Pedagogical College

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The universities of teacher education , including universities of education , have developed differently in the various countries, have achieved a different status and have been given different research and educational tasks.

In Germany , the universities of teacher education are self-governing centers of educational sciences with unrestricted doctorate and habilitation rights at university level. You can also use the terms University of Education (see Karlsruhe University of Education ) or Université des Sciences de l'Éducation (see Freiburg University of Education ) in your name. The state-assigned tasks in research and teaching are carried out independently. The scientific focus is on teaching and learning research.

In Austria , the teacher training colleges are responsible for the training of teachers at compulsory schools and vocational schools as well as for the advanced training of teachers from all types of schools up to upper secondary level . The Bachelor of Education is offered as a standard qualification .

In Switzerland , the universities of teacher education are among the institutions of the tertiary education sector with the mandate of research, teaching and organization of school practice. They train teachers from primary level to upper secondary level and enable degrees such as bachelor's or master's degrees. Research activities focus on the school sector and its pedagogical and social relationships.

In China or the Baltic States , the universities of teacher education are called the University of Education . Their status is similar to that of universities and colleges with equal status in Germany.

Universities of Education in Germany

While the universities of teacher education in Baden-Württemberg received university structures and were retained in this form, in the 1960s to 1990s they were partially converted into universities by the other federal states or integrated into such. The universities of teacher education have the same status as the universities. The educational offer covers all ages from elementary education to adult education, from health education to culture and media education. The diploma, bachelor, master and doctoral degree programs qualify for school and extracurricular educational professions.

The training courses basically comprise practical and theoretical parts of the course. Compulsory subjects with different proportions are education (general and school education ), psychology or sociology, specialist science and specialist didactics of individual subjects, as well as education for foreigners and health education. In various internships, students of the teaching profession have to carry out teaching attempts at training schools. The teacher training program is depending on the state with a state exam or a master's degree finished. After the first state examination, the second phase of teacher training, the so-called legal clerkship, can be started.

The various degrees are offered according to different courses. For this purpose, a sequence of courses and performance records as defined in the study and examination regulations must be studied.


Primary school teachers were trained in teacher seminars in the 19th century . Training at the university was out of the question for a long time for cost reasons, and the seminarians did not have to have a high school diploma. For teacher training in school seminars, however, educational offers specializing in pedagogy emerged at universities as early as the last quarter of the 18th century and (beginning with Ernst Christian Trapp ) the first chairs for pedagogy.

Weimar Republic

In the Weimar Republic , advocates of university training for all teachers (especially the non-partisan German Teachers' Association ) and teacher training at pure educational universities (especially the Berlin philosopher and pedagogue Eduard Spranger ) opposed each other. The Reich government waived a uniform teacher training law , mainly for cost reasons , but also to preserve the denominational ties of the training centers for which the German Center Party campaigned.

In Prussia , a total of 15 educational academies were established in accordance with the resolution of June 30, 1925, passed by the Minister of Education and Cultural Affairs Carl Heinrich Becker , for which a high school diploma was a requirement. They should lead to employment in two years. The majority of them were denominational, such as the first Catholic in Bonn and the Protestant in Elbing ( West Prussia ) and Kiel from 1926. The first simultaneous training, which was also open to Jews , took place in Frankfurt am Main from 1927 under the boycott of the Catholic bishops who denied Catholic students permission to attend religious instruction. Because of the global economic crisis , the first academies were closed again as early as 1932. B. the Pedagogical Academy in Stettin , founded only in 1930 , also in Altona , Breslau , Cottbus , Erfurt , Frankfurt (Oder) , Hanover and Kassel . Consist remained after 1932 Bytom , Pedagogical Academy in Bonn , Pedagogical Academy Dortmund , Pedagogical Academy Elbing , Pedagogical Academy Frankfurt , Pedagogical Academy Halle (Saale) and Pedagogical Academy Kiel , all from April 1933 as a college for teacher training . Behind it was a special university building program that was supposed to give the academies their own character.

