Freiburg in Breisgau
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|Height :||278 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||153.06 km 2|
|Residents:||230,241 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||1504 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0761, 07664, 07665|
|License plate :||FR|
|Community key :||08 3 11 000|
|City structure:||42 boroughs|
City administration address :
79098 Freiburg im Breisgau
|Lord Mayor:||Martin Horn ( independent )|
|Location of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau in Baden-Württemberg|
Freiburg ( alemannisch Friburg in Brisgau , [ fʁiːb̥əɡ̊ ] abbreviated . Freiburg i. Br or Freiburg i. B. ) is a circle-free city in Baden-Württemberg . From 1945 until the founding of the state of Baden-Württemberg on April 25, 1952, Freiburg im Breisgau was the state capital of the state of Baden . The southernmost city in Germany is the seat of the regional council of Freiburg as well as the regional association of the southern Upper Rhine and the district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald . It is almost completely enclosed by this district, to which it does not belong; As an independent city, Freiburg forms an urban district .
Freiburg, located on the Dreisam River, currently has 231,195 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) , making it fourth on the list of the largest cities in Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart , Karlsruhe and Mannheim . According to the OECD, the population of the region ("metropolitan area") Freiburg (with the districts of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Emmendingen ) was already 656,753 in 2018. It is located in the trinational metropolitan region of the Upper Rhine with around six million inhabitants.
Freiburg is located in the south-west of Baden-Württemberg on the south-eastern edge of the Upper Rhine Rift and mostly in the Freiburg Bay and at the western foot of the Black Forest . The closest major cities are: Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse ) in Alsace , about 46 kilometers to the southwest, Basel , about 51 kilometers to the south, Strasbourg , about 66 kilometers to the north, Zurich , about 85 kilometers to the southeast, Karlsruhe , about 120 kilometers to the north and Stuttgart , about 133 kilometers northeast of Freiburg. The Dreisam flows through Freiburg .
The extension of the city in north-south direction is 18.6 kilometers, in east-west direction 20 kilometers. It is 3 kilometers from the district boundary to the French border and 42 kilometers to the Swiss border. Freiburg has an altitude difference of over 1000 meters, from Waltershofen to the Schauinsland .
The street name "Auf der Zinnen" is reminiscent of the city's former city wall. The 48th parallel north of it runs about 200 meters north of it. The place is highlighted on both sides of the north-south thoroughfare, which is called Habsburgerstrasse here, by writing in paving stones of different colors, so that the geographical latitude is recognizable.
The following cities and municipalities border the city of Freiburg; they are called clockwise , starting in the north, and are all in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district, with the exception of Vörstetten, which is part of the Emmendingen district: Vörstetten , Gundelfingen , Glottertal , Stegen , Kirchzarten , Oberried (Breisgau) , Münstertal / Black Forest , Bollschweil , Horben , Au (Breisgau) , Merzhausen , Ehaben , Schallstadt , Bad Krozingen , Breisach am Rhein , Merdingen , Gottenheim , Umkirch and March .
Freiburg lies on the border between the Black Forest and the Upper Rhine Rift Valley . This elongated fault runs right through the urban area. The eastern districts are located in a connecting valley to the Zartener basin between the mountains Roßkopf in the north and Brombergkopf in the south. The southern districts of Kappel and Günterstal are already in the Black Forest. The Schlossberg, an extension of the foothills zone , protrudes like a nose directly into the inner city area. The rock below the so-called Greifenegg-Schlössle and in the western area of the Augustinerweg was extracted for the construction of the high medieval city wall.
With the 1284 meter high Schauinsland to the southeast, the summit of one of the highest mountains in the Black Forest is part of the Freiburg urban area. At more than 1000 meters, Freiburg is one of the major German cities with the greatest difference in altitude within the urban area. Most of the western districts are located on an alluvial cone that was formed during the last ice age . In the south lies the Schönberg , which is part of the foothills zone, part of the old mountains, and which only partially slipped when the Upper Rhine Rift collapsed.
The following seven nature reserves exist in the city of Freiburg . This means that 593.1 hectares of the urban area are under nature protection, that is 3.85 percent, see also the list of nature reserves in Freiburg im Breisgau .
- Arlesheimer See : 22.8 ha; Tiengen district
- Freiburg Rieselfeld : 257.0 ha; Districts Mundenhof , Rieselfeld , Opfingen and Waltershofen
- Gaisenmoos : 25.5 ha; Tiengen district
- Honigbuck : 7.5 ha; District Sankt Georgen
- Humbrühl-Rohrmatten : 25.8 ha (of which 21.0 ha in the city of Freiburg); Waltershofen district
- Mühlmatten : 39.0 ha (of which 19.6 ha in the city of Freiburg); Hochdorf district
- Schauinsland : 1,053.9 ha (of which 239.7 ha in the city of Freiburg); Gemarkungen Günterstal and Kappel
In addition to these nature reserves, there are also landscape protection areas , see also the list of landscape protection areas in Freiburg im Breisgau . In the past few decades, the municipal, official nature conservation has in some cases not been able to meet all the goals of the municipal protection area ordinances. Freiburg has had a tree protection statute since 1997 . Nevertheless, there are always disputes about the felling of trees.
Freiburg lies in a zone with a warm and humid temperate climate, although there are big differences: on the plains it is warmer and drier, in the mountain areas it is cooler and more humid. With a mean average temperature of 11.4 ° C, Freiburg is one of the warmest cities in Germany. During the heat wave of 2003 on August 13th, 40.2 degrees were officially measured. For a long time this was the second highest temperature ever recorded in Germany. The average annual mean temperature has increased from 9.7 ° C to 11.4 ° C since the reference period 1961–1990 (reference period 1981–2010), and in the reference period 1990–2018 even to 11.8 ° C.
|Freiburg i. Br.|
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Freiburg i. Br.
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
The mean annual rainfall of 837 mm is hardly higher than the long-term German average of a good 800 mm. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer months of May to August with a peak of 107 mm in June. The lowest precipitation falls in February with 50.6 mm.
Freiburg is the location of the Center for Medical-Meteorological Research of the German Weather Service . It opened in 2018 at its location in Stefan-Meier-Str. 4 the fifth of a total of ten urban climate stations planned in Germany in order to get measurements of the densely built-up cities in which more than 70 percent of the population lives and works. Compared to the measuring station at Freiburg Airport, the temperatures here can be up to 10 ° C higher. The aim is to react better to climate change.
A specialty of the summer city climate is the " Hell Valleys ", named after the Hell Valley to the east . Some time after dark, the mountain wind from the heights of the Black Forest ventilates parts of the city with great regularity. According to weather experts such as Jörg Kachelmann or Hans von Rudloff, this wind is not cool, as is often assumed and often felt, but rather warm like a blow dryer. The downward wind should therefore bring the city most tropical nights in Germany with temperatures consistently above 20 ° C.
Freiburg has 28 districts, which are divided into 42 districts, mainly for statistical purposes . In the in the district reform of the former district Freiburg incorporated districts Ebnet , Hochdorf , Kappel , fiefdom , Munzingen , Opfingen , Tiengen and Waltershofen the village Constitution was introduced. So that these places were one of the citizens of the village simultaneously with the local council to be elected Ortschaftsrat with a mayor at the top and a local government. The local councils are to be heard on all important matters relating to the locality. The final decision on a measure, however, rests with the municipal council of the city of Freiburg.
The districts in detail (with serial number):
The first centuries after the city was founded
The first mention of settlements in the area of today's Freiburg, the Wiehre , Zähringen and Herdern , can be found in a document from the year 1008. Around 1091, the Zähringen Duke Bertold II built the Castrum de Friburch ( Leopoldsburg ruins ) on the Schlossberg. Bertold's son Konrad granted the settlement of servants and craftsmen at the foot of the mountain market and town rights in 1120. In place of the now too small church, Bertold V initiated the generous construction of today's cathedral , the v. a. was financed by the income of the silver mines in the Black Forest, which contributed significantly to the prosperity of the Freiburg citizens.
After the Zähringer died out , the Counts of Urach took over the rule in 1218 and called themselves the Counts of Freiburg from then on . After frequent quarrels with the counts about the finances, the citizens of Freiburg bought themselves in 1368 with 15,000 marks of silver from the rule of the unloved Egino III. go and put himself under the protection of the House of Habsburg .
Freiburg had to provide the new rulers with soldiers and financial aid. In the battle of Sempach the Swiss confederates won in 1386 against the Austrian Duke Leopold III. and wiped out a large part of the Freiburg nobility . The guilds then ruled the city council . Freiburg was an imperial city until 1427 . In 1457 , Archduke Albrecht founded the University of Freiburg as lord of the Austrian foothills .
Counter Reformation and the Thirty Years War
In 1498 Maximilian I held the Reichstag in Freiburg. At the same time, the farmers on the Upper Rhine rose up under the sign of the Bundschuh , but the uprising near Freiburg under Joß Fritz in 1513 was betrayed. In 1525, during the German Peasants' War, peasants under the leadership of Hans Müller took Freiburg and forced the city council to join an evangelical-Christian association. When the iconoclasts enforced Protestantism in Basel in 1529 , the Prince of Science Erasmus of Rotterdam and the Basel Cathedral Chapter fled to Catholic Freiburg. With the completion of the high choir, which was consecrated by the auxiliary bishop of Constance in 1513 , the cathedral was finally completed in 1536.
Shortly after the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1620, the Jesuits took over the University of Freiburg. In 1632 the Swedes under General Horn occupied the town, which changed hands several times in the following years. An imperial Bavarian army under the generals Franz von Mercy and Jan van Werth took Freiburg in 1644. Then it came to the battle of Freiburg between the Bavarians and Franco-Weimar troops.
Conflicts with France and Napoleon's rule
In the second half of the 17th century, under Louis XIV, there were repeated attacks on the right bank of the Rhine. After the Dutch War , Emperor Leopold I had to cede the city of Freiburg and its fiefs as well as Betzenhausen and Kirchzarten to the French crown in the Peace of Nijmegen in 1679 . After Louis XIV had instructed Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to develop the city into a modern fortress , the king visited Freiburg in 1681 to personally assess the progress of the work. He stayed at the Basler Hof . In the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697, Louis XIV was allowed to keep the territories occupied in Alsace , including the free imperial city of Strasbourg, but had to return Freiburg to the Habsburgs. Towards the end of the War of the Spanish Succession , Marshal Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars occupied Freiburg again in 1713. In the Second War of the Austrian Succession, the French under Marshal François de Franquetot defeated the Austrians near Weissenburg (Alsace) (July 5, 1744). When the French troops had to evacuate Freiburg, they thoroughly destroyed the fortifications. Only the Breisacher Tor remained as part of the Vauban buildings.
French revolutionary troops took Freiburg in 1796. After three months, Archduke Karl liberated the city. When the Duke of Modena Hercules III. lost his Italian possessions in the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797, four years later in 1801 in the Peace of Lunéville he received the Breisgau as compensation. Hercules III did not agree to this exchange, as he did not consider his losses to be sufficiently compensated. Therefore he did not visit the Breisgau after 1801. The business of government was conducted by Baron Hermann von Greiffenegg , who formally took possession of the Breisgau for the House of Este on March 2, 1803 . After Hercules' death in October 1803, the Breisgau fell to his daughter Maria Beatrice , who had married into the House of Habsburg . But this fashionable-Habsburg interlude lasted only for a short time, because by order of Napoleon , Breisgau and Ortenau fell to Baden in 1805 , which had been an electorate since 1803. The final act of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 confirmed that Freiburg would remain with the Grand Duchy of Baden .
End of Napoleonic rule until World War I
In 1821, Freiburg replaced Constance as the bishopric. In 1827 Freiburg became the seat of the newly founded Archdiocese of Freiburg . In 1845 the railway line towards Offenburg was opened. The revolution of 1848 had a particularly violent impact in south-west Germany, even though Baden had received a fairly liberal constitution during the Restoration in 1818 . In Freiburg there was bloody barricade fighting in which, in addition to Baden government troops, Hessian associations were involved.
When the empire was founded in 1871, the city took part in the general economic boom in Germany. Under Mayor Otto Winterer , Freiburg got its face with the development of new parts of the city in the style of historicism . An electric tram started running as early as 1901 .
During the First World War, French planes bombed the open city of Freiburg on December 14, 1914 . The event shocked residents. When an air raid in April 1915 killed an adult and seven children, it caused a wave of people fleeing the city.
Freiburg under the National Socialists
The National Socialists also took power in Freiburg in 1933 . The university was brought into line under the rectorate of Martin Heidegger . In 1938, the Freiburg synagogue went up in flames during the Night of the Reichspogrom . In 1940, as part of the so-called Wagner-Bürckel Campaign, the Jews who remained in Freiburg were deported to the Gurs internment camp in southern France .
The Luftwaffe mistakenly carried out a bomb attack on Freiburg on May 10, 1940 , in which 57 people were killed. Under the code name Operation Tigerfish, the British Royal Air Force bombed the city on the evening of November 27, 1944, killing around 2,800 citizens. After the attack, only the relatively undamaged Freiburg Minster rose from the ruins of the old town, which had been completely destroyed in the northern part, but the strong detonation waves had covered the nave. With new bricks donated from Basel , the cathedral was almost completely covered again by January 1946.
After General Charles de Gaulle was awarded his own zone of occupation at the Yalta Conference in February 1945 and the French 1st Army had crossed the Rhine near Speyer at the end of March 1945, the 9th Colonial Infantry Division stood before Freiburg in mid-April. SS General Georg Keppler (XVIII SS Army Corps) considered defending the city to be pointless and “contrary to the repeated express ' Führer order ' […] the defense forces (2 battalions) designated for this purpose”.
