly possible to buy oneself free from this teaching obligation , which wealthy students did regularly. Most of the representatives of this type of student, however, could not and continued to work as so-called master's students. They gathered their own first-year students and formed a schola or familia scholarium (“school” or “student family”). They now often received their own income from payments from their students, from benefices or scholarships . This group did the main teaching activity in medieval universities.
Very few of them, about two to three percent of all students, managed to obtain a bachelor's degree at one of the higher faculties, which also made it possible to teach here, and could then pursue the doctorate . This fourth guy had reached a worthy age of 25 to 30 years and was about ten years older than his youngest fellow students.
Finally, a fifth type of student was the so-called class student from a noble , patrician or at least rich family. Students of this origin came to the university with their own service staff and were only interested in acquiring knowledge relevant to their status, mostly in law . They had little interest in obtaining degrees or in any teaching activity. Even then, the acquisition of a “job-unspecific social qualification” was of interest, which is now being rediscovered under the name of soft skills .
This type of student was rare in the Middle Ages, as a leadership position in the feudal society of the time required military skills rather than theoretical study. In the Middle Ages, legal transactions were usually concluded orally and confirmed and certified by rituals that were regularly repeated in front of eyewitnesses. Only rarely, for really important matters, were written documents issued, for example by the Pope and Emperor . Most of the time, clergymen were used who specialized in written tasks. In the Middle Ages, medical healing was still largely regarded as ars mechanica , ie as a “practical art”, and was usually practiced by skilled craftsmen who also worked as bathers , barbers or tooth-breakers.
In the Middle Ages, university education was not necessarily the prerequisite for a social leadership position, but rather a special education that qualified for certain theoretical writing activities, which often represented a social advancement opportunity for the sons of less well-off parents.
In order to enable this not-too-wealthy clientele to study and to exercise effective control over the students, facilities for living and studying together were created, in which the students were practically day and night under the supervision of the university bodies. Life in the bursa , and later also in the colleges, was typical of the medieval university . This system of monitored living on campus has continued to this day at universities in the Anglo-Saxon region, where most students live in dormitories on campus with strict house rules.
At least in the early days of the universities in the Middle Ages, the students according to the concept of the University of Bologna (“Bolonesian Principle”) had a great influence on the decisions of the university management. The rector was usually a representative of the students. The professors were considered to be employees of the students, who also paid them directly. Teachers and students were united in nationes ("Landsmannschaften") depending on their region of origin, a division according to subjects was unusual. Until a few decades ago, this classification of at least the students according to origin was valid in Sweden in the form of the nationer , today these are more structured according to subjects.
But still in the course of the Middle Ages the Parisian principle prevailed, which provided for the formation of groups of teachers according to the subject to which the students had to submit. These groupings were called facultates ("faculties"). Since these faculties were formed exclusively by the teaching staff, the total number of teaching staff in a school or university is still called faculty in Anglo-Saxon countries .
Interestingly, the number four plays a major role in both the nationes and the facultates, at least in the early days. When classifying according to region of origin, one proceeded very roughly and summarized the most diverse regions of origin, if only a few students came from them, so that one always came up with the number four. The first, traditional faculties were also four: philosophy, medicine, law, and theology.
Early modern age
In the early modern period there were dramatic social and political developments that permanently changed the face of Europe. The new conditions also made completely new demands on the universities and their graduates.
The medieval union state developed into a territorial state . The personal loyalty relationships from the feudal system were replaced by laws that applied equally to all subjects of the sovereign. In this situation, an efficient administration could lead to a significant increase in power, for example when regular tax receipts enabled the sovereign to recruit more mercenaries. Therefore, the need for trained lawyers increased enormously. In addition, the new subject of camera science , i.e. administrative theory , emerged in the 18th century .
In the Protestant territories, all tasks that had previously been carried out by the Catholic Church had to be reorganized, especially pastoral care , welfare for the poor and the school system . Now these tasks had to be taken over by the newly established regional churches , headed by the ruler as summus episcopus ("supreme bishop"). For these tasks too, the ruler needed well-trained and loyal theologians and administrative officials.
In a wave of new establishments, the state universities emerged , with the help of which every ruler wanted to supply his territory with academically trained executives. With their own universities, the rulers also wanted to strengthen the loyalty of the newly growing class of executives to the ruling dynasty . The number of students grew rapidly.
Although the rulers preferred to educate their own “country children”, the students did not completely lose their traditional mobility. However, they had to take their exams in the country in which they wanted to be employed and study a certain number of semesters there beforehand.
The social standard of the students also rose. Whoever wanted to belong to the top (civil) management level in the territorial state had to have attended a university. This of course made it indispensable for the sons of the noble and ruling families to expose themselves to the inconvenience of such an education, if they did not want to fall behind their bourgeois administrative officials.
In the growing interest of the nobility, the universities saw a great opportunity to improve their own reputation, but also their financial situation. At that time it was customary for all university services (enrollments, lectures, exams, award ceremonies, etc.) to be paid directly to the organizer. For the noble students, concessions were made that met the students' need for comfort and pomp, but which had to be paid dearly. The nobility were also accommodated in the range of subjects. In the mathematical subjects, for example, more emphasis was placed on geometry , which could be used in artillery and fortress construction . In addition to Latin , new languages such as Italian and French were now taught. In addition there were the exercitia ("exercises"), which were supposed to supplement the theoretical study, the studia , with more physical skills required for social interaction. These included dancing , horse riding and fencing . In the course of the 16th century, suitably qualified teachers were hired at most universities. They established the tradition of university sports.
The developments in the early modern period did not always take place in a straight line. The Counter-Reformation brought a wave of new university foundations in imperial and ecclesiastical territories, which formed a Catholic counterpoint to the Protestant universities. The aristocracy was also only to a limited extent willing to exchange its nobility claim to the elite for the bourgeois education and achievement principle.