As in Prussia, the training of teachers in the Free State of Oldenburg was organized on March 27, 1929 through the establishment of the Pedagogical Academy in Oldenburg (Olbg.) . In other countries, the training was partially affiliated to the universities or technical colleges (integrated or as a pedagogical institute ) (especially Saxony / Pedagogical Institute Dresden and Pedagogical Institute Leipzig , Thuringia / University of Jena , Hamburg (1929) and Mecklenburg / Pedagogical Institute Rostock ). In Thuringia, the socialist education minister Greil pushed through academic teacher training against great opposition, particularly because of Mathilde Vaerting's appointment . Other countries retained their traditional seminar teacher training ( Württemberg , Bavaria ). After a long debate, Baden founded three teacher training institutes in Karlsruhe (simultaneously), Freiburg i. Br. (Catholic) and Heidelberg (ev.), For whom the Abitur was the rule, but not mandatory.

time of the nationalsocialism

When the National Socialists came to power in 1933, the Prussian Pedagogical Academies lost a large part of their lecturers because they had committed themselves to the republic. But there were already quite a few lecturers with a connection to National Socialism , like in Frankfurt / M. or Dortmund Ernst Krieck , who succeeded Spranger in favor of a pure teacher training school. The academies initially became universities for teacher training (HfL), some of which were relocated to smaller rural towns, such as Frankfurt / M. to Weilburg (Lahn) and the particularly progress-oriented from Halle (Saale) (head: Julius Frankenberger ) to Hirschberg in Lower Silesia (head: Herbert Freudenthal ). In addition, others were set up again, such as in Cottbus or Frankfurt (Oder). The Bernhard Rust University was founded in Braunschweig . The high school teacher training should also be delegated to the HfL. From 1934 to 1938 there was a Jewish teacher training institute in Berlin under Fritz Bamberger , which emerged from the College for the Science of Judaism , but was eventually liquidated.

From 1941 onwards, following Hitler's “Führer's order” in November 1940, numerous non-academic teacher training institutions were established , which were primarily geared towards ideological drill and sport. Boys and girls should be admitted here after primary school, but also professional soldiers without a high school diploma, in order to cover the expected post-war need for teachers.

After 1945

After 1945, the teacher training colleges emerged from the former teaching academies, teacher training institutes and other teacher training institutions. On October 1, 1945, the Oldenburg Pedagogical Academy opened as the first in post-war Germany, and in 1948 it was renamed the Oldenburg University of Education . Around 1960, depending on state law, the pedagogical academies, which were re-established after 1945, were renamed as pedagogical universities. The training was extended everywhere from four to six semesters. By the "Law on the Legal Status of Teacher Education Universities" around 1970, they were mostly upgraded to scientific universities or integrated into existing ones. With the transfer of the right to confer doctorates in the sixties and seventies, the acquisition of the right to habilitation and the introduction of university structures, they achieved university status by the beginning of the nineties .

Universities of Education in Baden-Württemberg

In connection with research tasks in educational science and in subject didactics , the universities of education in Baden-Württemberg have the unrestricted right to award doctorates and habilitation . They also bear the designation University of Education (Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Ludwigsburg, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Weingarten) or Université des Sciences de l'Éducation (Freiburg) in their name, especially when it comes to their international contacts. Each university in the state has developed its own profile with a special educational offer, so that a very differentiated academic educational landscape could emerge in Baden-Württemberg.

Since the introduction of the Bachelor - Master course, vocational school teachers are no longer exclusively trained at universities. For example, the Heidelberg University of Education , in cooperation with the Mannheim University of Applied Sciences , offers a course for advanced teaching at vocational schools with two subjects: electrical power engineering and information and systems engineering. Also at the Freiburg University of Education in cooperation with the Offenburg University , at the Ludwigsburg University of Education in cooperation with the Esslingen University, at the Schwäbisch Gmünd University of Education in cooperation with the Aalen University and individualized learning at the Weingarten University of Education in cooperation with the university Ravensburg-Weingarten this is possible. The Karlsruhe University of Education created a focus in the region with the European teaching post and offers master’s courses in educational sciences and intercultural education .