Development of the city since 1945
In October General de Gaulle held a victory parade in Freiburg. As a result of the division of Germany into different occupation zones, Freiburg became the capital of the newly founded state of Baden in 1946 . The Prime Minister was Leo Wohleb , who was born in Freiburg and resided in the Colombischlössle while the state parliament met in the historic department store . After a referendum in 1951, South Baden was absorbed into the state of Baden-Württemberg - despite bitter resistance from broad sections of the population .
The student unrest of the late 1960s was also reflected in Freiburg. The growing political awareness led in the 1970s to the participation of many Freiburg residents in the successful resistance of the Kaiserstühler farmers against the planned Wyhl nuclear power plant . As a result of these events, a strong autonomous scene and a broad ecologically oriented spectrum developed in the city . Freiburg became a stronghold of the newly founded Greens and is therefore referred to as the ecological capital of Germany. A climate has also developed scientifically and economically in Freiburg that has given the city a leading role as an environmental city - it appeared as a “green city” at the 2010 Expo in Shanghai .
Due to its convenient location and the universities and research facilities, Freiburg has become increasingly a popular city for congresses, trade fairs and meetings, especially the Freiburg Concert Hall and the Freiburg Exhibition Center . International city tourism plays a major role.
In 1986, the city hosted the seventh state horticultural show in Baden-Württemberg, which was of great importance for the development of the western districts and also resulted in the establishment of the eco-station . A strong population increase called for the expansion of old and the construction of new residential areas. The internationally known district of Vauban was built on the site of the former Vauban / Schlageter barracks abandoned by the French garrison in 1992 . In 1993 the groundbreaking ceremony for the new Rieselfeld district took place .
In 1996 the city exceeded the population of 200,000. These include around 30,000 students studying at the university and four other universities.
The construction of a new district has been under discussion since 2015 in order to counter the housing shortage. The municipal council decided in favor of the previously agriculturally used " Dietenbach " area, between Rieselfeld and the Mitte feeder road . In 2018, an alliance of more than 15 initiatives collected over 12,500 signatures and thus brought about a referendum on the planned Dietenbach district. On February 24, 2019, a majority voted in favor of building the Dietenbach site in the referendum.
As the seat of the archbishopric and ecclesiastical institutions such as the German Caritas Association , Freiburg is a center of the Catholic Church . In 1978 the 85th German Catholic Day took place in Freiburg . a. Mother Teresa attended. On September 24th and 25th, 2011 Pope Benedict XVI visited as part of his visit to Germany in Freiburg at the invitation of Robert Zollitsch , the archbishop of Freiburg at the time and chairman of the German Bishops' Conference . The pontiff celebrated u. a. A youth vigil at the Freiburg airfield and a Eucharist on September 25, 2011 with over 100,000 believers . He also met victims of abuse , held talks with Helmut Kohl , constitutional judges and the Presidium of the Central Committee of German Catholics and gave an ecclesiological speech to 1,500 invited guests at the Freiburg Concert Hall .
The city's 900th anniversary celebration in 2020 was interrupted in March by the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated protective measures and has therefore been extended until July 2021. A continuation of the program is currently planned for September 2020.
Freiburg under the aspect of European relations
Due to its location in the tri-national metropolitan region of the Upper Rhine and as a neighboring city u. a. From Strasbourg , Freiburg is becoming increasingly important for the growing together of Europe . The city is the seat of consulates and honorary consulates of various European countries. The regional council of Friborg , the city administration, the University of Friborg and many other institutions work closely with partner organizations in the neighboring countries of France and Switzerland . As a city that belonged to the Kingdom of France towards the end of the 17th century (1677–1697) and was the location of a large garrison of the French occupying forces after the Second World War , Freiburg has always played a pioneering role in relations with the neighboring country. Freiburg works particularly closely with the French cities of Mulhouse and Colmar . The French play an important role as workers and customers in the Freiburg economic region. The “Center culturel français” (CCF) Conrad Schroeder and the University's France Center make important contributions to the cultural and political relations between the two countries . In 2001 and 2010, German-French summits of heads of state and government took place in Freiburg. Close relationships have always existed with the neighboring Swiss city of Basel (see Erasmus von Rotterdam and Basler Hof ), which are still maintained today.
Incorporation and extensions
Before the first incorporation, the urban area covered 3005 hectares. The following formerly independent communities or districts have been incorporated into the city of Freiburg:
|year||places||Increase in ha|
|date||places||Increase in ha|
|December 01, 1971||Opfingen||1461|
Freiburg grew not only through incorporation, but also through new districts. In the 1960s these were the districts of Weingarten and Landwasser , in the 1990s the districts of Rieselfeld and Vauban .
In the late Middle Ages and the early modern era lived in Freiburg between 5,000 and 10,000 people. Freiburg was the largest city between Basel and Strasbourg. Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did population growth accelerate. In 1800 the city had 9,050 inhabitants, in 1900 there were already 62,000. In 1934 the number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 for the first time, making Freiburg a major city .
During World War II, the city was the target of Allied air raids. The population fell from 110,110 in 1939 by 18.9 percent to 89,275 in December 1945. As early as 1947, the population again exceeded the limit of 100,000 due to the refugees and displaced persons from the eastern German regions . By 1996 this number doubled to 200,000, also due to the numerous incorporations of the surrounding towns, a limit that has not been undercut since then.
With a population growth of 32 percent in the period from 1980 to 2012, the city is growing as one of the fastest in the country. In 2009, the urban district with an increase of 1954 inhabitants was the district with the largest increase in Baden-Württemberg, in 2011 it was in second place behind Stuttgart.
With an average age of its residents of 41 years, the urban district of Freiburg was at the top of the districts of Baden-Württemberg in 2011. The proportion of foreigners as of January 1, 2013 was 13.7 percent.
In addition to the official resident population figure of the State Statistical Office, there is another official population figure with the population update of the city registration office, which with 210,277 inhabitants as of January 1, 2012 is well below the figure of 229,144 inhabitants updated by the state authority. For each resident registered with the State Statistical Office, the city currently receives 750 euros per year as a funding allocation from the state. A takeover of the numbers from the city's population register by the State Statistical Office would therefore mean a loss of income of around 15 million euros per year, which is not in the interests of the city. The population figures for the federal, state and local levels determined by the 2011 census were published on May 31, 2013 and, at 210,600 residents, are below the population figures previously recorded by the State Statistical Office.
Foreign resident population
The total foreign population in Freiburg is 38,589.
A nickname for the Freiburg-born residents is Bobbele . It is generally said that only those who were born in the St. Elisabeth Hospital on Dreisamstrasse are real Bobbele. The hospital was set up in 1928 by Mathilde Otto as a maternity home, where women from humble backgrounds could recover from childbirth. There were births there later. The maternity department was closed in 2002 and the clinic in 2012. The St. Josef Hospital took on the name St. Elisabeth for its maternity ward . As city historian Peter Kalchthaler says, the term Bobbele existed before: “The Protestant pastor Johann Philipp Glock , who worked in Wolfenweiler from 1897 to 1916 , like many of his colleagues, dealt with history and folklore and published it scientifically. In 1909 he published the Breisgauer Volksspiegel , in which he describes his experiences. He had the rural population talk about it; he asked her about her proverbs. How do you say when a child is born? How do you say when you drive the cattle out in the fall? What kind of weather rules do you have? The term bobbele appears several times in this systematic listing . ”This is what the rural population south of Freiburg called the people of Freiburg. Kalchthaler explains a theory of how the term came about with university professor Franz-Josef Bob . In the time of Maria Theresa he created the first Freiburg " normal school ". There was a saying, certainly well before 1928: “Bobbele children’s pupils drink another Schoppele”. Some think that Bob's students were the Bobbele. But in Alemannic one generally says Bobbele for a small child .
In Middle High German there is the first name Popo, which became Poppele in the diminutive form. It is also used for babies. So it could be that at the births in the Elisabeth Hospital it was said: “Here we have a sweet Bobbele again.” But on Shrovetide in 1929 there was the Bobbeles castle made of paper mache for a carnival game organized by the Carnival Society. Therefore, Kalchthaler considers it unlikely that the term was invented in the Elisabeth Hospital. To this day, the St. Elisabeth Sisters' Association has issued a Bobbele certificate.
In 2017, Judith Velminski and Sabine Kuhn designed a figure they called '' Bobbele ''. In the course of this, they had the term “Bobbele” protected in 8 of 34 possible categories for ten years at the German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA) in Munich, which annoyed a t-shirt manufacturer and an entertainer. The DPMA register contains further entries on Bobbele, for example from the Pfeifle bakery and the Dettlinger office machine company.
According to the 2011 census , 24.2% (50,823) of the population were Protestant , 38.1% Roman Catholic and 37.7% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. At the end of 2019, 32.1% (72,786) were Catholic, 20.5% Protestant and 47.4% had no denomination or were members of other denominations or religions. The number of people leaving has risen sharply in both large churches. The registry office had already registered a high number of people leaving the church in 2018, and in 2019 it was again significantly more: 2,034 people left the church at the Freiburg registry office, 392 more than in the previous year. 1,158 people left the Catholic Church, 872 from the Protestant Church.
Freiburg belonged to Austria until 1805 , and so the city remained Catholic , while surrounding villages such as Haslach, Opfingen and Tiengen and entire regions that were under the Margrave of Baden became Protestant in the course of the Reformation . The church belonged to the diocese of Constance until 1821 . In the same year, Freiburg became the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop , who, however, was not able to take office until 1827 due to differences between the Baden government and the Holy See . The borders of the Archdiocese of Freiburg coincide with the borders of the former state of Baden and the former Prussian principality of Hohenzollern . The bishop's church is the Freiburg cathedral. The two suffragan dioceses of Mainz and Rottenburg-Stuttgart belong to the ecclesiastical province of Freiburg , as well as the dioceses of Limburg and Fulda until 1929 . The Archbishop of Freiburg has the title of Metropolitan (Upper Rhine ecclesiastical province). The German Caritas Association has its seat in Freiburg.
As Freiburg city patrons of are Saint George (Freiburg flag shows the George Cross), Bishop Lambert of Liege and the catacomb saints Alexander (martyrs) worshiped. In Freiburg Minster, on the Münsterplatz as well as in the museums and archives of the city there are numerous representations of these saints, u. a. by Hans Baldung Grien, Hans Holbein the Younger and Gregorius Sickinger .
When the Breisgau attacked the Grand Duchy of Baden ruled by Protestant princes in 1805, more and more Protestants moved into the city. During the negotiations between the Baden government and the Freiburg city council, the latter offered the establishment of a Protestant church in order to vote the people of Karlsruhe in favor of maintaining the university. The Freiburg Protestants today, if they are not members of a free church , belong to the city dean of Freiburg , which was newly formed in January 2007, within the church district of South Baden of the Evangelical Church in Baden . Freiburg is home to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Baden , a Lutheran free church. There is also a wide range of other Protestant Free Churches: The Calvary Chapel in the City, the Chrischona Congregation, the Christian Congregation in Lehen, the Christian Mission Congregation, the Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists ), the Free Evangelical Congregation , the Salvation Army , the Liebenzeller Congregation , the Mennonite Church and the Methodist Church .
An old Catholic community has existed in Freiburg since the late 19th century , the church of which is the former monastery church of the Ursulines in the Black Monastery on the edge of the old town. The Catholic Church Maria Schutz was made available to the Greek , Serbian , Russian and Romanian Orthodox communities for their services .
There are also in Freiburg an Anglican parish and the Apostolic Church with two communities in the Wiehre and Weingarten, a congregation of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints , the anthroposophic embossed Christian Community , the Jesus freaks and the Jehovah's Witnesses .
After Jews had stayed in the city before 1230 , a community is said to have formed in the Webergasse area since 1230. In 1310 the counts of Freiburg had acquired the lucrative Judenregal from the emperor . H. the taxes of the Jews living in Freiburg went directly to Konrad and his co-ruling son Friedrich. On October 12, 1338, the local Jews were issued a comprehensive security and freedom letter. But already on January 1st, 1349 it was no longer worth anything. Although the plague had not yet broken out in Freiburg, Jews were suspected of having spread it and were arrested. All Freiburg Jews with the exception of the pregnant women were burned on January 31, 1349. The children of the murdered were forced to be baptized. After this pogrom, Jews were reluctant to settle back in Freiburg. In 1401, the city council passed a decree that no Jew from Friburg should be allowed , which King Sigismund officially confirmed with the perpetual expulsion in 1424. It was not until 1809 that Jews were allowed to reside permanently in the city again, and they then founded a Jewish community in 1836 .
On the night of the pogrom in 1938, the synagogue built in 1870 was set on fire by the National Socialists and numerous shops and apartments of Jewish citizens of Freiburg were devastated and looted without the police or fire brigade intervening. The male wealthy Jewish residents were deported to concentration camps (Buchenwald and Dachau) for protective custody, in order to force them to emigrate and to Aryanize their assets . On October 22, 1940, the Baden residents who remained in the state were deported together with the Palatinate Jews to the Camp de Gurs camp in southern France. One of the meeting points in Freiburg was Annaplatz. In the pavement of the city, “ stumbling blocks ” commemorate the victims of the persecution of the Jews during the Nazi regime . Two stumbling blocks were even dedicated to the journalist Käthe Vordtriede of the People's Guard . The first in front of the Vordtriede-Haus Freiburg in 2006 and the second in front of the regional council Freiburg or Basler Hof in spring 2013. This is where the Gestapo or Secret State Police were located until 1941 . Unpleasant people were cruelly interrogated there, imprisoned and, in the worst case, deported. The only solution was to flee or emigrate. The Vordtriede family was lucky and managed to escape in time.
After 1945, a new unified Jewish community was established , the Freiburg Israelite Community , which has now grown to around 750 members due to the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union . Benjamin Soussan , rabbi of the community from 1991 to 2010 , introduced the Orthodox rite. From 1985 to 1987 the community built a new synagogue between Münsterplatz and Stadtgarten. Since July 2004, the small egalitarian Jewish Chawurah Gescher has added another congregation that has joined the Union of Progressive Jews .