So the concept of the knight academy came up at times . These start-ups were educational institutions exclusively for young nobles and were supposed to be geared towards the special educational needs of this social class. In addition to the studia and exercitia , the program also included Latin and modern languages, as well as military exercises with pikes and muskets . The knight academies, however, went out of fashion again after a few decades. The standard program for a young nobleman continued to consist of a preparatory training by private tutors, a comparatively short visit to a university and a subsequent Grand Tour on which other universities, friendly rulers and important cities were visited, with extensive involvement of foreign countries, especially the Netherlands , France and Italy. The aim was to develop a cosmopolitan spaciousness. A court master , several instructors and a group of servants were available for these activities .
Typically, the sons of royal houses were appointed rectors of the same university when they were resident . However, this was only of a ceremonial character, the actual management task was taken over by a prorector who was appropriately qualified.
Even if the nobles did not go through the classic university career completely, these young gentlemen became the models of the other students, because in later professional life they formed the most important employers. So it was important to acquire the appropriate habitus early on and to orientate oneself to the values of this target group.
When the sovereigns began to prescribe special clothing in "national colors" as "civil uniforms" to their noble and bourgeois court servants, officials and estates at the beginning of the 18th century, the sons of the officials in question appeared at the universities with this clothing. And although the students' “ country teams ” no longer had a share in the university management, the students continued to organize themselves in self-administration according to their regions of origin. The use of special colors depending on the country team orientation became common. The authorities persecuted these self-governing associations because they saw in them the origin of all the vices and excesses of student life. The “badges” of these “secret associations” or “secret societies” were also banned, and wearing them was punished. However, this was not possible where the clothing was based on the “civil” or “military uniforms” of the respective country of origin.
In the early modern period, the typical student in the German-speaking area no longer lived in communal living quarters, but found accommodation with private individuals in the university town. Since these cities were often poor provincial nests and many residents were only arable citizens who had to make ends meet with part-time farming , these young men, who came to the city with more or less wealth, soon represented an increasingly important source of income for the population. In the traditional university towns Some families lived for centuries from services for students, including hospitality, accommodation, but also to a not inconsiderable extent prostitution. But other service providers and craftsmen such as book printers , bookbinders , horse lenders and sword sweepers also benefited from the money that the students brought to the university towns.
The students then regularly used this position of economic power when it came to asserting their interests against university bodies and the city population. The most drastic method was the “move out”, in which the students left the city with great pomp, whereupon the entire economic life there collapsed. As a rule, the students were able to resolve all disputes to their satisfaction. Most of them returned to the cheering of the population.
In the worst case scenario, they would found a new university elsewhere. The University of Leipzig was founded in 1409 by students and their magistri who had moved out of Prague.
Due to the changes in the environmental conditions, the student culture of the early modern era also changed in the German-speaking area. The mostly elegant origin of the students, the freedom of study and leisure, the economic dependency of the city population and the prospect of a leading position in the state or church administration brought with it a new form of student self-confidence. The student considered himself to be distinguished from the non-student through freedom, joie de vivre and defensiveness. A culture was formed that expressed itself through its own language ( student language ), its own songs ( student song ), its own forms of clothing (as a forerunner of the later color ) and precisely defined rules of behavior ( comment ).
The boy (from bursarius , "inhabitant of a Burse ") became the ideal image of this student culture . This is the name of the typical student who, after a beginner's stage, by being called Fuchs , had adopted the customs and traditions at the university and also developed a certain mental attitude, which is characterized by a combination of joie de vivre, a sense of beauty, self-confidence and defensiveness excellent. Boys stood in stark contrast to the Philistines , the non-students who were viewed as petty and socially inferior. Boys "of real shot and grain" should be ready at any time to defend their honor with the naked weapon. Fearfulness of threatening gestures led to a loss of reputation.
A dreaded phenomenon of the universities, especially in the 18th century, was the so-called renownist , a type of student who frightened citizens and fellow students with their aggressive and provocative demeanor and terrorized his surroundings.
In keeping with their social position, students in the early modern period wore a sword , which at that time was part of the equipment of a gentleman. With the increasing expression of the student status, a student duel system developed which was quite comparable to the dueling system in the military and the nobility. (For student fencing see also Mensur .)
The members of the student orders were also subject to dueling . This new form of student union emerged around the middle of the 18th century and showed elements of Freemasonry , but also of the philosophical-literary orders of the 17th and 18th centuries. The student orders were secret organizations that formed tightly knit communities. As friendship covenants, they should unite their members for a lifetime. As a sign of identification, a cross was hidden on a ribbon under clothing. The student orders existed partly within the old country teams, which were structured much more non-binding. At the beginning of the 19th century, the orders were replaced by the student associations in the current sense.
The excessive self-confidence of the students often led to quarrels between students and townspeople; sometimes there were big brawls between students and journeyman craftsmen, which then led to an official investigation. The students had little to fear. They were subject to university jurisdiction , which was part of the administration, and usually only had to expect relatively short prison sentences. Even the temporary or permanent expulsion from the university was often not very deterrent, because you could simply continue your studies at another university.
The course itself is likely to have played a subordinate role in many cases at that time. There were no compulsory study requirements, like the Abitur today, and the final exams were not very challenging. Many also left the university without exams because they wanted to save the corresponding fees. The university libraries were also only open for a few hours each week, and of course the valuable books could not be borrowed.
Despite the rise in student numbers in the early modern period, university studies remained an exclusive affair across Europe. Between 1750 and 1775 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, around 1.7 percent of young men of each age group studied, in France only 1.2 percent, in Poland and England only 0.2 percent of each age group. At the end of the 18th century there were fewer than 6,000 students in all of Germany. About a tenth of them were nobles, mostly the sons of higher officials. On the other hand, there were also about a tenth of the poor students who were waived their enrollment fees. Here the numbers fluctuate very strongly from year to year and from university to university.