Pedagogical universities in Bavaria

Between 1958 and 1970, the universities of teacher education were quasi-university institutions for the training of elementary school teachers. A six-semester training course at a PH could only be attended with a general university entrance qualification at this time and until 1967 it had a confessional character, i.e. it was Roman Catholic or Protestant. The PH did not have the right to award doctorates. In July 1970, the "Law amending the Teacher Education Act" provided for them to be dissolved by August 1972 or to be incorporated into the educational science departments of the state universities.

After the end of the spiritual school supervision in the Bavarian Kingdom, the constitution of the German Reich of 1919 already provided for a higher education course for primary school teachers. Nevertheless, the Bavarian teachers during the Weimar Republic, like those in Baden and Württemberg, continued to be trained at denominational teacher training institutions. Plans to establish “pedagogical academies” or reform efforts that called for university education were not implemented. The Minister of Education, Franz Matt ( BVP ), who was in office from 1920 to 1926 , advocated maintaining training at seminars and successfully opposed the creation of colleges or universities for teacher training. Matt was of the opinion that an elementary school teacher at a university only learns things "that the teacher does not need and cannot use." Confessional teacher training was also laid down in Article 5 of the Bavarian Concordat of 1924.

During the Nazi era, all Bavarian teacher training institutions (Freising, Straubing, Kaiserslautern, Speyer, Amberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Eichstätt, Schwabach, Lauingen, Erlangen, Aschaffenburg and Munich) were closed at the end of the 1934/1935 school year. They were replaced by the "German advanced schools" in Pasing , Bayreuth and Würzburg , which were run as academic universities. In 1941 the training time was reduced to three semesters and the universities were classified as non-university teacher training institutions .

After the end of the Second World War, the teacher training institutes resumed their service with the curricula of 1931. However, the educational policy plans of the American military government provided for the training of elementary school teachers to be relocated to universities. The Allied Control Council also demanded in Directive NR. 54 that teacher training should take place at universities or at educational institutes of university rank. Since the Bavarian authorities did not follow these instructions despite repeated requests, the military government ordered the formation of a commission in 1948. This should submit detailed plans for teacher training at university level by the beginning of the following year. In April 1949, the Bavarian Ministry of Culture ordered that the teacher training institutions should be converted into higher schools in the next few years. These were then initially referred to as "Oberschule in short form". The concrete implementation of this order was a long time coming, among other things because of the controversial questions about the denominational orientation of the institutions. The ongoing training company was therefore maintained with various interim solutions until the decision was made to train for four semesters at an "Institute for Teacher Education", also known as the "German Gymnasium" in June 1954. In June 1958 the state parliament passed the "Law on Training for Teaching at Primary Schools" after some fierce school political battles. This law provided for the existing institutes to be converted into independent institutions of the state universities and henceforth to be referred to as “Pädagogische Hochschulen” (PH). The then minister of education and former Nazi lawyer Theodor Maunz is regarded as his pioneer .

Since then, the training of Bavarian elementary school teachers has taken place at universities.

The following universities of education existed until 1972:

The Otto Friedrich University of Bamberg was a special feature. It was only founded by merging the Philosophical-Theological and Pedagogical University as a comprehensive university in Bamberg.

The University of Passau , founded in 1978 , was the only university in Bavaria to have an educational faculty that did not emerge from a teacher training college.

In contrast , the University of Bayreuth , founded in 1975, is the only university in Bavaria that still does not have a pedagogical faculty, despite the fact that it offers teacher training courses.

Pedagogical University in Berlin

Since 1959 the PH has been transformed into a scientific university, which has the right to award doctorates and habilitation degrees in some areas. On April 1, 1980, the PH Berlin was integrated into the Berlin universities of the Free University (FU), Technical University (TU) and University of the Arts (HdK).