There are separate burial places for the deceased residents of Jewish faith: the Jewish cemetery on Elsässer Straße and a new burial ground in the St. Georgen cemetery .
Several Islamic organizations of different origins and religious orientations maintain a total of four places of prayer and mosques in Freiburg . Followers of Buddhism found in Tibet - Kailash -House that in 2007 the Dalai Lama was visited, or the Buddhist center of the Karma Kagyu -School contact points. In addition, there has been the Heidenhain (also: Hain der Heiden ) in Freiburg since 2004 , which sees itself as a meeting point and contact point for neo-paganism . Finally, there is a small Bahá'í congregation consisting of around 20 members.
In 1962, Eugen Keidel, a social democrat, was elected mayor for the first time in the formerly Catholic-conservative Freiburg . He was followed in 1982 by his party colleague Rolf Böhme , who resigned in 2002. The city is now considered a green stronghold . This is not only reflected in the election of the first green mayor of a major German city, but also in consistently above-average election results. In the federal elections in 2002 and 2005 , the constituency of Freiburg was the best constituency of this party nationwide with 25.0 and 22.8 percent of the second votes, respectively . After the Greens achieved 36.8 percent in the 2004 European elections in the urban district, the CDU again prevailed as the strongest political force in the state elections in March 2006 with 30.3 percent. In the state elections of 2011, however, the result of the Greens increased again to 34.5 percent (Freiburg I) and 39.9 percent (Freiburg II), in line with the national trend.
The municipal council consists of 48 elected members. As an additional member, the mayor has the chairmanship with voting rights.
In the local elections on May 26, 2019 , which took place parallel to the 2019 European elections , 16 of the 18 lists that were put up won seats in the local council. The election led to the following result (in brackets: difference to 2014):
|City council election 2019|
|Party / group of voters||Share of votes||+/-% p||Seats||+/-|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||26.5%||(+ 2.2)||13||(+ 2)|
|SPD||12.7%||(- 4.0)||6th||(- 2)|
|CDU||11.8%||(- 6.5)||6th||(- 3)|
|Left list / Solidarity City (LiSSt)||6.9%||(- 1.7)||3||(- 1)|
|Green Alternative Freiburg (GAF)||6.5%||(+ 3.3)||3||(+ 2)|
|Free voters (FW)||5.5%||(- 0.4)||3||(± 0)|
|Freiburg Worth Living (FL)||4.5%||(- 1.1)||2||(- 1)|
|Young Freiburg||3.8%||(+ 0.4)||2||(± 0)|
|FDP||3.8%||(- 1.0)||2||(± 0)|
|AfD||3.6%||(+ 3.6)||2||(+ 2)|
|Urban Freiburg||3.0%||(+ 3.0)||1||(+ 1)|
|The party||2.7%||(+ 1.2)||1||(± 0)|
|Culture list Freiburg (KULT)||2.2%||(- 1.9)||1||(- 1)|
|Independent Women Freiburg (UFF)||1.9%||(- 0.5)||1||(± 0)|
|Citizens for Freiburg (BFF)||1.9%||(+ 1.9)||1||(+ 1)|
|Participation and Inclusion List (LTI)||1.4%||(+ 1.4)||1||(+ 1)|
|Turnout: 62.8% (+ 11.4)|
Before 1806, the mayor was at the head of the city administration as chairman of the court . With the transition of the Breisgau to Baden , the Freiburg municipal law of 1520 was suspended and the Baden municipal constitution was introduced with a directly elected mayor at the head of the administration . Johann Josef Adrians - still elected by the guilds as head of the city - was confirmed in his office in 1806 and honored with the title of Lord Mayor , but the Baden municipal code considerably restricted Freiburg's municipal self-government. A city manager appointed by the government was in charge . From 1832, Freiburg city leaders then carried the title of mayor and did not call themselves lord mayor again until 1875.
The Lord Mayor of Freiburg is also the chairman of the municipal council with voting rights .
The Lord Mayors since 1806:
In the 2018 mayoral election, in the second ballot on May 6, with a turnout of 51.7 percent, the non-party Martin Horn, supported by the SPD, was elected with 44.2 percent. Already in the first ballot he got the most votes with 34.7 percent. His three competitors came to the following results in the second ballot: incumbent Dieter Salomon (Greens) received 30.7 percent, Monika Stein (Alliance of Independent Women, the GAF, the Left List, the Left and Young Freiburg) received 24.1 percent of the votes cast and Anton Behringer (independent) 0.9 percent. Horn held his office as administrator until March 5, 2019, as Friedhild Miller had filed a lawsuit against the election.
Ulrich von Kirchbach
|Culture, library, social affairs, housing security and accommodation, integration||SPD|
|Environment with forest and waste management, youth, school and education||Green|
|Finance and economy, real estate and housing, central IT, public order, citizen service, fire brigade, sport, registry office, cemeteries, urban drainage, surveying with an office of the expert committee||CDU|
|Urban development and construction, civil engineering with traffic planning, urban greenery, building management||non-party (proposal by the Greens )|
MPs from Freiburg
The direct mandate in the German Bundestag for the constituency of Freiburg has been held by Matern von Marschall from the CDU since 2013. On the national list represented in addition since 2002 Kerstin Andreae (Alliance 90 / The Greens) and, since 2017 Tobias Pflüger (The Left), the city in the Bundestag. In the 15th state parliament of Baden-Württemberg , Freiburg is represented by three members: for the constituency Freiburg-Ost Reinhold Pix (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, direct mandate) and for the constituency Freiburg-West Edith Sitzmann (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, direct mandate) and Gabi Rolland (SPD).
Coat of arms, seal, coin stamps, flag
The coat of arms of the city of Freiburg shows a red cross on a white background. It is the coat of arms of St. George , the city's oldest patron . The city seal of Freiburg shows a stylized castle in red on a white background with two tower blowers on the outer towers. This seal can only be seen sporadically in color in the urban area, but this representation, cast in iron, can be seen more often on the manhole covers in the inner city. The stylized representation of the castle served as a model for the Freiburg Wasserschlössle , built in the Sternwald in 1896 .
Often you can still see a coat of arms with a black eagle's head or a raven's head on a gold background. This coat of arms was created after 1327 from the Freiburg coin mark. Initially, the coins minted in Freiburg showed the spread eagle, i.e. the coat of arms of the Counts of Freiburg. After the Freiburgers bought the right to mint from the counts in 1327, the city minted coins that only showed the head of an eagle to distinguish them. This was soon seen as the head of a raven (Alemannic "Rappen"), which is why the small coin was also known as the "Rappen pfennig". In 1399 Freiburg and other Upper Rhine cities such as B. Basel to facilitate trade with each other, the Rappenmünzbund. The black penny was named after the Swiss black horse . The city coat of arms is often shown on historical buildings or on paintings together with the coat of arms of Austria , an indication of the city's long association with Upper Austria .
As in the coat of arms, the flag of the city of Freiburg shows the Georgskreuz , a red cross on a white background. It is identical to the flag of England , whose patron saint is St. George as in Freiburg. It is mainly hoisted as an upright flag, but can also be seen horizontally. This flag has been used since around 1368 when Freiburg came to the Habsburgs .
Citizen participation and engagement promotion
Six referendums have taken place in Freiburg so far :
- Construction of today's concert hall (1988)
- Preservation of the airfield (1995)
- Route of the Haslach tram (1999)
- Sales of urban apartments (2006)
- Construction of a new stadium for SC Freiburg in Wolfswinkel (2015)
- Construction of the new district of Dietenbach (2019)
The votes had a participation of between 22 percent (tram route 1999) and 50 percent (cultural and conference center 1988). An improvement in the chances of success of referendums is due to the reduction of the quorum from 30 to 25 percent by resolution of the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg in July 2005. In October 2015, the quorum was again reduced by a state law to 20 percent.
In the fourth and first successful referendum initiated by the Citizens' Initiative Housing is Human Rights (WiM), the citizens decided with a large majority in November 2006 that the city of Freiburg should remain the owner of the city apartments.
Since the 1970s, forms of cooperative-democratic citizen participation have been increasingly carried out in Freiburg . They are also called extended public participation (i.e. public participation that goes beyond the forms required by law).
Two reasons for the increase in participation in political decision-making are given in Freiburg: on the one hand, this is a response to the increasing self-confidence and demands of citizens for participation in the community. On the other hand, citizen participation is viewed as a form of recognition and appreciation of civic engagement. Observations show that a municipality that opens up more opportunities for co-decision tends to have more committed citizens.
The following forms of extended public participation can be observed in Freiburg (broken down according to increasing range):
- Participation in the decision on individual projects such as B. a children's playground
- Participation in zoning plans or district development plans (e.g. in the form of district assemblies)
- Participation in city-wide plans such as transport development plan, cultural development plan, land use plan, budget. There was extensive multi-year participation in the 2020 zoning plan. Citizens' participation in the budget took place for the first time in 2008 with the participation budget, which was based on the 2009/2010 double budget. Since then, it has been carried out every two years for the double household.
- Participation in the strategic management of the entire municipality: Since a municipal council resolution in 1996 there has been the Freiburg local Agenda 21 process, in which citizens, administration and local politics jointly agree on goals and measures for the sustainable development of Freiburg. Since 2006 there has been a Sustainability Council in Freiburg, in which representatives from local politics, city administration and civil society work together for this purpose, chaired by the Lord Mayor.
Promotion of engagement
With citizen participation, a highly specialized infrastructure supported by the city, charities and associations has developed in Freiburg since the early 1990s, which promotes voluntary work :
- A staff unit “Citizen Engagement” in Department III of the city administration promotes engagement through the organization of projects, through public recognition, public relations and networking. It also organizes individual procedures for public participation.
- The “Treffpunkt Freiburg” offers clubs and groups rooms and technology for meetings, office work and events. It promotes volunteers with further training on all aspects of their needs, through public relations work, through target group-specific support and through strategic work that aims to bring together local politics, administration, associations, etc. in order to improve the promotion of volunteering.
- The “Freiburg volunteer agency” advises and mediates people who are interested in volunteering and organizes advanced training. In addition, she advises organizations that want to work successfully with volunteers and promotes commitment through its own projects, financial support, public recognition, public relations, networking, target-group-specific work, etc. a.
- “The Freiburg Self-Help Office” supports self-help groups in setting up and ongoing work; through advice, mediation and training.
- The city's Agenda 21 office supports the committees of the agenda process and volunteer project groups related to the agenda process.
- The association FARBE e. V. (Free Working Group Civic Engagement) runs v. a. strategic work and participates in the operation of the “Treffpunkt Freiburg”.
Citizens' associations in the core city of Freiburg
- Citizens' Association Rieselfeld e. V.
- Citizens' Association Betzenhausen-Bischofslinde e. V.
- Bürgererverein Brühl-Notification e. V.
- Citizens' Association Freiburg-Landwasser e. V.
- Freiburg-St. Georgen e. V.
- Civic Association Herdern e. V.
- Citizens' Association Littenweiler e. V.
- Bürgererverein Mittel- und Unterwiehre e. V.
- Citizens' Association Mooswald e. V.
- Citizens' Association Oberwiehre-Waldsee e. V.
- Citizens' Association Stühlinger e. V.
- Civic Association Weingarten e. V.
- Citizens' Association Zähringen e. V.
- Local association Freiburg-Haslach e. V.
- Local association downtown e. V.
- Local association Günterstal e. V.
- District association Vauban e. V.
After the Second World War , town twinning in Europe was a way of enabling understanding between people from different nations in direct contact and thus stabilizing peace. In this spirit, the partnership with Besançon was concluded in 1959, which was followed by more with Innsbruck , Padua and Guildford . The continental cities of this phase are of roughly the same size and structure, are touristically attractive university cities and old Habsburg cities with a rich past. This also applies to the city of Granada , which was added later, and the considerably larger Lviv .
As modern modes of transport and improved telecommunications made the world smaller, cities overseas were added with Madison in the US and Matsuyama in Japan . The influence that these partnerships have on the cultural development of Freiburg can be seen, among other things, in the submission of 700 entries to a haiku competition in Matsuyama, 25 of which were awarded.
The partnership with the city of Isfahan in Iran is the first and so far only partnership between a German and an Iranian city. Due to the denial of the Holocaust by the former Iranian President Mahmud Ahmadineschād and the nuclear dispute , the partnership is struggling with difficulties.
The twin cities of Freiburg at a glance:
Traditionally friendly relationships that are not fixed in writing exist with the eleven other cities newly founded or promoted by the Dukes of Zähringen in Switzerland and in southern Germany: Bern , Thun , Burgdorf , Freiburg im Üechtland , Murten , Rheinfelden , Neuchâtel , Villingen , Bräunlingen and Weilheim an der Teck as well as to the monastery of St. Peter in the Black Forest , the burial place of most of the Zähringers.
Culture and leisure
The Freiburg Theater is a three-branch theater with drama, music theater and ballet. There are three stages: The Great House, the Playhouse and the Chamber Stage. The “Werkraum” and the winter foyer are available for special occasions. The dance group pvc ( p hysical v irus c ollective) occurs as a cooperative project at theaters in Freiburg and Heidelberg alike. The Philharmonic Orchestra plays in the concert hall . Peter Carp has been artistic director since the 2017/2018 season .
Like most city-run theaters, the Freiburger Haus is subject to major austerity constraints due to the local financial crisis. Nevertheless, according to a survey of theater critics, the trade journal “Die deutsche Bühne” was able to award the Freiburg city theater first place for “unusually convincing theater work outside of the major theater centers” (autumn 2007).
There are also a number of smaller theaters:
- The Wallgraben Theater , once a student basement theater , is best known for its Loriot performances with Heinz Meier † . Today it takes place in the basement of the New Town Hall , in whose inner courtyard open-air performances are also shown in summer.