In the modern age
Overview: The National University in the Industrial Age
In the modern age, universities began to develop from educational institutions of the territorial state to national universities. The languages of instruction were now the respective national languages that had replaced Latin in the course of the 18th century.
The demands of industrialization also affected students and academic training. At the end of the 19th century, the technical colleges were granted the right to award doctorates and were thus placed on an equal footing with the universities, which significantly improved the reputation of engineering students. Additional training courses were given academy and were given their own universities or became university faculties , such as agricultural and forestry , veterinary medicine , mining and later even elementary school teacher training . These developments opened up the course to sections of the population who previously could not even think of going to university. For the increasing number of students who were striving for social advancement by attending university, financing their studies was more difficult than it was for students in earlier times. A non-academic home could hardly afford the costs.
While a student in the early modern period was a privileged young man “from a better home”, students at the beginning of the 20th century increasingly became social cases, a financially weak section of the population who needed special support until they could enter professional life.
Up until the 1880s, mostly only men were entitled to study, but until around 1920 women enforced their right to study. The last big boost in student growth came in the second half of the 20th century when the "education disaster" was declared and many universities multiplied their student numbers.
At the beginning of the 21st century there are more than three hundred times as many students in Germany as in 1800.
A typical phenomenon of the last two hundred years was the previously unknown politicization of students, which began first with the French Revolution, but at the latest with the return from the Wars of Liberation . The basic political tendency of the first half of the 19th century can be described as bourgeois-revolutionary among students. In the second half of the 19th century, especially after the founding of the Reich in 1871, the students tended to become nationalist Bismarck and imperial worshipers who supported the state, which took on a völkisch-anti-Semitic note from 1880 at the latest. During the Weimar Republic, the majority of students pursued right-wing conservative goals and joined ethnic-national or Catholic movements that were overtaken by National Socialism in the early 1930s. From 1933 the student body was brought into line by the National Socialists. After the Second World War, a rather apolitical phase began in West Germany, but it ended all the more radically in the 1960s with the 1968 movement . For many years, Marxist-Leninist-oriented university political groups gained the upper hand in student representations. In the GDR , the universities have been involved in the restructuring of society in line with the socialist state doctrine since the end of the World War . Working-class children were given preference for study. Academic children were practically denied their studies. The Marxism-Leninism became an important school subject not only in the cultural and social sciences. Since the 1990s, there has been a certain lack of interest in general political issues in the student body of unified Germany. This disinterest can be a symptom of adjusted behavior in the context of globalization .
Enlightenment and French Revolution
At the end of the 18th century there were about 30 universities in the German Empire, some of which had fewer than a hundred students. Protestant rulers in particular wanted to raise the reputation of their universities by reforming them. The equipment in the libraries and natural history cabinets was improved, new, respected professors were appointed, censorship was handled more liberally and teaching was opened up to the ideas of the Enlightenment. The best known of these reform universities was the University of Göttingen . The Hohe Carlsschule in Stuttgart also belongs to this tradition. Mainz is the earliest example of a Catholic reform university.
The analysis of family records has shown that students often shared the Enlightenment's criticism of princely absolutism. The French Revolution then led to the politicization of many students. This, in turn, is proven by entries in family records, authoritative investigations against student groups and references in later autobiographies. There are also a number of students and professors who emigrated to France. This sympathy with the revolution can hardly be quantified. Fearing persecution, the students could only secretly admit their ideals. That is why it is still controversial in research today how relevant the politically interested students were for the history of the university.
After a phase of adjustment during the Napoleonic occupation, in which poorly attended universities were closed (such as the University of Helmstedt , the University of Rinteln and the University of Altdorf in 1810 , and the University of Wittenberg in 1813 ), the number of universities and the number of students continued to rise .
The age of Napoleon
The warlike times from 1792 to 1815 changed the political map of Europe and brought many young men to military service before, during and after their studies. The military service itself, but also the awareness of fighting not only for the interests of a sovereign, but for their own future in their own country, shaped the students of these decades.
While only about five percent of the total number of volunteers in the Wars of Liberation could be considered students, no social group had such a high proportion of volunteers. Historians estimate that around 20 to 50 percent of students took part in these wars.
From the outside, this development was evident in the student costumes, which were strongly influenced by military clothing during this period. The student costume was modeled on almost military uniforms. Epaulettes were worn on the shoulders and the head was adorned with a bicorn , also known as a balaclava or Napoleon hat. In everyday life, too, many students wore the Konfederatka , a special headgear used by the Polish cavalry troops, trimmed with fur and provided with a square cap. The Hungarian dolman , a tight, lace-up jacket, was considered particularly chic outerwear .
The warlike times also brought reforms that were supposed to create the strength for liberation from the yoke of Napoleonic foreign rule. Wilhelm von Humboldt was commissioned to do this in the Prussian education system , who finally saw the founding of the Berlin University as the culmination of his comprehensive reforms at elementary schools and grammar schools .
Humboldt's idea of a university envisaged the unity of research and teaching for university operations and the relationship between lecturers and their students. He also focused more on personal responsibility. The universities should also be kept free from government demands and requirements of a restrictive nature. Humboldt assumed that the universities in responsible self-regulation also fulfill state purposes, only from a higher point of view, so to speak, and with means that the state cannot produce from its own resources ( see also: Freedom of Science ).