Pedagogical University in Bremen

The Bremen University of Education was founded in 1947 as the successor to the Bremen Teachers' Seminar (1810 / 1821–1926) and Pedagogical Seminar (1945–1949). Since 1950 the study period has been six semesters. In 1966, 850 prospective teachers studied here. In the 1960s, a contentious discussion began about a more scientifical approach to pedagogical training. The conflicts led to a change in the university management and Job-Günter Klink became head of the PH in 1966. With him, the concept of scientific orientation prevailed. From 1971 to 1973 the University of Education was integrated into the University of Bremen , which currently (2010) has Faculty 12: Educational Sciences .

Universities for education in Hessen

The educational institutes founded in 1945/46 were dissolved in Hesse from 1960 to 1963, and the subsequent colleges for education were incorporated into the universities in 1967.

Pedagogical universities in Lower Saxony

Universities for teachers at elementary and secondary schools were re-established as pedagogical academies after the Second World War . In 1962 they were renamed to teacher training colleges. In 1969 they were organizationally combined to form the Lower Saxony University of Education (PHN). The central administration and the rector's office were located in Hanover, the formerly independent universities were restructured into departments (headed by a dean ). This meant that the study places were to be allocated centrally for the purpose of more evenly utilizing the locations and then the graduates should be distributed as evenly as possible to the schools in the state of Lower Saxony. In addition, the study regulations and the examination system have been standardized. With the integration or conversion of the PHn into the universities, the PH Lower Saxony was dissolved:

Universities of Education in North Rhine-Westphalia

Following the example of the same name in Prussia during the Weimar Republic, educational academies were founded after 1945, which ensured that elementary school teachers were trained at a university level. For a long time, equality with the university was not considered. The training remained denominational. On November 18, 1946, the Cologne Academy began teaching with 13 lecturers and 194 students.

For a long time the academies did not have an independent legal character; they formed institutes under the Ministry of Culture. It was not until the provisional statute of the Pedagogical Academies of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia from 1954 that a reorganization of the university began with a rectorate constitution and a limited right of professors to supplement themselves. One step towards making the academies more scientific was the extension of the four- to six-semester course, the requirement for a broader educational component and the introduction of an elective subject related to the subject in the study and examination regulations of 1957.

The renaming to Pädagogische Hochschule (1962) was initially only nominal. With the educational legislation of the years 1965 to 1970, the universities of education in North Rhine-Westphalia at least formally achieved the rank of scientific institutions. With the end of denominational ties (1969), the equality of salary law between PH professors and university professors and the granting of diploma, postdoctoral qualifications (1968) and doctoral degrees (1970), they became academic universities.

Pedagogical universities in Rhineland-Palatinate

University of Education in Saarland

The Saarbrücken University of Education existed from 1957 to 1978: initially denominationally separated at the Peter Wust University (Catholic) and the Comenius University (ev.), Which were merged in 1969. Since 1978 teacher training has also taken place for secondary schools at Saarbrücken University.

Universities of Education in Schleswig-Holstein

Pedagogical universities in the GDR

After 1945, numerous new teachers were hired in the Soviet occupation zone after four to eight months of training. Nevertheless, there was still a lack of teachers for whom training capacities were initially created at the universities' pedagogical faculties . The first teacher training colleges began their activities in Berlin and Potsdam in 1948. Since 1949, lower level teachers have been trained at institutes for teacher training (IfL) for which no high school diploma was required. Six pedagogical institutes were responsible for the higher grades from 1952/53. The duration of studies there was extended from two to three years in 1955 and to four years in 1958/59. The course was adapted to the content and ideological requirements of the newly created POS in 1959 . In 1982 the training period was extended to five years, the fifth year was used for the large school internship , which in the function came close to a clerkship .