- The Theater im Marienbad is Freiburg 's children's and youth theater and takes place in the former small swimming pool of an abandoned pool.
- The Alemannische Bühne Freiburg performs pieces in Alemannic dialect.
- The "Front Building Freiburg - Culture in the Factory" is mainly a cabaret stage.
- Cala Theater (formerly Galli Theater) Freiburg
- KIEV - Chamber plays in the E-Werk Freiburg
- Cargo Theater Freiburg
- The theater of the immoralists
- The Hans Dürr theater is an amateur theater and is known for the Shakespeare Company and productions in the Black Monastery.
- Harry's Depot is the smallest theater in town
- SpielRaum Freiburg: Stage of the Freiburg Institute for Theater Education and the Freiburg Studiobühne
In Freiburg there is a lively improvisational theater scene with around 10 professional and amateur groups performing in different locations.
Freiburg has several providers who offer scenic (theater-like) city tours with often professional actors (Historix-Tours, Freiburg Kultour, Timewalking). Ghost walks are also offered in the evening.
In mid-June, the organ concerts in the Münster every Tuesday (until the end of September), at which interpreters present programs from early baroque to modern , will open the festival season in Freiburg. During the year, many cultural festivals take place in Freiburg, for example the reportage festival MUNDOlogia in February , an open-air theater sport festival, the international dance festival, and in the summer since 1983 the international tent music festival (ZMF), the Münster summer with concerts, theater, readings and exhibitions as well as many other events.
Since 2005 , a colorful series of events has been presented in the garden of Ebnet Castle in the district of the same name during the Ebnet cultural summer from the end of May to July.
Every two years in May, the Freiburg film forum, a renowned festival of ethnographic film, takes place. The Sea of Love music festival has been taking place every July in Freiburg-Hochdorf am Tunisee since 2002 . In 2011 Sea of Love was the most popular music festival in Baden-Württemberg after the Southside Festival in Neuhausen ob Eck, with around 25,000 visitors .
The renowned Freiburg musician Murat Coşkun organizes the world's most important frame drum festival Tamburi Mundi for percussion enthusiasts at the E-Werk every year at the beginning of August , with public concerts, workshops and sessions.
At the end of the season, the Freiburg Jazz Festival, jointly organized by E-Werk and Jazzhaus, takes place in September, at which international stars of the jazz scene can be heard.
With numerous orchestras and choirs, including some with an international reputation, Freiburg has a lively musical life. Important sources of inspiration - in different styles - are the Freiburg University of Music , which has existed since 1946, with students and master class students from all over the world, and the Freiburg Jazz and Rock School . In addition, there is the experimental studio of the Heinrich Strobel Foundation in the radio building of the Südwestrundfunk , which has been one of the important sources of inspiration for new music since it was founded in 1969 .
- The Freiburg Philharmonic Orchestra, under the direction of General Music Director Fabrice Bollon since 2008 , is the theater's house orchestra.
- Freiburg Baroque Orchestra (FBO) under the alternating direction of Gottfried von der Goltz and Petra Müllejans
- The Balthasar Neumann Ensemble is directed by Thomas Hengelbrock .
- Per Tutti Orchestra, conductor: Nikolaus Reinke
- Academic Orchestra Freiburg eV, founded in 1963
- Junge Kammerphilharmonie Freiburg eV
- KHG Orchestra eV
- The Consortium Classicum was founded in 1966 by the clarinetist Dieter Klöcker and is primarily dedicated to the music of the late 18th and 19th centuries.
- Holst-Sinfonietta (chamber ensemble) and youth orchestra of the Holst-Sinfonietta (JOHS), Freiburg, conductor: Klaus Simon
- The ensemble aventure is a chamber ensemble that is mainly dedicated to the music of the 20th century and contemporary music.
- The ensemble recherche is one of the most renowned ensembles for the interpretation of new music.
- The Baden-Württemberg Ensemble Academy Freiburg e. V. offers professional musicians and advanced students additional training and further education opportunities for instrumental music and singing. It is carried by the Freiburg Baroque Orchestra and the ensemble recherche .
- ORSO Choir and Orchestra Society , an amalgamation of various choirs and orchestras
- Freiburg Orchestra Society, founded in 1960 as an amateur orchestra.
- camerata academica freiburg eV, founded in 1997
- Raschèr Saxophone Quartet
- All registers - the gender mix choir
- Anton Webern Choir Freiburg
- Balthasar Neumann Choir and Ensemble , conductor: Thomas Hengelbrock
- Bächlechor, conductor: Claudia Mundi
- The bus choir, conductor: Christian Deichert
- Camerata Vocale Freiburg , founded in 1977; Head: Winfried Toll
- Christ Choir
- German-French choir
- Protestant Student Choir Freiburg
- Freiburg Bach Choir
- Freiburg Cathedral Choir and Freiburg Cathedral Chapel (chamber choir)
- Freiburg Cathedral Boys' Choir
- Freiburg Gospel Choir, conductor: Carsten Schulz
- Freiburg Chamber Choir, conductor: Lukas Grimm
- Freiburg Cantata Choir, conductor: Wolfgang Failer
- Freiburg Oratorio Choir
- Freiburg vocal ensemble, conductor: Wolfgang Schäfer
- Heinrich-Schütz-Kantorei Freiburg, direction: Bernd Scharfenberger
- Freiburg Jazz Choir
- John Sheppard Ensemble, conductor: Bernhard Schmidt
- Junge Kantorei Freiburg, director: Christoph Andreas Schäfer
- Madrigal choir of the KHG
- Girls' Choir at Freiburg Minster
- ORSO choir and orchestra company , conductor: Wolfgang Roese
- Choir of the Freiburg University of Education , conductor: Stefan Weible
- Romanesque choir of the university
- Russian University Choir (since 1930)
- SUSI choir, conducted by Ansgar Rettner
- Tune Up !, Choir of the Jazz & Rock Schools Freiburg, directed by Rolf Schwoerer-Böhning
- University of Freiburg, Head: Lisa Hummel
- Voice Event - Selection Choir of the Freiburg Schools
Folk, jazz and rock scene
Central meeting points of the folk, jazz and rock scene are the Waldsee restaurant , the Wodan hall in the Ganter house beer garden and the jazz house, which is regularly used by the international elite. The Waldi-Heidepriem-Preis is awarded regularly by the city of Freiburg. It is named after the modern jazz pianist Waldi Heidepriem , who worked in Freiburg until his death in 1998 and was involved in setting up the Freiburg Jazz House . Other well-known jazz artists from Freiburg are Thomas Heidepriem , Dieter Ilg , as well as the Cécile Verny Quartet and the Freiburg soul formation tok tok tok . In addition to the Jazzhaus, the E-Werk, with its larger concerts in the areas of rock, pop and world music ("creole in concert"), the Ruefetto and the Waldsee with its series of events "Jazz without Stress" are popular meeting places for the Freiburg jazz community. Scene. Arranged by the local concert promoter KOKO & DTK Entertainment , well-known rock and pop greats can be found regularly in the concert hall and in the SICK-Arena, the multifunctional event hall of the Freiburg Exhibition Center . If you like to listen to country , rockabilly or 60s Modbeat, then Great Räng Teng Teng is the place for you. Those who prefer to listen to alternative or punk go to the traditional Café Atlantik near Schwabentor .
In addition, there is a large number of music associations, brass bands, amateur choirs and bands of various styles that are more of local importance.
Film and cinema
In relation to the number of inhabitants, according to information from 2008, Freiburg had the highest number of moviegoers in Germany. On average, everyone in Freiburg went to a cinema almost six times a year to watch a film. The national German average was 1.66.
In the CinemaxX of a nationwide cinema operator as a multiplex cinema , Hollywood mainstream films are shown predominantly . In addition, a local operator with the has Friedrichsbau / Apollo -Kinos (four rooms), the Kandelhof (a hall) and harmony (six rooms) three venues, as cinema be recorded. These cinemas, which are part of the Europa Cinemas network, have consistently received awards for their demanding program, in 2007 they were the first in Germany to receive the “Europa Cinemas Award” for the best program design. They received five awards from the Federal Republic of Germany's cinema program and distribution awards for 2017. In the summer there is an open-air cinema from this organizer in the courtyard of the Black Monastery . Until 2015, the Freiburg Film Festival took place every summer in Friedrichsbau und Harmonie , which mostly presents Freiburg premieres of arthouse films.
The non-commercial municipal cinema in Freiburg has also received several awards for its programming work. Every two years the municipal cinema organizes the Freiburg Film Forum with a focus on ethnographic film. It is considered one of the most important film festivals in this field in Germany.
As one of the oldest student film clubs in Germany, the Academic Film Club Freiburg, founded in 1957 at the University of Freiburg eV, has its own program. This is shown up to five times a week during the semester with a 35 mm projector and with a digital projector in a large lecture hall of the college building II of the university. From the winter semester 2019/20, during the renovation of the KG II, the performances will take place in the large lecture hall of biology in Herdern.
The Schwule Filmwoche Freiburg has been taking place since 1985 , one of the oldest gay festivals in German-speaking countries. Until 2000, the gay film week was a guest in the communal cinema , since 2001 all screenings have been in the Kandelhof .
Kool Filmdistribution is based in Freiburg , an independent distributor for international art house and independent films founded in 1997 . Every year about seven films with up to 50 copies come into the cinemas via this route. a. The butterfly with Michel Serrault , The great seduction or Back to Dalarna .
Freiburg was also discovered as a filming location . Mostly romantic TV comedies such as Der Vollgasmann or Some like it happy are created here . There was also the drama Time of the Room Fires with Uwe Ochsenknecht and the crime scene: Five minutes heaven with Heike Makatsch . The first episode of the new Tatort Schwarzwald was filmed in 2016, in which Freiburg only plays a role as the seat of the police headquarters. The Italian horror film Suspiria from 1977 is also set in Freiburg (in the Haus zum Walfisch ), but was shot mostly abroad.
Freiburg is home to several municipal museums, most of which have developed from the earlier “municipal collections”. The largest museum in the city is the Augustinermuseum (museum for art and cultural history on the Upper Rhine) on Augustinerplatz, one of the most important museums in southern Baden. A department of the Augustinermuseum is the Museum of City History , which has been housed in the Wentzingerhaus on Münsterplatz since 1994 and is primarily concerned with the development of Freiburg and the construction of the Freiburg Cathedral. The Freiburg Nature Museum is also located on Augustinerplatz and provides an overview of geology and mineralogy as well as the local flora and fauna. The show “From Egg to Chick”, which is presented annually in the weeks leading up to Easter, is not only extremely popular with children. Another municipal museum is the Museum of New Art in Marienstraße, which opened in 1985 as a department of the Augustinermuseum , in which modern and contemporary art, from Expressionism at the beginning of the 20th century to current developments in recent years, is exhibited. The Archaeological Museum Colombischlössle (formerly the Museum of Prehistory and Early History) has been located in Colombipark on Rotteckring since 1983. The permanent exhibition presents finds from the Paleolithic to the Middle Ages, including works of art by Ice Age hunters and gatherers in southern Baden, the oldest glass bowl north of the Alps and evidence of medieval Freiburg. Family afternoons, interactive tours and hands-on stations illustrate the special features of each era. For example, several times a year there are activities for children where they can try out for themselves how fire was made in the Stone Age . In May 2012, in the industrial area high village of the Central Art Depot opened in the city.
The newly created " Uniseum " in the building of the "Old University" shows exhibits from the history of the university and shows the development of the university to this day. The Baden-Württemberg Police Academy houses a crime museum, in which, among other things, the break-in of Hohenzollern Castle from 1952 is described (guided tour by appointment).
Since October 2004 the city has been operating the Kunsthaus L6 in the Zähringen district . There are studios for visual artists, rehearsal rooms for bands, a living studio for guest artists, an artist workshop and a hall for exhibitions of current art from the Freiburg region.
The Kunstverein Freiburg , founded in 1827 and thus one of the oldest art associations in Germany, presents current art in its exhibition hall, the former swimming pool of the abandoned Marienbad.
There are also a number of privately operated museums in Freiburg: Since 2004, international contemporary art has been exhibited in the “Kunstraum Alexander Bürkle”. The “Rosskopf Collection” of contemporary visual art can also be seen there in a permanent exhibition. - The "Foundation for Concrete Art Roland Phleps" shows in its sculpture hall in the district of Zähringen in particular steel sculptures by the namesake and in changing exhibitions works by related artists. - The Freiburg Carnival Museum is located in Turmstrasse, where masks and costumes (Alemannic “Häs” ) and the history of the “Freiburg Carnival” are exhibited. - In the Schwabentor there is the tin figure cave , in which historical dioramas (e.g. on Martin Luther or the peasant wars ) made of tin figures are exhibited. The private Small Stucco Museum is located in the Brühl district and is the only one of its kind in Germany.
The Schauinsland visitor mine is located in the “Freiburg local mountain”, the Schauinsland . It is a town historically important mine in which silver, lead and zinc ores were mined. It is located on the " Erzkasten " above Hofsgrund . Today it is operated by a private research group. It is closed in the winter months.
At the beginning of 2020, the city activated an online collection with images of initially 814 objects from the city's museums. Most can be used free of charge under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License .
At the end of 2021, the Freiburg National Socialism Documentation Center is due to open in the former traffic office. The Freiburg branch of the State Center for Political Education is also to move there.
The Reinhold Schneider Prize is the city of Freiburg im Breisgau's culture prize, which has been awarded every two years since 1960, alternating in the areas of literature, music and the performing arts.
By western areas of the dialect Freiburg boundary runs between low - and High Alemannic German (Opfingen Tiengen and part of the highly alemannischen, the remaining areas to the low alemannischen dialect space). Freiburg's Alemannic name is - as it was when the city was founded - Friburg . The original Freiburg dialect has largely given way to a more or less Lower Alemannic colloquial language, which, like Swabian, has diphthonged and lost many of the characteristics of Alemannic.