Humboldt outlined his core program in his report to the King of Prussia in December 1809:
“There is absolutely certain knowledge that must be general, and even more a certain formation of attitudes and character, which no one should be missing. Everyone is evidently a good craftsman, businessman, soldier and businessman only if he is a good, decent person and citizen who is enlightened according to his status and regardless of his particular profession. If school lessons give him what is necessary for this, he will acquire the special skill of his profession very easily afterwards and always retain the freedom, as so often happens in life, to move from one to the other. "
The students of the time thought very similarly when it came to shaping their own community. Philosophically, they were inspired by German Idealism , a spiritual movement based on the ideas of Immanuel Kant and developed by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich von Schelling . These ideas became popular through the poems of Friedrich Schiller .
The basic idea was that in human development, not necessarily drastic political measures - the atrocities resulting from the French Revolution were considered a bad example - but rather the development of character and personality should be in the foreground. Because changes always begin in the area of ideas. If there was a change in the spiritual for the better, the positive political changes would come about by themselves. During these years, the students formed associations for their own area of life, which had written down constitutions to develop character, personality and friendship. According to the tradition of the 18th century, these associations were organized on the basis of country teams and joined together at their respective universities to form Senior Citizens' Convents (SC). They codified the centuries-old student comment in SC-Comments , which were to form the student codes of law at universities for many years. This gave rise to an early form of student self-government, which aimed to regulate student life at the university and aimed at ensuring that its members implement the positive experiences in their later professional life and in civil service for the good of the country.
This form of amalgamation still had different names, but was soon called uniformly corps . They laid the basis for the development of the student associations that still exist today . The Constitution des Corps Onoldia of 1798 is the oldest foundation in this sense .
Wartburg Festival, demagogue tracking and Vormärz
From the wars of liberation , the young students came back to the universities with new ideas. They expected the promised reforms from the rulers and the overcoming of small states in Germany. A German nation-state was sought and civil liberties , which were to be evidenced by written constitutions . The existing country team structure of students at the universities was often viewed as outdated. In many German universities, student associations were formed to help these ideas break through, for example the Teutsche Reading Society in Gießen , which can be seen as part of a Germany-wide “Teutonic Movement”.
The founding of the original fraternity was most effective . The republican-national movement spread across Germany. In many cities it merged with the Teutonic movement. In the course of time different currents emerged, so that the student community developed as increasingly inhomogeneous. In the largely apolitical corps, there were representatives of the nobility and the upper classes who were striving for a career in one of the states of the German Confederation, such as Otto von Bismarck , who became a member of the Corps Hannovera as a student in Göttingen . On the other hand, there were the political extremists who were to be found especially among the “ Blacks from Giessen ”, the “Blacks from Darmstadt” or the “Unconditional” in Jena. These groups worked on an armed insurrection and accepted violence as a means of their policy of overthrowing.
The Wartburg Festival , which was organized by fraternity members from all over Germany in 1817, is considered an important event in German history . It was here that the political demands that were extremely provocative for the authorities at the time were formulated in public. What particularly alarmed the rulers, however, was the plan to found a “general fraternity”, a cross-university, supra-regional organization with a political orientation. In the opinion of the time, this was completely unacceptable.
The German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Chancellor Metternich issued the Karlsbad resolutions in 1819 , which also included the “University Laws”. It stipulated that a “sovereign representative” was to be appointed for each university, who would check on the spot whether the professors were conveying politically unpleasant ideas to the students. The main body was the Mainz Central Investigation Commission , to which every abnormality had to be reported. Unpopular professors could be expelled from the university and were banned from working in the whole of the German Confederation (“demagogue persecutions”). The fraternities , as well as the existing corps , were also banned.
- §. 3. The long-standing laws against secret or unauthorized connections at the universities should be upheld in all their strength and severity, and especially extended to the association founded for several years and known under the name of the general fraternity This association is based on the absolutely inadmissible requirement of a continuing community and correspondence between the various universities. With regard to this point, the government plenipotentiaries should be obliged to exercise excellent vigilance.
- The Governments agree that individuals who can be shown to have remained in or entered into secret or unauthorized associations after the present resolution has been promulgated shall not be admitted to any public office.
- Carlsbad Resolutions - University Law of September 20, 1819
Nonetheless, fraternity members, but also corps students, played a major role in the uprisings of 1830 and in organizing the Hambach Festival in 1832. Fraternity members mainly from Heidelberg and Würzburg organized the Frankfurt Wachensturm in 1833, with which the weapons and the treasury of the German Confederation were to be conquered, which should have triggered an armed popular uprising. The failure of this action, in which there were nine dead and 24 injured among the insurgents, represented a serious setback for the fraternity movement. Most of the founding dates of fraternities still in existence today are after this date.
The Bundestag set up a commission of inquiry that carried out years of extensive research into the conspirators and their backers. By 1838 it wrote out more than 1,800 people to be searched. Because of high treason finally 39 people were on death sentenced, but later commuted to life imprisonment partially.
In the late 1830s and early 1840s, in the context of the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie, the so-called “ progress movement ” was formed at the universities, which wanted to adapt student traditions to the bourgeois culture of the time and to abolish student privileges - including academic jurisdiction . The entire student tradition, as it had been handed down from the 18th century, was felt to be out of date. Some associations advised on the admission of non-students. The liaison system at the universities was about to be dissolved. So-called “progress links” were formed in many cases, including gymnastics associations , singers' associations and a new type of country teams that still exist today . But these new associations could not replace the already established student culture, but largely resumed the old forms. This movement founded the variety of student associations that still exist today alongside the corps and fraternities.
The bourgeois emancipation efforts were soon to culminate in the March Revolution . This is a collective name for various bourgeois uprisings in the federal states, which stretched from 1848 to 1849. The students met for the second Wartburg Festival in 1848 and in the summer of the same year for the Student Day in Eisenach to formulate their demands to the Frankfurt National Assembly . One of the successes was the repeal of the Karlovy Vary resolutions including the university laws in 1848. Metternich went into exile. Another important consequence was the establishment of the Frankfurt National Assembly in the Paulskirche . Several hundred representatives were among the MPs who moved in, including some presidents who had been members of a corps or fraternity while studying.