In the GDR there were the teacher training colleges from 1951 to 1990 in addition to the training at universities for the teachers of the polytechnic high school, special schools and vocational schools (qualification through additional training after the standardized teacher training). Locations were

Pedagogical universities in Austria

In Austria , academic institutions for teacher training at general compulsory schools (APS) were called the Pedagogical Academy (PÄDAK) until 2007 . Pedagogical Institutes (PI) were responsible for further training . The education of religious education teachers at APS took place at religious education academies (RPA), the further and advanced training at religious education institutes (RPI).

Since the Higher Education Act 2005 came into force at the beginning of the 2007/2008 academic year, teacher training has been carried out at universities of teacher education.

The teacher training colleges train teachers for elementary schools , secondary schools , special schools and polytechnic schools, as well as teachers for upper secondary level ( vocational school teachers, teachers for the technical-commercial area, teachers for information and communication education, fashion and design education and teachers for nutrition education). - Teachers for high schools, on the other hand, study at the university.

In January 2018, Christoph Berger was appointed Chairman of the Rectors' Conference of the Austrian University of Education by the KPH Vienna / Krems (before that it was Erwin Rauscher from the PH Lower Austria).

List of universities of teacher education in Austria

Universities of Education in Switzerland

The teacher training colleges in Switzerland are institutions of the tertiary education sector. They serve teacher training from primary level to upper secondary level. The various institutes at each university promote research, teaching and school practice, with the school as an institution with its pedagogical and social aspects being at the center of the task area.

Universities of Education in the rest of Europe


Overseas teacher training colleges


  • Anhui Pedagogical University
  • Changsha Pedagogical College
  • Chongqing Pedagogical University
  • Fujian Pedagogical University
  • Guangxi Pedagogical University
  • Guizhou Pedagogical University
  • Harbin Pedagogical University
  • Hebei Pedagogical University
  • Hunan Pedagogical University
  • Inner Mongolia Pedagogical University
  • Jiangxi Pedagogical University
  • Liaoning Pedagogical University
  • Nanjing Pedagogical University
  • Northeast China Pedagogical University
  • East China Pedagogical University
  • Beijing Pedagogical University
  • Qinghai Pedagogical University
  • Shaanxi Pedagogical University
  • Sichuan Pedagogical University
  • South China Pedagogical University
  • Southwest China Pedagogical University
  • Tianjin Pedagogical University
  • Xuzhou Pedagogical University
  • Yunnan Pedagogical University
  • Central China Pedagogical University
  • Zhejiang Pedagogical University



In Japan, teachers were trained in normal schools ( Japanese 師範学校 , shihan gakkō ), which were supported by the prefectures , since the mid-1870s . These normal schools were taken over by the state in 1943/44 and either converted into pedagogical colleges in 1949 or became pedagogical faculties of newly founded state universities. Only the PH Miyagi (1965) and the PHs Jōetsu and Hyōgo (both 1978) were founded later. There are also numerous private universities with educational faculties.



  • Sigrid Blömeke: "... in search of solid ground": teacher training in the province of Westphalia 1945/46, professionalization versus educational limitation. Waxmann, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-89325-794-2 .
  • Alexander Hesse: The professors and lecturers of the Prussian Pedagogical Academies (1926-1933) and universities for teacher training (1933-1941) . Deutscher Studien Verlag, Weinheim 1995, ISBN 3-89271-588-2 .
  • Ingo Runde (Ed.): Teacher training on the Rhine and Ruhr in the 20th century: Symposium 40 years of the Ruhr University of Education in Duisburg (= writings from the archive and library of the University of Duisburg-Essen , Volume 1), University Library Duisburg-Essen, Albert Bilo and Sigurd Praetorius, Universitätsverlag Rhein-Ruhr, Duisburg 2011, ISBN 3-942158-04-3 ( full text online PDF, 150 pages, 13.07 MB, accessed on May 13, 2015).
  • Michael Wermke: The denomination of elementary school teacher training in Prussia. A contribution to the school struggle in the Weimar Republic. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-374-039227 .
  • Wolfgang Werth: The teaching of theory and practice at the Prussian Pedagogical Academies 1926–1933 - illustrated using the example of the Pedagogical Academy Halle / Saale (1930–1933) (= socio-historical studies on reform pedagogy and adult education , volume 5). dipa, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-7638-0805-1 (Dissertation University of Frankfurt am Main 1984, 387 pages).