The city is home to the soccer club SC Freiburg , which has been continuously represented in the first or second Bundesliga since 1978 . In 2016, the club rose to the top division for the fifth time in its history. The association became known throughout Germany for its particularly constant personnel policy. Achim Stocker was president from 1972 until his death in 2009 . Long-time coach was Volker Finke (1991-2007), on whose initiative the club's football school goes back. In 2004 SC Freiburg celebrated its 100th anniversary. Christian Streich has been the trainer since December 2011 . The women's team plays in the 1st women's division .
In ice hockey , the EHC Freiburg (the wolves) plays in the 2nd ice hockey Bundesliga in the 2010/2011 season . In the 2003/2004 season the EHC played in the DEL , the top division in German ice hockey.
Freiburg is represented in the first women's basketball league through the Eisvögel USC Freiburg . In the 2005/2006 season, the kingfishers took second place after the end of the second half of the season, and fourth in the 2006/2007 season. The USC men's team plays in the ProA (2nd Bundesliga) in the 2009/10 season . The Freiburg men's team played their last first-class season in 1998/1999.
The city is also home to the Freiburg Rugby Club e. V. from 1982. The men's team currently plays in the Baden-Württemberg regional league, the women's team in the German 7-a-side rugby league. The club's home ground is in March-Hugstetten , where the only rugby sports field in the wider area is located.
American sports are also very popular in Freiburg, not least because of the foreign guest students. The city is represented in American football by the Freiburg Sacristans , who in the 2008 season for the first time in the Regionalliga Mitte of the American Football Association Baden-Württemberg e. V. and finished the season in third place. The Freiburg Knights play with both the baseball and softball teams in the Baden-Württemberg Association of the BWBSV on their traditional place in the Dietenbach area. In Freiburg there is also the lacrosse team PTSV Jahn Freiburg Pumas , which provides a women's and a men's team in the 1st Bundesliga South, and a men's team in the 1st regional league Baden-Württemberg in partnership with Karlsruhe. They are also represented as the Freiburg-Stuttgart syndicate in the 1st Bundesliga South in indoor lacrosse. Also located in PTSV Jahn Freiburg is the Freiburg Ultimate Frisbee team DISConnection , whose mixed team competes in the first division and thus the highest German division .
The Schützengesellschaft Freiburg has been shooting archery in the Bundesliga for many years. The shooting club Freiburg-St. Georgen shoots air pistols in the South Baden League and was also active with the air rifle in the South Baden League.
Another important sport is cycling . In 2000, Freiburg was the fourth stage of the Tour de France . In June 2004 the German cycling championship was held here, in November 2005 an international competition was organized with the indoor cycling world championship .
Freiburg is the seat of the Freiburg-Black Forest Olympic base , which maintains various performance centers in the region: Nordic skiing , cycling , athletics and others. The competitive center for wrestling and a sports boarding school are located in Freiburg . There is close cooperation with sports medicine and sports science at the university.
In March 2004, the Freiburg Marathon took place for the first time as a mass sports event, which has been held every spring since then.
With the Freiburg gymnastics association in 1844 , the largest sports club in southern Baden has its home in Freiburg. He had received the award in 2004, in 2009 the 54th World Roller Figure Skating - World Cup align in Freiburg. Around 1000 roller athletes from over 25 nations competed from November 10 to 21, 2009 for the titles to be awarded in ten disciplines.
The Freiburg-Zähringen 1887 eV chess club is the largest and oldest chess club in southern Baden. His wives play in the second national women's chess league . In the 1950s, Freiburg took part in German team championships several times , together with Hamburg, Berlin, Düsseldorf and Munich. Former world champion Efim Bogolyubov was a member of the club. The chairwoman Barbara Hund took part in 15 chess Olympiads and won a silver medal in Buenos Aires in 1978 .
The skate park in Dietenbachpark , inaugurated at the beginning of 2015, was enlarged to 2,400 square meters in 2020. He received a replica of the "Arto Saari Bowl", a Californian swimming pool . In addition to a generation playground , there has also been Freiburg's first parkour area nearby since July 2020 .
In June 2020, the first Freiburg pump track was opened in the Alban Stolz facility in the Zähringen district .
In addition, there are over 200 sports clubs in Freiburg that offer around 100 popular sports and offer good training opportunities.
The largest bath in Freiburg is the Eugen-Keidel-Bad , a mineral thermal bath with a large pool and sauna area. It is connected to local public transport via a bus line, but the location in the forest far from the city is more car-friendly. It is operated by the Freiburger Stadtbau GmbH.
In the west of Freiburg in the immediate vicinity of the Seepark is the Westbad , which is primarily designed as a sports pool. It has a 50 m pool that can be divided by a movable partition, a non-swimmer and a baby pool and a five-meter-deep diving pool with a 10-meter jumping facility. Outside there are lawns for sunbathing, play areas, a children's pool and an outdoor swimming pool that has not been in operation for a long time [out of date] due to the city's financial difficulties . In addition to the German Swimming Championships in 1979 , the German Short Course Championships took place there in 2000 .
Close to the city center is the Faulerbad , which is designed as a leisure pool with a 25-meter swimmer pool, non-swimmer pool, sunbathing area and a sauna.
In the Haslach district there is the Haslach indoor garden pool with several pools, including a non-swimmer pool and a diving pool up to five meters and a lawn for sunbathing. Other sports pools are located in Lehen with a 17-meter pool and in Hochdorf.
The largest of the outdoor pools is the lido in the immediate vicinity of the SC stadium on the border between the eastern districts of Waldsee and Ebnet. It has a non-swimmer pool with a 91-meter slide, a paddling pool and a 50-meter pool, as well as spacious lounging areas, changing rooms and catering facilities. Bouncy castle and beach volleyball fields complete the wide range. The pools are heated by solar energy.
The third outdoor pool is the St. Georgen outdoor pool with a 25 m pool in connection with a non-swimmer area with a wide slide. The lawn is partly curved in hills and offers an extensive sports area with a trampoline and playing fields.
The outdoor pools are only open during the summer season. The other six swimming pools are open all year round with different breaks.
- January: Freiburg International Culture Exchange (since 1989)
- freiburger-limitless-festival (since 2002)
- MUNDOlogia Festival (Photo Festival, since 2004)
- February: Automobil (new car fair, since 1986)
- February / March: Folklorists describe the Freiburger Fasnet as a mixture of the Swabian-Alemannic carnival and the Rhenish club carnival . The driving force is the Breisgauer Narrenzunft Freiburg with its 35 member guilds.
- March: Camping Freizeit Touristik with bike aktiv and holiday fair (consumer exhibition with a focus on leisure, since 1972)
- March or April: Freiburg Marathon (since 2004)
- April / May: Freiburg Gay Film Week (since 1985) in the Kandelhof cinema
- Freiburg Spring Mass' (fair, fair, start: Friday before the third Sunday in May)
- Freiburg Film Forum ethnologie (film festival on ethnology, Africa, America, Asia, Oceania, every two years since 1985)
- Spring / Summer: duck race on the Dreisam (since 2011, 2014 break)
- June: Oberlindenhock in Freiburg's old town - every year on the last weekend in June (since 1969)
- June / July: Freiburg gets in the mood, music festival to join in (since 2011)
- Klong , Children's Music Festival (since 2010)
- Christopher Street Day (since 2014)
- June to August: Flat cultural summer (since 2005)
- June to September: Münster summer (since 2000, with weekly organ concert, museum night, frame drum festival and much more)
- Summer: Open-air cinema in the courtyard of the Black Monastery
- Schauinsland-Klassik (since 2001)
- Nostalgic mass on the Stühlinger Kirchplatz (since 1995)
- Summer party with flea market Habsburgerstrasse (since 2011)
- July: Sea of Love Music Festival at Tunisee (since 2001)
- Freiburg Wine Festival (since 2001)
- Tent Music Festival (since 1983)
- July / August: City hall court plays of the Wallgraben-Theater
- Seefest (folk festival in the Seepark area) (did not take place in 2007 and 2008 due to the increased costs)
- Frame drum festival Tamburi Mundi
- Schlossbergfest (with interruptions)
- August: Freiburger Weinkost (small wine festival in the courtyard of the historic department store and in front of it)
- August / September: Art in the upper old town (since 1979)
- September: Baden Messe (Freiburg's largest consumer exhibition )
- last Sunday in September: soap box race on the Eichhalde
- October: Freiburger Herbstmess' (fair, fair, start: Friday before the third Sunday in October)
- International Minerals and Fossil Days Freiburg im Breisgau (since 1978, New Fair)
- November: Plaza Culinaria (culinary fair)
- Brettlemarkt (fair for winter sports)
- Freiburg toy and model railway exchange
- Freiburg Literature Discussion (since 1986)
- November / December: Freiburg Christmas market (since 1973)
- December / January: Christmas circus festival
In Freiburg there are remarkable buildings from all eras of the city's history. A large part of the historic old town was destroyed in the bombing raid on November 27, 1944. Amazingly, the cathedral, the southeast corner of the Münsterplatz with the historical department store, Wentzingerhaus and Alter Wache as well as the two still preserved medieval city gates remained almost intact. After the war, the old town was largely rebuilt in the historical proportions with the size of the property and the height of the eaves.
Freiburg has had a design advisory board since 2014. Five experts from the fields of architecture, urban planning and landscape architecture were elected for three years. They should advise the city on important construction projects that shape the cityscape and contribute technical arguments. During their term of office, members are not allowed to plan or build in Freiburg.
In 2014 the municipal council also decided to set up an art commission. It is supposed to advise the city administration and the political bodies on urban design. The five experts from the fields of fine arts, art education and architecture are appointed by the mayor and work on a voluntary basis.
Notable buildings include:
The Freiburg Minster is the city's landmark and its most important building. It was built as a parish church and therefore has only one main tower. Among the numerous works of art are the high altar and the Schnewlin altar by Hans Baldung Grien , the so-called Oberried Altar by Hans Holbein the Elder. J. and some very beautiful medieval stained glass windows, some of which were donated by the craft guilds . The 116 meter high Gothic tower of the cathedral towers over all buildings in the city. He was honored by the art historian Jacob Burckhardt in a series of lectures in 1869 in comparison with Basel and Strasbourg with the following words: “And Freiburg will probably remain the most beautiful tower on earth”. From this the quotation about the “most beautiful tower in Christendom”, which is often heard but has not been handed down in writing, developed. The market is held every day (except Sundays) around the Freiburg Cathedral.
At Münsterplatz: The historic department store from 1532 with its magnificent sculptures of Habsburg rulers is striking because of its oxblood-red color, the corner turrets covered with colored bricks and its stepped gables . The house “Zum Schönen Eck” from 1761 ( Wentzingerhaus ) was built by Johann Christian Wentzinger as his own residential and studio house in the late Baroque style. It has housed the Museum of City History since 1994 . The Alte Wache , built as the main guard of the Austrian Guard Garrison in 1733, is now used as the "House of Baden Wines" after a wide variety of uses.
The Alte Münsterbauhütte is the oldest preserved building in the old town with a visible framework. It was erected as the building of the “Münsterfabrik”, which had been responsible for building the Freiburg parish church since the 13th century. The building was later extended by the half-timbered floor, which then offered an apartment for the tower guard. Today the Münsterbauverein maintains a small shop here and the Münster parish a meeting and advice center. The Archbishop's Ordinariate , the administrative building of the Catholic Archdiocese of Freiburg, is within sight . The building, erected between 1903 and 1906 in a historicizing form, has a natural stone facade richly ornamented in the late Romanesque style. The interior shows not only Byzantine style elements but also Art Nouveau. Opposite is the " Collegium Borromaeum " planned by Christoph Arnold , a student of Friedrich Weinbrenner , with the Konviktskirche from 1823 to 1826, which is today the seminary for the Archdiocese of Freiburg . Not far away is the Archbishop's Archive , built in 2002 , a cubic building clad in sandstone.
Two churches in the historic old town deserve attention. The gothic church of St. Martin (Franciscan Church ) on Rathausplatz has a decidedly simple interior and originally had no tower as a mendicant order church . A bell tower with a pointed helmet was only built between 1890 and 1893. After the destruction in World War II , the tower was given a pyramid roof . The baroque university church (Jesuit church) next to the old university was almost completely destroyed in the Second World War and was not painted again after the reconstruction. The outstanding and striking work of art in the choir has been a 16-meter-high sculpture of the suffering Christ since 1988, created and made available on loan from the Münstertal artist Franz Gutmann .
Instead of the Old Ludwig Church on the northern edge of the city center, which was destroyed in 1944, a modern church building with groundbreaking architecture was built in the Herdern district between 1952 and 1954 according to plans by Horst Linde . Another notable contemporary church building is the Maria Magdalena Church by Cologne architect Susanne Gross in the Rieselfeld district . This church is available to the Protestant and Catholic congregations with one church room each and was consecrated in 2004.
The two gate towers still preserved from the medieval city fortifications shape the image of the city center. The older Martinstor was increased almost three times to 60 meters in 1901 and received a roof structure in the style of the 15th century. The Schwabentor was also raised to almost double the height in 1901 and provided with openwork stepped gables in the style of north German city towers. These were dismantled again in 1954 and the gate tower was given a pyramid roof and bell tower with an onion dome .
In the upper old town, not far from the Schwabentor, is the hotel / restaurant Zum Roten Bären ; it is considered the oldest inn in Germany. The very deep foundations date from before 1120, the time the city was founded.
Jakob Villinger von Schönenberg , the Grand Treasurer of Maximilian I - the king was the sovereign of Freiburg from 1490 to 1519 - built the " Haus zum Walfisch " , which was completed in 1515 . The humanist and philosopher Erasmus von Rotterdam lived there from 1529 to 1531 after his escape from Protestant Basel. After numerous renovations in the 18th and 19th centuries, the city acquired the house in 1905 and made it available to the Sparkasse Freiburg in 1909. The Zum Walfisch building burned down in 1944 as a result of the British bombing raid, but after its reconstruction it remained the headquarters of today's Sparkasse Freiburg-Nördlicher Breisgau .