The establishment of a German Empire and the enthronement of an emperor failed, but liberalization could not be stopped. The development was evident across Europe, including the issue of women's studies . In 1849, the University of London's first women's college was founded. The first female students at the University of Zurich were able to attend the university as early as 1863 - for example, Ricarda Huch studied and did her doctorate there , who was unable to do so in Germany. In Germany and Austria, the admission of women to regular studies should take several decades.
At the universities, the liberalization was particularly noticeable in the fact that the until then persecuted and banned self-governing student associations, the student associations , were now able to openly show themselves and profess their culture. The former students also no longer had to hide their "youthful sins", which led to closer contact between the students and the "old men". The first foundation festivals were celebrated with the "alumni". To be there, working academics took the new train to their old university town for a few days. The possible closer connection was the basis for the later old gentlemen's associations.
Forbidden "underground organizations" of insubordinate youths became associations of the nation's academic elite . The fraternity colors black, red and gold were even declared to be the colors of the German Confederation . From now on the whole variety of the German student associations unfolded.
The repeal of the Karlovy Vary resolutions made it possible to revive civil associations. The gymnastics and singing clubs, which often still exist today, were founded, which soon celebrated Kommerse and foundation festivals based on the student model .
The former students became the parents' generation of the prospective students and remembered the educational value of the student, democratically structured self-administration. The student associations took over the non-subject education of the students by social consensus. Even for the sons of ruling aristocratic houses ( Prussia , Württemberg , Baden , Mecklenburg-Schwerin , Saxe-Coburg-Gotha , Schaumburg-Lippe etc.) it was now opportune to join a student union during their stay at a university. However, only corps selected according to certain criteria were considered.
The increasing industrialization required new and more highly qualified professions on a broad front. New training courses emerged, newly founded technical schools, for example for agriculture and technology, forestry and mountain academies gained greater importance. They were forerunners of today's technical universities and technical colleges . Student unions soon formed at these new institutes, too, adopting traditional forms of association. Student associations formed at the grammar schools and secondary schools .
The “old gentlemen” openly carried student culture into bourgeois life. So their customs increasingly gained influence on the language and habits of the German population. Student expressions such as “pub”, “lad”, and idioms such as “pump up”, “give a rebuff”, “come into disrepute” became part of everyday language. It became fashionable to mimic student mores. So even in the 1870s, so-called student hats were introduced for secondary school students based on the pattern of student hats , which classified the students according to school and grade level - even without any affiliation.
From the establishment of an empire to the First World War
With the establishment of the Reich under the leadership of Prussia, the establishment of traditional student culture continued as the culture of the student associations that were now state-sponsored. The students celebrated Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm I as the founders of the empire, and the student associations saw it as an obligation to the state to provide their members with an education in the spirit of the Wilhelmine-Prussian spirit. The “old gentlemen” of student connections occupied the most important social and political positions in the German Reich and enthusiastically took part in the celebrations of the academic youth, who took on a pomp in the Empire that was previously unknown for student festivities.
Increasingly, however, there was also student resistance to the dominant Prussian-Protestant element in the newly founded German Empire. Encouraged by the Kulturkampf that Bismarck waged against the Catholic Church in Prussia and in the Reich, Catholic students formed special Catholic student associations, which fundamentally rejected the Mensur , but adopted the typical identity features such as color , circle , student coat of arms , etc. In the 1890s in particular, there were numerous newly established associations, for example in the Kartellverband (KV) or Cartellverband (CV).
Since the 1890s, under the influence of the youth movement at German universities, the so-called free student body (also: free student body , finchhood or wild life ) spread. This is the name given to the associations of non-incorporated students, i.e. students who do not belong to a traditional student association but who still wanted to have a say in university politics. The free student movement is - after the original fraternity and student progress - the third important reform movement within the student body of the 19th century and at the same time a pioneer of today's student self-government . Its representatives rejected the old structures and identity symbols in principle.
Since the 1890s there was a renewed wave of founding of these mergers, e. B. in Freiburg 1892, Leipzig 1896, Halle and Königsberg 1898, Berlin and Stuttgart 1899. After the founding of the umbrella organization German Free Student Union in 1900, the movement spread to almost all universities in the empire in a short time.
This development was suddenly interrupted by the First World War. The patriotic-minded student body rushed to arms enthusiastically, university life practically came to a standstill. The war also took a heavy toll in blood among the students. Many former conscripts came home disaffected from the war and streamed back to the universities.
Weimar Republic and National Socialist rule
Even during the First World War, serious efforts had been made to create a representation of German students with the involvement of all corporation associations and non-incorporated students. After two preparatory meetings of representatives in Frankfurt in 1917 and Jena in 1918, the German student body was finally founded in July 1919 at the First General Student Day of German Universities in Würzburg as an umbrella organization for the local student bodies. The student representatives gathered in Würzburg, mostly former combatants, were not only determined to finally overcome the prewar rifts between the various student groups. B. was expressed in the equal composition of the first board - but also in the majority (still) ready to “participate in the cultural reconstruction of Germany on the basis of the new state order” .
In this sense, the DSt primarily advocated the social concerns of students affected by the consequences of war and inflation in its early years. For example, on the 4th German Student Day in Erlangen in 1921, the self-help associations that had previously been established at the local level were incorporated into the “Economic Aid of the German Student Union e. V. ” , from which the German Student Union later emerged.
In its Erlangen program , the DSt also propagated student work (vulgo: jobben) not only as a means of increasing livelihood, but also as a contribution to overcoming the traditional barriers between academics and workers ( see also: working student ).