Web links

Wiktionary: University of Education  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Sigrid Blömeke, Peter Reinhold, Gerhard Tulodziecki, Johannes Wildt (eds.): Handbuch Lehrerbildung . Klinkhardt / Westermann, Bad Heilbrunn / Braunschweig 2004, ISBN 978-3-7815-1344-0 , Chapter 3.1: First phase at universities and colleges of education, p. 262–274 ( full text on the website of the Humboldt University of Berlin [PDF; 60 kB ; accessed on July 26, 2017]).
  2. University of Education in Baden-Württemberg. In: State Rectors' Conference of Baden-Württemberg, accessed on October 19, 2017 .
  3. ^ Stefan Paulus: University of Würzburg and teacher training. In: Peter Baumgart (Ed.): Four hundred years of the University of Würzburg. A commemorative publication. Degener & Co. (Gerhard Gessner), Neustadt an der Aisch 1982 (= sources and contributions to the history of the University of Würzburg. Volume 6), ISBN 3-7686-9062-8 , pp. 539-564; here: pp. 541-545.
  4. Julia Berger: The Pedagogical Academy: a construction task of the Weimar Republic . Aachen 1999, ISBN 978-3-8265-6116-0 .
  5. Hans-Georg Merz: Teacher training in Baden in the Weimar Republic and in the Nazi era (=  series of publications by the Freiburg University of Education . Teacher training and educational science: 25 years of Freiburg University of Education, No. 3 ). Freiburg University of Applied Sciences, Freiburg 1987, p. 43–81 , urn : nbn: de: bsz: frei129-opus-2734 .
  6. ^ Wolfgang Werth: The teaching of theory and practice at the Prussian Pedagogical Academies 1926–1933 - illustrated using the example of the Pedagogical Academy Halle / Saale (1930–1933). dipa, Frankfurt / Main 1985, p. 269
  7. Herwig Blankertz : The history of pedagogy. From the Enlightenment to the present . Wetzlar 1992, p. 241 ff.
  8. There are similar models in other federal states. The Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster and the University of Applied Sciences Münster offer cooperative teaching courses at vocational colleges . In Lower Saxony, the University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück and the University of Osnabrück jointly offer a course for teaching at vocational schools.
  9. ^ Franz Otto Schmaderer: History of teacher training in Bavaria , 1997, p. 432.
  10. quoted from: Franz Otto Schmaderer: History of teacher training in Bavaria , in: Max Liedtke: Handbuch der Geschichte des Bayerischen Bildungswesens, Volume IV, Klinkhardt Bad Heilbrunn 1997, p. 423.
  11. ^ Franz Otto Schmaderer: History of teacher training in Bavaria , 1997, p. 426.
  12. ^ A b Franz Otto Schmaderer: History of teacher training in Bavaria , 1997, p. 428.
  13. ^ Franz Otto Schmaderer: History of teacher training in Bavaria , 1997, p. 431.
  14. Walter Heistermann passed away. In: April 1998, accessed March 23, 2018 .
  15. ^ Horst Schiffler: Elementary school teacher training in the Saarland. Ottweiler School Museum, accessed on January 27, 2019 .
  16. ^ PH Kiel
  17. Article Pedagogical University , in: Andreas Herbst et al.: This is how the GDR worked, Vol. 2, Reinbek 1994, pp. 769–780.
  18. ^ Erwin Zabel: History of the Pedagogical University of Güstrow (time table). In: Erwin Zabel, accessed September 17, 2017 .
  19. University of Education: Christoph Berger now top representative. In: Retrieved October 30, 2018 .
  20. ^ Website of the Haute école pédagogique du canton de Vaud (HEP Vaud) (French)