Not far away, on Kaiser-Joseph-Straße, is one of the most important secular buildings in Freiburg, the “ Basler Hof ”. It was built at the end of the 15th century through the renovation of several older houses by Konrad Stürtzel , court chancellor of Emperor Maximilian I. From 1587 to 1677, the building served as an exile residence for the Basel cathedral chapter , which was no longer able to maintain itself in Basel due to the Reformation. From 1698–1802 it was the official seat of the Front Austrian government. It performs a similar function today: this is the representative office of the district president. Most of the offices of the Freiburg Regional Council are housed in a new building in the west of the city.
There are also interesting buildings from different eras between the western edge of the old town and the main train station: The so-called Colombischlössle on Rotteckring, 1869–71 on the bastion “St. Louis “of the former Vauban fortification, built as a stately villa in neo-Gothic style, is located in a small park where vines can be found in the middle of the city for display purposes. 1947–1951 was the seat of the (southern) Baden state government here. The city's Archaeological Museum has been housed here since 1983 . The city theater was built between 1905 and 1910 on the “Dauphin” bastion of the fortification mentioned above with Art Nouveau elements. It was almost completely destroyed in 1944 and rebuilt after the Second World War. On the square of the Old Synagogue , it forms an impressive ensemble with the college buildings I and II of the university. - Next to it is the Freiburg University Library , which was built in 1978 as a concrete building on the site of a grammar school building from the historicist era . After 30 years it was rebuilt according to plans by the Basel office Degelo Architects . The Freiburg Concert Hall is located near the main train station. Its realization was fiercely controversial among the citizens.
With 19 floors and a height of 60 meters, the Freiburg Bahnhofsturm in Bismarckallee is the fourth tallest building in the city after the cathedral and the residential buildings at Krozinger Strasse 52 and 78. It belongs to the "Forum Hauptbahnhof Freiburg" building complex, which was newly built in 1997. The station tower is also known as the “Solar Tower” because a large part of the south facade consists of solar cells. There are offices in the high-rise office building and a club lounge (bar) on the top two floors . The building complex also includes a second high-rise, called the “Office Tower”, and the Freiburg Planetarium . The “Inter City Hotel” high-rise is also located at the main train station. The three skyscrapers (Solar Tower, Office Tower and Inter City Hotel) create a small skyline.
Important places in the city
The Münsterplatz is the largest paved square in Freiburg. The weekly market takes place here every morning except Sunday, the farmers 'market on the north side and the traders' market on the south side. In the Middle Ages there was a cemetery around the cathedral. On the north side, the outlines of the former ossuary chapel are marked in the pavement. On the west side of the square there are two fountains, to the north a copy of the fish fountain, the model of which was created in 1483 by master Hans von Basel and formerly stood on Marktgass (today's Kaiser-Joseph-Straße), and to the south is the Georgsbrunnen from the beginning of the 16th century with a gilded statue of St. George. The three sandstone columns in front of the main portal of the minster go back to a foundation from 1719 by the three united estates of Upper Austria; they carry sculptures of the two “younger” city patrons Lambert of Maastricht and Alexander, flanking the Virgin Mary as patroness of the cathedral.
The Augustinerplatz is one of the central squares of the old town of Freiburg. Surrounded by the former Augustinian monastery - today's Augustinermuseum - and the remains of the former city wall, the square is a popular meeting place for the Freiburg population. The course of the old city wall can be recognized by the different paving of the floor. After the demolition of the formerly neighboring Feierling brewery and the redesign of the square, a phenomenon has developed that is jokingly compared to the conditions at the Spanish Steps in Rome . On the stairs of Augustinerplatz and in its surroundings, many people enjoy urban life with Mediterranean flair on summer nights. However, since the high noise level sometimes affects the night's rest of the residents , an attempt was made to reduce the noise level in 2009 with the establishment of the column of tolerance , which switches from rainbow colors to red light at 11 p.m. However, it was not successful, and the € 18,000 column was more of a mockery.
The square of the Old Synagogue (former names: Theaterplatz, Europaplatz) along the western side of the former city fortifications are now bordered by the college buildings I and II of the university , the university library and the Freiburg city theater. The synagogue stood on part of the now vacant lawn in front of Collegiate Building II until the pogrom night in November 1938 . The name of the square and a commemorative plaque remind of this, as does a sign to Gurs , the place where most of the Jews from Freiburg were deported in 1940. In connection with a new traffic concept for the city of Freiburg, the square is to take on special significance for the western expansion of the inner city. A gap between the Collegiate Buildings I and II leads to the “ White Rose Square”, which is surrounded by university buildings, as a reminder of the student resistance during National Socialism.
The town square used to be called after the former monastery Franziskanerplatz, only the Gothic of the church of St. Martin and a part is received in the cloister. The old town hall and the new town hall limit the square on the other side. In the square there is a fountain with a memorial to the monk Berthold Schwarz from the formerly neighboring monastery, who allegedly invented gunpowder ( black powder ).
Oberlinden and Unterlinden are contemplative places in different quarters of the old town, each with an eponymous old linden tree. The "Obere Linde" has been standing since 1729, the fountain from 1861 is crowned by a Baroque Madonna by Franz Hauser (1651–1717).
The potato market is a popular old town square. In the middle is a fountain donated in 1911 by the businessman Ludwig Rau, which was designed by Carl Anton Meckel and Ludwig Kubanek . Many Freiburg residents consider Adelhauser-Platz to be the most beautiful square in Freiburg, small and away from the main streams of pedestrians. It bears its name after the Adelhausen monastery that was located there and of which the church is still preserved. After numerous renovations over the past centuries, which have barely made the monastery recognizable, a number of museums are located on the monastery grounds.
The Bertoldsbrunnen is located in the historical center of Freiburg at the intersection of Kaiser-Joseph-Straße and Bertold- / Salzstraße . This is where all of the city's tram lines meet, and even at the same time during low-traffic times, so that you can change trains.
- The Schlossberg on the edge of the old town is a nature reserve with numerous walking paths, Nordic walking routes and two restaurants above the roofs of the city, and with 80 hectares it is the largest park in the city. At the top is the Schlossberg tower , which since 2002 has offered an impressive all-round view of the entire city and its surroundings, of the Black Forest to the east and to the Vosges in the west.
- The Arlesheimer See , a former quarry pond, is now a nature reserve in the moss forest on the western outskirts.
- The Schauinsland is the “local mountain” of the city. Its summit (1284 m above sea level) is still in the urban area. The Schauinslandbahn was opened in 1930 and was the first cable car to use the circulating principle; the observation tower bears the name of the former mayor Eugen Keidel . The show mine gives an insight into ore mining, which was carried out here from the Middle Ages until the middle of the 20th century.
- The Freiburger Bächle are small water channels on the roadside in most of the alleys and streets of the old town. They are a symbol of the city.
- Many sidewalks (sidewalks) in the city center are paved with Rhine pebble mosaics. In many places are ornaments or, for. B. in front of shops, symbolic representations incorporated. In front of the old and new town hall , the coats of arms of all partner cities are embedded in this way.
- The Black Forest Stadium (previously Mage Solar Stadium , originally Dreisamstadion ) is home to the Freiburg Sports Club, which has been playing in the 1st Bundesliga again since the 2016/17 season.
- The planetarium near the main train station shows cosmic relationships in changing programs.
- As a small zoo, the Mundenhof animal enclosure is a popular destination for families with children. The Tent Music Festival (ZMF) with soloists from various musical genres (from classical to pop) takes place annually in early summer on the neighboring grounds of the town estate .
- The botanical garden is part of the biological faculty at the university, a research and teaching garden as well as a botany exhibition area; it is open to the public.
- The St. Michael's Chapel with a dance of death from the eighteenth century stands in the old cemetery in the Neuburg district .
- In the main cemetery , a collective grave and a plaque commemorate 50 victims of the " euthanasia " murders.
- The Seepark with Seeparkturm is the former site of the State Garden Show from 1986 in the west of the city.
- The Jewish cemetery is also located in one of the western parts of the city ( Mooswald ). There is a memorial there for the victims of the Shoah .
- Two old linden trees (planted in 1729), each next to a historical fountain, give two small squares in the old town their names: "Oberlinden" and "Unterlinden".
- The Holbeinpferdle , “standing foal”, is a cast concrete sculpture by the sculptor Werner Gürtner , which stands on a small piece of lawn at the “Holbeinstrasse” tram stop. Since 1980 it has been secretly decorated by strangers with new coats of paint, often quite imaginatively, at irregular intervals.
- The Jesuit castle in nearby Merzhausen is located on the slope of the Schönberg and offers a good view over Freiburg, the Vosges, the Kaiserstuhl, the Rhine plain and the southern Black Forest.
- The Victory Monument is a monument dedicated to the XIV Army Corps inaugurated in 1876 and intended to commemorate the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71.
- The Wasserschlössle in the Wiehre district is a water tower ( moated castle ), the facade of which is based on the Freiburg city seal as a stylized castle.
- The Lorettoberg , with the listed Loretto Chapel and the Hilda Tower, is a popular destination for excursions and walks .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Freiburg im Breisgau achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 11.264 billion within the city limits, placing it 35th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 49,621 (Baden-Württemberg: € 43,632, Germany € 38,180) and is thus well above the regional and national average. In 2016, the city's economic output recorded nominal growth of 3.8%. In 2017 there were around 172,600 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.7% and thus above the Baden-Württemberg average of 3.0%.
In the future atlas 2016 , the urban district of Freiburg im Breisgau was ranked 50th out of 402 districts and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future prospects". In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 57th out of 401.
The city is located in the "agglomeration of Freiburg", which, in addition to the city of Freiburg, includes the municipalities of Au (Breisgau) , Bötzingen , Gundelfingen , Kirchzarten , March , Merzhausen and Umkirch of the district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald as well as the cities and communities of Emmendingen , Denzlingen and Waldkirch of the district of Emmendingen includes. In addition to Offenburg , Freiburg forms a regional center for the southern Upper Rhine region , of which 14 are designated for the whole of Baden-Württemberg according to the 2002 regional development plan. The Freiburg regional center takes over for the communities Au, Bötzingen, Buchenbach , Ehaben , Eichstetten am Kaiserstuhl , Glottertal , Gottenheim , Gundelfingen , Heuweiler , Horben , Kirchzarten , March, Merzhausen, Oberried , St. Märgen , St. Peter (Black Forest) , Schallstadt , Sölden , Stegen , Umkirch and Wittnau function as a central area.
Freiburg is a regional economic center. The service sector as well as the public service dominate. The city's largest employer is the university with the university hospital , followed by numerous state and subordinate authorities. Due to the proximity to the university, smaller companies from the fields of solar technology , information and media technology as well as medical technology and biotechnology have settled here.
Numerous specialist and public trade fairs, particularly on solar energy technology, make Freiburg an important regional trade fair location. This was taken into account in 2000 when the Freiburg Exhibition Center moved to a new site with a modern hall infrastructure.
In addition, tourism plays a prominent role. The city is located on the Black Forest and is one of the most popular travel destinations in southwest Germany. The city is located on the Baden Wine Route and on the "Green Road - Route verte", a tourist road connection from the Vosges in Alsace to the Black Forest. In 2007 more than a million overnight stays were recorded in the city for the first time, and most recently in 2013 it was again just over a million overnight stays. With a ratio of 5000 overnight stays per 1000 inhabitants, Freiburg is one of the top group of tourist destinations. Since 2012, 18 steles with a city map and information on the most important sights in the old town have been showing pedestrians the way.
Around 43 percent of the Freiburg district is covered with forest of various types (moss forest, medium forest and mountain forest ), around a third of which is owned by the city, which is one of the largest municipal forest owners in Germany. The most important tree species that are also used economically are beech , English oak , spruce , fir and Douglas fir . In addition to economic use, the forest also has ecological significance and is an important part of recreational and leisure activities. One of the two forestry departments of the state of Baden-Württemberg as well as the forest research institute located here testify to the importance of the forest for the city.
Even the wine-growing plays a not insignificant economic role in Freiburg. The city in the Breisgau wine-growing area borders on three other Baden areas: Markgräfler Land , Tuniberg and Kaiserstuhl with different typical grape varieties. With around 650 hectares of vineyards, Freiburg is the largest wine-growing town and one of the largest wine-growing communities in Germany - this was primarily due to the incorporation of several wine-growing communities in the west of the city in the 1970s. But wine is still grown on small areas in the city center, such as B. on Freiburg's Schlossberg . One of the wineries that grow there is the foundation winery Freiburg in Merzhausen . The importance of viticulture for the city is underlined by the State Viticulture Institute located here and the seat of the Baden Viticulture Association. The university has also been growing its own wine again since 1985, after this tradition was interrupted in 1806. Before that, the professors' salary depended directly on the income from viticulture.
Tax power / employment
According to the 2007 municipal survey conducted by the Federation of Taxpayers in Baden-Württemberg, there were city tax revenues of 224 million euros in 2006 and estimated tax revenues for 2007 of 234 million euros, compared with debts of 475 million euros. The debts are made up of 335 million euros in debts from the treasury budget and 140 million euros in debts from the city's own businesses and special assets.
In the Freiburg region with the urban district of Freiburg and the districts of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Emmendingen, there were around 230,000 gainfully employed people in 1987 and around 302,000 in 2007. There were around 170,000 employees in Freiburg in 1987, and around 201,000 in 2007.