Towards the end of the 1920s, the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) began to dominate the universities and the German student body. It was founded in 1926 as a division of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) for students. On behalf of the NSDAP, the NSDStB was to take over the ideological training of the students in line with the National Socialist ideology. Like all party branches, it was structured strictly according to the Führer principle , barracked its student members in so-called comradeship houses and, from 1930, equipped them with brown shirts and swastika flags.
After the Second World War
In the late 1960s and 1970s, tertiary education developed rapidly. Many new scientific research and training institutions were founded. Established uniformly in the Federal Republic of Germany , regulated in the Higher Education Framework Act (HRG) of January 26, 1976, in addition to the old universities, scientific universities with equal status, such as the universities of education , which also gradually received full doctoral and habilitation rights and university administrative structures. The individual state university laws regulate detailed questions in accordance with the federal structure of the Federal Republic of Germany. Characteristic of the scientific universities are, for example, the explicit mandate of research and teaching, which includes basic and applied research, the semester structure, which allows "lecture-free times" for research and its publication in addition to the teaching phases, as well as the deputation and salary structure of the university teachers. The students were assigned the lecture-free times for guided research participation in the context of their seminar, diploma or doctoral degrees, but also for the acquisition of internship experience.
The mass universities known today with their overcrowded lecture halls, such as the University of Münster, developed at attractive locations with an increasing "student glut" . A numerus clausus had to be introduced in many subjects . But tiny universities such as the University of Vechta and primarily application-oriented technical colleges for students with a focus on technology, art or music emerged.
Due to the variety of educational institutions that arose after the Second World War, today's students have training opportunities in the tertiary education sector that are highly suited to their special talents, their personality and interest structures and their individual career orientation.
In 2012, 2,499,409 people were enrolled at German universities, 1,185,392 of them women (approx. 47%). In the 2009/2010 winter semester there were 2,119,485, 1,014,728 of them women. In the 2012/2013 winter semester, 65% of the enrolled people were enrolled at universities , 30% at universities of applied sciences , the remainder was spread over the theological and pedagogical universities as well as art universities .
In 2015/16 there were 2,759,267 students, 1,727,513 of them at universities and 932,531 at technical colleges and 99,223 at administrative, art, pedagogical and theological colleges. Around 42% of the students in 2014 were female. The proportion of foreign students at German universities was 11.9% in 2014/15 and has remained roughly the same since 2003.
In Germany, a university place costs the state on average 8,420 euros per year at a university and 3,720 euros at a university of applied sciences. The costs vary between the federal states between 5,210 euros and 11,310 euros or 1,940 euros and 4,750 euros. Furthermore, the costs vary according to subject group between 29,150 euros per study place in human medicine and 4,210 euros in law, economics and social sciences. A complete university course costs the state an average of 48,600 euros for a diploma course, 29,000 euros for a bachelor's degree, 19,200 for a master’s, at universities of applied sciences 17,200 for a diploma, 12,500 for a bachelor’s degree, 7,900 for a master’s degree. Differentiated according to subject groups, a degree in law, economics and social sciences costs 24,400 euros, language and cultural studies 31,200 euros, natural sciences 52,500 euros, and human medicine 211,400 euros.
Quantitative gender ratio
With regard to the quantitative gender ratio at universities, there are great fluctuations between the various departments. There is a surplus of women in the social sciences and humanities , whereas there is a surplus of men in technical fields of study. See also women's studies .
In Germany, according to the Federal Statistical Office, the proportion of women in the 2009/2010 winter semester was 48%, with new enrollments it was just under 50%. In 2009/2010 there was an above-average proportion of women at universities in the fields of veterinary medicine (85%) and language and cultural studies (70%). In the field of mathematics and natural sciences, the proportion of women was only 41%, in engineering only 24% ( see also: women's studies ).
According to figures from the Federal Statistical Office, 51% of university degrees were taken by women in 2007. With the higher academic degrees, however, the proportion of women decreases. In 2007 women did 42% of doctorates in Germany. In 2006, the proportion of habilitations was 22% and only 15% of the professorships were held by women. In the highest grade, C 4, it was only 10%. However, the proportions have increased significantly compared to 1995.
In the 2005 winter semester, 217,800 people studied at Austrian universities, compared with 332,624 in 2009/10, of which 273,542 were at universities and 36,914 at universities of applied sciences. The proportion of women is 53.6%.
Universities of applied sciences in Austria are financed based on the study place. There are four different funding rates (technical, economic, tourist, technical-economic) depending on the content of the field of study. The federal government pays an annual amount of between 6,500 and 7,900 euros per study place.
Quantitative gender ratio
According to Statistics Austria , there were roughly the same number of female students as there were students in Austria in the 2001/2002 winter semester. The proportion of women in humanities studies was above average with 77% of the matriculations, in the social and economic sciences the proportion of women was 53%. Less than 25% of the students in engineering courses were female. The proportion of women graduating in this field of study was 18%. Only 9% of the doctoral students were women.
Proportion of foreigners
From 2000 to 2010, the number of foreign students at Austrian universities roughly doubled. In the 2010/11 winter semester, roughly every fifth student in Austria was a foreigner (65,000 foreign students); In the 2013/2014 winter semester, roughly one in four (92,000 foreign students out of a total of 350,000 students) was foreign and among the newly enrolled the proportion was even higher at 35%. Germans make up the largest proportion (for details, see also: Bildungsmigration , Numerus clausus # Austria and Deutschenschwemme # Austria ).
There are contradicting data on the proportion of foreigners who do not stay in Austria after completing their studies.
A total of 169,500 people (ETHs, universities and technical colleges) were studying in Switzerland in 2006.