Freiburg is known for its sunny, warm climate, for research and production in the field of solar energy . The solar settlement on Schlierberg with 59 energy-plus houses is located in the Vauban district . The importance of solar energy for the city and region is also reflected in the Intersolar trade fair , which is of great international importance for the relatively small Freiburg trade fair . This fair has been held in Munich since 2007 , but continues to be co-organized from Freiburg. Another international trade fair is INTERbrossa-BRUSHexpo , which is the world's leading trade fair for its industries every four years. Freiburg has earned a reputation as the "city of the sun" for its pioneering role in solar energy. For the support of civic engagement , the city government awarded the 2004 German Solar Prize of the European Association for Renewable Energies. V. (Eurosolar) in the cities and municipalities or municipal utilities category . In March 2014 Freiburg was named an "Energy Commune".
Compared to other cities of a similar size, the share of car traffic in the total inner-city traffic volume in Freiburg is low. In contrast, the proportion of bicycle traffic is very high. The length of the Freiburg road, bike and footpath network is around 1290 kilometers. Of these, 191 kilometers are main roads (district, state and federal roads and main roads), 439 kilometers are secondary roads, 200 kilometers independently guided cycle and footpaths, 460 kilometers farm roads.
|Means of transport||1982||1999||2016|
|Car as a driver||29%||26%||16%|
|Car as a passenger||9%||6%||5%|
Freiburg has a favorable geographical location on the major European highways Rhine – Saône – Rhône – Mediterranean and Rhine – Gotthard – Italy. The A5 motorway connects Freiburg to the north with Strasbourg , Karlsruhe , Mannheim and Frankfurt am Main and to the south with Mulhouse and Basel . Freiburg has three motorway exits: North, Middle and South. In addition, Freiburg is located on the federal highways B 3 ( Buxtehude - Weil am Rhein ) and is crossed by the B 31 ( Breisach am Rhein - Lindau ). The B 294 begins in Freiburg and leads via Freudenstadt and Pforzheim to Bretten .
Freiburg is on a holiday route . This is the cross-border Green Road / Route Verte, which begins in the Vosges in Contrexéville , crosses the Rhine near Breisach am Rhein and ends in the north route in Lindau and in the south route in Konstanz .
In the 1960s, the federal motorway 86 was planned via Freiburg and Donaueschingen. The "Schwarzwaldautobahn" A 86 should be led from the current A 5 exit Freiburg-Nord past the northern outskirts through several tunnels into the Black Forest. However, the project was discontinued in 1975. This makes the B 31 one of the most important east-west connections in Baden-Württemberg, with all through traffic having to cross the city. A Freiburg city tunnel is currently being planned to relieve the city center.
In the 1970s, Freiburg was one of the first cities to create a pedestrian zone by closing the city center to motor vehicle traffic . Today the city has a dynamic parking guidance system that indicates the number of free parking spaces available in the numerous parking garages on the edge of the car-free city center. The Vauban quarter is designed as a largely car-free new development.
With Freiburg - Friedrichshafen - Munich , MeinFernbus opened the first domestic German long-distance bus route in April 2012 . There have been numerous connections since 2013, e.g. B. to Stuttgart , Düsseldorf , Frankfurt am Main , Berlin and Prague and the Balkans, u. a. from DeinBus.de and Eurolines .
The share of cycling in the total traffic volume in Freiburg was around 34 percent in 2016, which is very high in comparison with other cities of a similar size. The promotion of cycling has high priority for Freiburg's transport policy, and since the bicycle as a means of transport has experienced a renaissance in everyday life, Freiburg's transport policy has been considered exemplary in many places. The city has twice received the bicycle-friendly municipality award . A recurring problem is the lack of parking spaces in the city center.
On May 17, 2019, the Freiburger Verkehrs AG started a bike rental system. In the near future, 400 bicycles will be available for rent at 56 locations in the city. The system is supplied by Nextbike . Since March 2018, 50 rental bikes from a private provider have been in the city area.
The Freiburg Central serves four railway lines and is used daily by about 65,000 people. The Upper Rhine Railway ( Mannheim - Basel ), with connections u. a. to Zurich , Bern and Milan is currently being upgraded to four tracks , as it is intended to serve as a feeder to the new railway through the Alps (NEAT) in the direction of the Gotthard Base Tunnel . There is a high-speed connection ( TGV Est ) to Paris from Strasbourg via Offenburg - Kehl . There are also good intercity connections via Karlsruhe to Stuttgart and Munich . About Müllheim - Neuenburg Freiburg since August 2013, direct high-speed connectivity on the TGV -Bahnhof Mulhouse to Paris, Lyon and Marseille later, even after Barcelona maintained. The Höllentalbahn runs from Freiburg via the Black Forest to Donaueschingen with connections to Munich and Constance .
In addition to the regional trains of the DB Regio AG , the SWEG connects the surrounding cities and towns with the regional center of Freiburg: The Elz Valley Railway via Waldkirch by the Elztal according Elzach , and Breisach railway leading to Breisach on Gottenheim and Ihringen ; Gottenheim and Breisach is following the the Kaiserstuhl -surrounding Kaiserstuhlbahn the SWEG . This company also operates the Münstertalbahn in the surrounding area between Bad Krozingen and Münstertal , with individual courses from and to Freiburg.
In addition to the main train station, there are other train stations or stops on the individual railway lines:
- on the Upper Rhine Railway: St. Georgen, Herdern and Zähringen
- at the Höllentalbahn: Wiehre and Littenweiler
- at the Breisacher Bahn: Klinikum, Neue Messe-Universität and Freiburg-West (in the Landwasser district)
Local public transport is served by five tram and 20 bus lines operated by the Freiburger Verkehrs AG (VAG), which also provide connections with the surrounding area. Freiburg belongs to the tariff area of the RVF transport association .
The Duewag wagon factory designed three GT8 series especially for VAG . The GT8K and GT8N are still in use today. The latter have a low-floor middle compartment. The vehicle fleet also includes 26 GT8Zs from the same manufacturer with a 48 percent low-floor share. After all, the most heavily frequented routes are operated by “ Siemens Combino ” railcars , eight of which are “Combino Basic” and ten “Combino Advanced”, as well as, since 2015, the new Urbos from the Spanish company CAF , type Urbos 100 , each with four bogies.
VAG also operates the Schauinslandbahn , Germany's longest (3.6 kilometers) circulating gondola lift, with which the heights of the Schauinsland , Freiburg's local mountain (1284 m), can be easily reached.
Since December 2017 there is again a women's night taxi .
Most of the air traffic, however, is handled by the EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in neighboring Upper Rhine. There is a bus connection to the EuroAirport from Freiburg main station with a journey time of 55 minutes. There is also a shuttle bus to the nearby airports of Karlsruhe / Baden-Baden (approx. 1:05 h) and Strasbourg (approx. 1:05 h). Train connections are free to Frankfurt Airport (approx. 2:10 h) and with a change in Basel or Zurich to Zurich Airport . (about 2:15 h)
Water and sewage supply
Around 1120 water was supplied to the city via wooden pipes from the Mösle. In 1462 the rules for the urban gutters and canals are laid down in a wrinkle order. In 1732 there were already 79 pipes and 57 wells. The first iron lines have been used since 1842. Freiburg is supplied by the Ebnet waterworks (since 1876) and the Hausen an der Möhlin waterworks (since 1970). From Ebnet the water is pumped into the elevated reservoir on the Schlossberg and the elevated reservoir in the Freiburg Wasserschlössle am Sternwald (since 1896) and from Hausen into the elevated reservoir on Schönberg. There are other small elevated tanks on other heights of the city. Polyethylene pipes have been used for water transport since 1975 . The water supply is provided by badenova AG & Co.KG.
Water production and quality
The water is extracted in the two catchment areas Ebnet and Hausen. In Ebnet, groundwater is obtained from two groundwater collectors and a total of nine deep wells. There are six deep wells in Hausen. The maximum depth of the wells is 117 m. Eleven elevated tanks with 120 to 20,000 cubic meters are available. The water from Hausen is consumed without further treatment. The water has the hardness range medium, with 2.28 mmol / L, contains 9.9 mg sodium, 25 mg chloride, 24.7 mg sulfite and 25.7 mg nitrate per liter. The catchment area covers 130 square kilometers and provides around five million cubic meters. The water from Ebnet is treated for neutralization and disinfection. The water has the hardness range soft, with 0.99 mmol / L, contains 8.5 mg sodium, 13.1 mg chloride, 10.7 mg sulfite and 13.6 mg nitrate per liter. The catchment area covers approximately 258 square kilometers and provides approximately 11 million cubic meters.
Water consumption and sanitation
In 2008 a total of 17.7 million cubic meters of water was used. The maximum output was 65,800 cubic meters per day. The supply network, including house connections, has a length of 1325 kilometers and includes 35,236 house connections. With the introduction of water meters in 1913, consumption fell from 348 liters / day per inhabitant in 1899 to 186 liters. Today it is around 100 liters / day and inhabitant. From the 13th century onwards, the Freiburg Bächle and the commercial sewer were used to dispose of service and rainwater . In addition, in-house pits were used to collect the excrement . From 1868 on, a company took over the emptying of the pits instead of farmers for a short time. From 1887 the city took on this task. Until the end of the 1980s, wastewater was discharged in the sewage field system . The Breisgauer Bucht wastewater association has been collecting and cleaning wastewater since 1966. This has been done in the joint sewage treatment plant in Forchheim (Kaiserstuhl) since 1980 .
District heating supply
The subsidiary of badenova GmbH and Co. KG, badenova WärmePlus, supplies 404 million kWh of heat from 136 generation plants with a district heating network of 61 km. There is also a long-distance steam network on the premises of the Freiburg University Clinic.
The larger private employers include the semiconductor manufacturer TDK-Micronas , LITEF GmbH , which belongs to the American Northrop Grumman group, and Solvay Acetow , a plant of the Belgian Solvay group that produces materials for cigarette filters . The company EFD Induction , 1950-1996 Fritz Dusseldorf GmbH (FDF) is Europe's largest manufacturer of induction - hardening systems and, together with the EFD Härterei F. Dusseldorf GmbH (Hochdorf) for EFD Induction Corporation, headquartered in Skien / Norway . The building materials dealer Götz + Moriz is based in Freiburg. The largest local brewery is the Ganter Brewery . The milk processing company Schwarzwaldmilch , which is mostly owned by the Black Forests and Breisgau dairy farmers, is important. Since January 1996, Freiburg has been the seat of Deutsche Post AG's mail center 79 . Since 1962 Freiburg location is the now the Pfizer Group owned pharmaceutical company Gödecke . The Raimann company was founded in 1863 to manufacture machines for woodworking. It is now part of Michael Weinig AG and is the oldest industrial company in Freiburg. The two companies Mez and Madeira Garnfabrik are or have been active in the textile industry since the beginning of the 20th century.
Hellige, a manufacturer of scientific and medical electronic devices, especially electrocardiographs , has existed in Freiburg since 1895 . Today Hellige belongs to General Electric , whereby Freiburg is one of the most important GE Healthcare locations in Germany.
The Solar-Fabrik AG of Freiburg belonged to the bankruptcy of the leading solar companies in Europe. Originally only a manufacturer of solar modules, it was active with its numerous international subsidiaries all over the world in all areas of photovoltaics : trading and processing of wafers , production of solar cells and modules as well as the production of solar power plants .
The IT industry is also prominently represented in Freiburg. These include the German market leader in "commercial software" Lexware , United Planet as a leading company in portal software and the managed services subsidiary of IDS Scheer Consulting . The Paragon Software Group , Jedox AG , the eCommerce specialist Oxid, the email marketing expert Inxmail and the listed Kofax Deutschland AG, a subsidiary of the Californian Kofax, Inc. , are also based in Freiburg . The international CMS provider Jahia Solutions Group SA chose Freiburg as the location for its German branch in 2016.
In the banking sector, in addition to Sparkasse Freiburg-Nördlicher Breisgau and Volksbank Freiburg eG, Bankhaus E. Mayer AG has its headquarters in Freiburg. The latter is the only private bank in Freiburg and the wider area. There are also branches of other national banks.
Germany's largest forest consultancy, UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH , has its headquarters in Freiburg.
The city council of Freiburg since January 2011 in five departments divided, each of which is subject to a number of municipal offices. Department I is headed by Lord Mayor Dieter Salomon ( Greens ) and is responsible for the main and personnel administration and for organization, law, regional affairs and public relations. Department II is headed by Mayor Gerda Stuchlik (Greens) and is the department for the environment, schools and education. Department III, headed by Mayor Ulrich von Kirchbach ( SPD ), is responsible for culture, youth and social affairs and integration. He is also the first mayor and the deputy mayor. On April 1, 2018, Stefan Breiter ( CDU ) succeeded Otto Neideck, who headed Department IV for finance, business and housing, central IT, public order, citizen service, fire brigade and sport. The newly formed Department V is headed by the independent Martin Haag and includes the areas of urban development and construction, civil engineering with traffic planning, urban greenery and building management.
The district office of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald has its seat in the independent city of Freiburg, but essentially only administers the district surrounding the city . However, the jurisdiction of some offices in the district (in particular the health department, pension office ) also extends to the urban district of Freiburg.
There are several state authorities in Freiburg, such as the Freiburg Regional Council with the President's seat in Basler Hof , which also includes the Police Headquarters , High School Office, Forestry Directorate and the State Office for Geology, Raw Materials and Mining as new departments .
Furthermore, the " Forestry Research and Research Institute Baden-Württemberg ", the Academy of Police Baden-Württemberg , the " State Viticulture Institute ", the "Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office Freiburg" and the two tax offices Freiburg-Stadt and Freiburg-Land are located in Freiburg .
The Freiburg State Archives have been keeping the written records of the state authorities in the Freiburg administrative district since 1806 . Since 2005 it has been a department of the Baden-Württemberg State Archives .