According to the FSO , the proportion of women at universities at Swiss universities is 53.9% at the start of studies, and only 43.9% for degrees. Around 32% of female students drop out (as opposed to around 28% of male students). Although nearly as many women as men attend college, there is a higher percentage of discontinuations of women, which can be explained also by maternity or planned motherhood. Fewer of those who have completed a university degree aspire to an academic career than men, so that the proportion of women in assistants and research assistants falls to 29%. 17% of the teaching staff at Swiss universities and 29% at universities of applied sciences are women. In 2011, 22,000 people were enrolled in doctoral studies (~ 9,800 women and ~ 12,200 men). The proportion of women doing habilitations in 2002 was around 13.5%.
There are hardly any differences with regard to the mean length of study . Statistics from Swiss universities show an average of 103% (11.9 semesters ) compared to male students, which can be explained by the motherhood of around 5–10% of female students. Nevertheless, the 3 percent but significant difference (2 months in the study duration) would be reversed without two subject areas : In 5 out of 7 subject groups the study duration is a few percent shorter , only longer for technology and "others".
Number of Western Europe
As a result of the increased demand for university places from the baby boomer generation and for reasons of regional structural policy , numerous new universities were founded in the second half of the late 20th century. Western European demographics and the decline in the birth rate in Europe are also leading to a decline in the effective total number of students in Europe. This now leads to a competition between universities for students, but also to restrictions and changes in the range of courses. The student is therefore increasingly the target of advertising and marketing measures on the part of the universities, which also try to justify their existence by increasingly differentiating their offers. While the Ivy League, for example, in the more egalitarian German company a few years ago in the German higher education policy, a slogan was, which was considered politically incorrect, this term is now as a sign of change and under the sign of Pisa for a cure and politically desirable product differentiation for Improvement of the position of state universities in the global competition for new students. Some university cities therefore also pay freshmen, who usually have to register at the university location with their first place of residence to increase the wage tax rate of the university municipality, a welcome fee , which usually consists of a one-time cash payment combined with other monetary benefits.
The term "student"
When the universities were founded in the Middle Ages, Latin was the only scientific and administrative language. One student was referred to as a scholaris (pupil, from the Latin schola 'school'). The term “ scholar ” is still used today in connection with the Middle Ages. In the early modern period, the term studiosus (Latin for "the eager, the interested") came up. In Middle High German , however, there was already the term student, borrowed from the Latin present participle ( studens ) .
The colloquial terms Studiker (now outdated again) or Studi come from the 20th century . The technical term in Latin is also used in abbreviation as a so-called student degree , where tradition- conscious students in particular call themselves either studiosus or candidatus , without this being a title or something similar.
In the Anglo-Saxon countries, schoolchildren are also referred to as "students", which occasionally leads to confusion.
The term "student"
Since the 1990s, university administrations and legislators have switched to replacing the term “students” in the sense of an inclusive language with formulations that the female students expressly mention or are perceived as more gender-neutral. According to a study by Helmut Glück, the term was "apparently ... first used with the intention of designating both sexes". In non-official language use, however, such formulations are less common. In a survey from 2017, a total of 32% of respondents said that they “never” use gender-neutral language and 37% that they only “rarely” use it. According to their own statements, 14% used it "often" and 5% "always".
In addition to the use of the participle form “students”, the expression “students” is recommended, as well as the use of alternative spellings such as “students”, “students”, “ students” against the background of attempts at feminist linguistics "," Student (inside) ", as well as" Students "with internal I , as they are presented, for example, in the Austrian dictionary (ÖWB), which is binding for schools and offices, based on the official set of rules . In this context, it is conceded that "the writer [...] [is] to bear in mind that the individual options for presentation are assessed differently."
The participle form “students” has not only been in use in the last few decades. Already in the constitutional document of the Jenaische fraternity of June 12, 1815 it says:
“Raised by the thought of a common fatherland, imbued with the sacred duty that is incumbent on every German to work towards the revival of the German way and spirit, thereby awakening German strength and discipline, and thus to reestablish the previous honor and glory of our people and to protect against the most terrible of all dangers, against foreign subjugation and the compulsion to despotism, some of the students in Jena have decided to establish a union under the name of a fraternity. "
In 1827, in a table of universities in Europe, the term "students" could be found in the information on the number of students at universities.
Under National Socialism , the word “students” was an integral part of the administrative language.
The exclusive use of “students” was widespread in the German-speaking area in the post-war years. The change in the language standard and its enforcement on the administrative route is also viewed critically. The following objections were raised in particular: The long form “students” is too cumbersome and too long; the spelling “students” with the internal I does not differ from the feminine form when speaking, and male students are excluded and it contradicts the official spelling; the participle form “students” is bureaucratic, not very clear and describes everyone who studies as a participle to study . However, you can also be enrolled as a student without actively studying. Conversely, guest students can also study without being enrolled as a student.
In Austria , the old University Organization Act 1993 and the current University Act 2002 refer to “students” as “persons admitted to study at the university by the rectorate”. "Students" was sometimes used as early as 1945.
- Franco Cardini , Mariaterese Fumagalli Beonio-Brocchieri (ed.): Universities in the Middle Ages. The European sites of knowledge. Munich 1991, ISBN 3-517-01272-6 .
- Konrad Jarausch : German students 1800-1970. (edition suhrkamp 1258), Frankfurt 1984, ISBN 3-518-11258-9 .
- Michael Klant: University in the cartoon. Bad pictures from the curious history of universities. Hanover 1984, ISBN 3-7716-1451-1 .
- Konrad Lengenfelder (Ed.): Dendrono-Puschner's natural portrayal of academic life in beautiful figures brought to light. 2nd edition Altdorf 1993.
- Harald Lönnecker : Students and society, students in society. Attempt to provide an overview since the beginning of the 19th century. In: Rainer Christoph Schwinges (Ed.): University in public space, Basel 2008 (= publications of the Society for the History of University and Science, Vol. 10), pp. 387-438.
- Walter Rüegg (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe. Four volumes, Beck, Munich 1993–2010.
- Rudolf Stichweh: The early modern state and the European university. On the interaction between politics and the educational system in the process of their differentiation. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-518-58083-3 .
- Wolfgang EJ Weber: History of the European University. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-17-016482-1 .
- "Libri, discipulos, magistri, doctores". Books, students, masters and doctors in the University of the Middle Ages. ( Memento from June 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (Bibliography, HU Berlin, now in the Internet Archive)
- Specialized bibliography of Marburg student life: student language, student song, university history. (will be added continuously)
- Pictures from student life in Marburg (16th - 20th centuries)
- Social survey by the German Student Union (economic and social situation of students in Germany)
- Explanation of words: sv Student (boy, student, studio (sus))
- Topic universities. Federal Statistical Office , accessed on October 4, 2017.
- Administrative regulation for Prussia , 1750: s: Reglement - How the students at royal universities should behave and behave
- Rainer Pöppinghege: Between radicalism and adaptation. 200 years of student history . In: Jan Carstensen, Gefion Apel (Hrsg.): Ready-to-use! Student associations in the empire. Reader and exhibition catalog on behalf of the Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe for the exhibition in the Westphalian Open-Air Museum Detmold from August 15 to October 31, 2006, ISBN 3-926160-39-X , p. 12 f.
- Figures up to 1930 according to Walter Rüegg (Ed.): History of the University in Europe, Volume III. CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-36956-1 , p. 202 , as of 1965 according to Giese / Schmidt: Student Sexuality. Rowohlt, 1968, p. 29; from 1970 according to student Total from 1975 on destatis.de, accessed on December 9, 2015. Data relate to the winter semester and until 1989 only refer to the “old federal territory”; As of 2015 according to the press release of the Federal Statistical Office No. 432 of November 25, 2015
- Long series by nationality and gender from 1975 , published by the Federal Statistical Office.
- Total students by type of university, published by the Federal Statistical Office.
- Press release of the Federal Statistical Office No. 432 from November 25, 2015
- (as of May 2010) Universities at a Glance, 2010 edition, page 42f.
- Federal Statistical Office : Students at universities - winter semester 2009/2010 Fachserie 11 Reihe 4.1 - 2010
- Federal Statistical Office : Examinations at universities - Technical series 11 series 4.2 - 2007 and University staff - Technical series 11 series 4.4 - 2006
- Students in Austria 2010/11 - 2012/13 , Statistics Austria, University Statistics.
- Around 4,000 new study places at Austria's universities of applied sciences , University of Applied Sciences Conference (FHK).
- More and more foreign students. DiePresse.com, March 27, 2013, accessed on July 12, 2016 .
- Every fourth student at our universities is not an Austrian. nachricht.at, October 24, 2014, accessed on July 12, 2016 .
- Half of foreign doctoral students do not stay in Austria. May 18, 2015, accessed July 12, 2016 .
- Scenarios 2011-2020 for the universities - faculty . Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Table: University students by subject area, level of study and gender . Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved on January 21, 2013: “Selection year 2011, degree doctorate, gender men and women” ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Cf. the guidelines of various universities in German-speaking countries: Uni Bern , Uni Tübingen , Uni Köln ( Memento of the original dated February 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , TU Dresden ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , FU Berlin , Uni Hamburg , Uni Göttingen ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Uni Heidelberg , Uni Munich , Uni Bamberg , Uni Osnabrück , Uni Gießen , Uni Regensburg ; Goethe University Frankfurt: ... the Goethe University is committed to the use of gender-equitable and gender-sensitive language ( memento of the original from March 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf ; Guidelines for the linguistic equal treatment of men and women of the University of Zurich (pdf) ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. : University of Vienna ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Constitution of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, § 38 Gender- neutral language: In general correspondence as well as in legal and administrative regulations including study, examination, doctoral and habilitation regulations, either gender-neutral terms or the female and male language forms are to be used .
- Guidelines for gender-equitable language at universities (selection) , in: Eva Blome et al .: Praxishandbuch Zur Gleichstellungspolitik an Hochschulen , Springer VS, 2nd edition 2013, ISBN 978-3-531-17567-6 , p. 416.
- Helmut Glück: Students are not always students. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , August 8, 2019, p. 6.
- Herbert Fussy , Ulrike Steiner (ed. On behalf of the BMUKK ): Austrian dictionary. On the basis of the official regulations. Österreichischer Bundesverlag Schulbuch, Vienna 2010, 41st edition, ISBN 978-3-209-06875-0 , p. 861 (spelling rules point 12. The slash , spelling variants shown using the example of pupils).
- Herman Haupt (Ed.): Sources and presentations on the history of the fraternity and the German unity movement , Volume 1, C. Winter, 1910, p. 124.
- KE Rainold (Ed.): Memories of strange objects and events , magazine in monthly deliveries, 7th volume, Vienna 1827, after p. 216.
- See for example Reichsgesetzblatt, digitized on alex.onb.ac.at, Part I, edition of July 7th, 1938, "Law on the Reichsstudentenwerk", Paragraph 7 or edition of July 22nd, 1939, "Fifth Ordinance on Implementation and Supplement of the Reichsärzteordnung ", Paragraphs 5, 16, 23, 25, 27f etc.
- On the relative frequency, see Anatol Stefanowitsch: Long-lived students online on sprachlog.de
- Helmut Glück, Students are not always students , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , August 8, 2019, p. 6.
- Ordinance of the State Office for Public Enlightenment, for Teaching and Education and for Religious Matters of September 3, 1945 on student self-administration at universities of the academic and artistic direction , StGBl. No. 170/1945 .