In addition to these state authorities, there are also federal authorities: the local office of the Federal Employment Agency located in Lehener Straße , a location of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection , the Federal Archives-Military Archives , the regional office of the Federal Agency for Technical Relief , a branch of the procurement office of the Federal Customs Administration, a branch of the Federal Network Agency , the Freiburg Waterways and Shipping Office and a mobile control and monitoring unit of the Federal Police Office in Weil am Rhein , which is subordinate to the Federal Police Headquarters South ( Munich ), as well as departments of the Federal Armed Forces . The branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank is located on the edge of the old town in the Neuburg .
Regional association / chambers Kdö.R.
Other organizations in the legal form of a corporation under public law have their headquarters in Freiburg:
- Regional Association of the Southern Upper Rhine, K. d. ö. R.
- Chamber of Crafts Freiburg, K. d. ö. R.
- IHK Südlicher Oberrhein, K. d. ö. R.
- Freiburg Bar Association , K. d. ö. R.
- Chamber of Tax Advisors South Baden, K. d. ö. R.
- Freiburg Medical Association, a branch of the Baden-Württemberg Medical Association based in Stuttgart
- Freiburg Dental Association, a branch of the Baden-Württemberg Dental Association based in Stuttgart
Freiburg has a local court and a regional court , which belong to the higher regional court district of the higher regional court of Karlsruhe . Some civil senates of the Karlsruhe Higher Regional Court are also based in Freiburg.
In addition to the courts of ordinary jurisdiction, there is a labor court in Freiburg (as well as a chamber of the regional labor court ), external senate of the finance court Baden-Württemberg, a social court (responsible for the urban district of Freiburg, the districts of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald , Ortenaukreis , Emmendingen , Lörrach and Waldshut as well in miners' cases for the entire area of Baden-Württemberg ) and an administrative court (responsible for the administrative district of Freiburg ).
The emergency rescue of the city is provided by the German Red Cross and the Maltese Aid Service. The integrated control center is operated by the DRK together with the city of Freiburg and the district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in the Office for Fire and Disaster Protection. The control center is responsible for an area of 1,531 square kilometers in which almost 500,000 people live. According to the DRK count, the integrated control center in January 2019 received around 109,000 emergency calls, 121,000 ambulance requests and around 41,000 calls for the emergency medical service. The control center controls 7,000 fire and rescue services as well as 44,000 pure rescue operations per year. Freiburg has the teaching rescue station 1 (Freiburg-Betzenhausen) and the rescue station 2 not far from the main train station. The DRK operates the ambulance service's three emergency vehicles, two are stationed at the St. Josef Hospital, and another at the emergency center of the Freiburg University Clinic. A DRF helicopter is stationed at Freiburg Airport; In addition to intensive care transport, it is also used in emergency rescue at the request of the Freiburg control center.
In Freiburg there is only one regional daily newspaper , the Badische Zeitung , which is distributed from Offenburg in the north to the Upper Rhine in the south and into the Black Forest. It appears Monday through Saturday, except on public holidays. On Sundays, the same publishing house produces “ Der Sonntag in Freiburg ” for free, and “Der Sonntag im Dreiland” in Lörrach and Basel, so that the Badische Verlag, as the publisher, has a monopoly on the daily newspapers.
In addition, there has been the official "Official Gazette of the City of Freiburg" since November 1988 (title until 2002: "StadtNachrichten"), in which editorial articles, city dates and opening times, announcements and job advertisements of the city of Freiburg as well as contributions from the parliamentary groups and groups represented in the municipal council are printed are. In terms of editorial content, the Official Journal is limited to topics that are directly related to the city administration. The official journal appears every 14 days on Fridays with a circulation of 106,000 copies and is distributed free of charge to all Freiburg households. (As of March 2014)
The “Freiburg Weekly Report”, the oldest German advertising paper still in existence, appears on Wednesdays with a circulation of 107,500 copies (as of May 2016). It is distributed free of charge to all households and also contains editorial articles. The free “Freiburger Stadtkurier” has appeared on Thursdays in a similar format since 1983. It has a circulation of 115,500 copies (as of June 2009).
In addition to these five larger newspapers, there are a few other smaller newspapers and magazines from and for Freiburg, such as district newspapers or the citizens' papers of local associations.
The "Zypresse", which appears free of charge on Wednesdays and Saturdays, is an offer sheet for private and business classified ads. It was founded in 1984 and has a circulation of 50,000 (Wednesdays) and 60,000 (Saturdays, Freiburg only) copies (as of May 2016). Additional regional editions appear on Saturdays in the Lörrach / Basel area and in the greater Offenburg / Lahr area. The cypress competes with the Badische Zeitung's special offer "schnapp.de", which appears on Thursdays and is cross-media - that is, closely interlinked with the online presence.
In addition to these advertising papers, there are other culture and event magazines that appear monthly. This includes the two city magazines “Fipps-Freiburg” and “Kultur Joker” as well as the two culture magazines “Freiburg aktuell” (until the end of 2018) and “Chilli - das freiburger stadtmagazin”. The range of culture and event magazines is supplemented by the supplement "bz-ticket.de" in the Badische Zeitung, which appears every Friday. Alternatively, since 1998 there has also been a street newspaper , the "FREIeBÜRGER". This newspaper is sold monthly by mostly socially disadvantaged people in the streets of Freiburg.
In Freiburg there is a broadcasting house for the public broadcasting company Südwestrundfunk , the SWR Studio Freiburg, which produces programs for SWR4 Baden-Württemberg and SWR television , among other things . Furthermore, the SWR Symphony Orchestra Baden-Baden and Freiburg was located in the Freiburg Concert Hall until 2016 , now the SWR Symphony Orchestra gives concerts there.
The regional radio baden.fm is financed by advertising as a private broadcaster . The third Freiburg radio, Radio Dreyeckland , which is produced near the city center and emerged from the anti-nuclear movement, is the oldest free radio in Germany. In addition, the uniFM transmitter, which can also be received terrestrially, has existed since 2006. This station is the learning and training radio of the college of education and the university.
In the district of Lehen , the SWR operates a transmission system for medium waves (frequency 828 kHz, transmission power 10 kW, geographic coordinates of the transmitter location: ) and VHF radio, which serves as an antenna carrier with a 92 Meter high steel truss mast with a square cross-section, insulated from the ground. The transmitter location Freiburg-Lehen is one of the oldest in Germany.
On April 22nd, 2020, the city started a new digital and free city network #freiburghaltz zusammen. It is part of the city's digitalization strategy and, according to the plans of the social department, is intended to strengthen neighborly and civic engagement. In addition to the options for swapping, lending, selling, offering and advising, the platform also has a chat function. A moderation team watches over the netiquette . The platform is based on the research project “Social Neighborhood and Technology” (SoNaTe), in which the city is involved as an application partner. This has been funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) with over five million euros since 2015 as part of the funding initiative “Innovations for municipalities and regions in the face of demographic change”.
Education and Research
A wide range of schools in Freiburg can meet a wide variety of training requirements.
The basic offer consists of 40 elementary and secondary schools , some of which are privately owned, and are spread across the city. In secondary schools, there are eight secondary schools , two private, eleven general education schools varying degrees, including some private entities (eg. As the Free Christian School Freiburg ), and, since 1972, the German-French High School , one of two such schools in Germany with a two-national degree. The Goethe-Gymnasium Freiburg has offered a student engineering academy since 2010 . There are a total of five comprehensive schools , one of which is the public Staudinger comprehensive school and the other four are part of Waldorf education . With the UWC Robert Bosch College there is the only United World College in Germany in Freiburg . It is a boarding school for 16 to 19 year olds from over 70 nations.
There are also four vocational high schools and ten vocational schools for the commercial and industrial sectors in the city.
The private Jazz & Rock Schools Freiburg , founded in 1984, offer training as a professional musician in the genres of jazz, rock and pop at the International Music College Freiburg . In the General Music School Freiburg there are music lessons for children and adults and in the Center for Music Education there are advanced training courses in cooperation with the Popakademie Baden-Württemberg .
Finally, there are ten special education and advice centers in the city , four with a focus on learning, four with a focus on intellectual development, one private one with a focus on social-emotional development and one with a focus on language .
In addition, the wide range of educational opportunities is complemented by a number of other privately owned schools, for example in the areas of elementary education, family care, graphics / design and drama.
In the area of adult and further education , the Volkshochschule Freiburg and the Catholic Educational Center offer a wide range of further education opportunities. Several language schools complete this offer, including the Goethe-Institut .
There are several universities in Freiburg with a total of almost 30,000 students. The Albert-Ludwigs-University , founded in 1457, is one of the oldest and most renowned universities in Germany with around 20,000 students. It has a lasting impact on life in the city: there are many well-attended cafés and pubs around the university. The university is not only relevant because of the students, it is one of the most important employers in southern Baden with around 13,000 jobs (including the clinic ).
The Freiburg University of Education (PH) in the Littenweiler district was formed in 1962 from the former academies for teacher training I and II and has had the status of a scientific university since 1971.
The Freiburg University of Music is located in the Oberau district , founded in 1946 by the city of Freiburg and later continued as a state university by the state of Baden-Württemberg.
In addition to the state universities mentioned, there are other higher education institutions:
- The " Evangelical University of Freiburg - University of Social Work, Diakonie and Religious Education " and the " Catholic University of Freiburg - University of Social Sciences, Curative Education, Religious Education and Nursing" are universities of applied sciences under church sponsorship.
- The " Free University for Graphic Design & Fine Arts ", which merged with the Freiburg Graphic School in 2007, trains students in three courses of study: graphic design, screen / web design and fine arts. In the fall of 2011, studies will begin at the University of Art, Design and Popular Music , to which the Free University of Graphic Design & Fine Arts merged with the International Music College Freiburg, a division of the Freiburg Jazz & Rock Schools.
- The private International University of Cooperative Education offers courses in hotel management, real estate management and sports management in a dual system (alternating study and practice).
- The FOM University of Applied Sciences offers bachelor's and master's degrees alongside training and alongside work. Freiburg is one of the study locations at the university, which has been based in Essen since 1993 .
- Teacher training at state universities is supplemented by training at the didactics and teacher training seminars, one each for vocational schools, one for grammar schools and one for secondary schools.
- Macromedia University, University of Applied Sciences, Freiburg location.
There are several research institutes in Freiburg:
- Institutes of the Max Planck Society (MPI):
- MPI for Immunobiology and Epigenetics
- MPI for Research into Crime, Security and Law
- Working Fire Ecology Freiburg at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, which operates the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), a company active in the United Nations mission center for observation and evaluation of large forest and steppe fires
- The city of Freiburg continues to be a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
- Institutes of the Fraunhofer Society :
- Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Short Term Dynamics - Ernst Mach Institute (EMI)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials (IWM)
- Other research institutions:
- Institute for Microsystems Technology - University research institute in the field of micro- and nanotechnology
- Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics - operates solar observatories on the Schauinsland and Observatorio del Teide
- Öko-Institut , a not-for-profit private environmental research institute
- Walter Eucken Institute , a social and economic research institute founded in 1954 in the vicinity of the Albert Ludwig University
- Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology and Mental Hygiene - is dedicated to researching parapsychological phenomena
- Freiburg Science Forum - promotes innovation and university-based business start-ups.
- Arnold Bergstraesser Institute - deals with cultural and development policy issues
- Alemannic Institute Freiburg - promotes cross-disciplinary and cross-border regional studies of the Alemannic-Swabian language and settlement area
- Deutsches Volksliedarchiv , an independent scientific research institute of the state of Baden-Württemberg. It deals with the collection, research and edition of popular and traditional songs from German-speaking countries.
- Johannes Künzig Institute for East German Folklore (JKI) - researches the folklore of expellees. Since 1964 it has been under the Ministry of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg.
- Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi (CVMA), an art history research institute for medieval glass painting
According to crime statistics, Freiburg was the city in Baden-Württemberg with the highest crime rate for 16 years. In 2017 there were 11,712 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. For a long time, this value was neglected. An effect on the population's sense of security only occurred after four violent deaths received public and Europe-wide attention within a few months from autumn 2016, for example the murder case of Maria Ladenburger . Two years later, an alleged gang rape in the city received similar national attention. As a result, a security partnership was established between the city and the police. 25 riot police have been supporting the Freiburg colleagues since December 2016 . The city has also set up a ten-person city police to deal with administrative offenses. In 2019, Freiburg was behind Baden-Baden and Mannheim in the crime statistics . The police clearance rate was also above the national average.
The city of Freiburg awards honorary citizenship to people who have rendered outstanding services to the city's reputation or the well-being of its citizens. Freiburg's honorary citizens range from the rococo sculptor Johann Christian Wentzinger to the former mayor Rolf Böhme and the patron Eugen Martin in the present.
sons and daughters of the town
Important personalities were born in Freiburg. Some moved away and later found their sphere of activity elsewhere and only became known there. There are artists like Johann Christian Wentzinger , Julius Bissier , Rosemarie Bühler-Fey , Manolo Lohnes or Edith Picht-Axenfeld , politicians like Karl von Rotteck , Joseph Wirth , Leo Wohleb , Hans Maier or Wolfgang Schäuble , scientists like Carl Christian Mez or Karl Rahner , Inventors like Edwin Welte or Engelbert Zaschka and actors like Til Schweiger .
Personalities associated with Freiburg
Many personalities are connected to Freiburg who either lived here for a while or who found their sphere of activity here and became known. This includes philosophers like Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger , scientists like Walter Eucken and Arnold Bergstraesser , writers like Alfred Döblin , Reinhold Schneider and Christoph Meckel , artists like Hans Baldung Grien and Hortense von Gelmini , the band Zweierpasch (winner of the Adenauer De Gaulle Prize 2018 ), Actors like Alexandra Maria Lara , Nobel Prize winners like Friedrich August von Hayek , Georges Köhler and Hermann Staudinger , saints like Edith Stein , soccer coaches like Joachim Löw .
On the first day of issue on July 2, 2020, Deutsche Post AG issued a special postage stamp with a face value of 80 euro cents on the occasion of the 900th anniversary of the city . The design comes from the graphic designers Daniela Haufe and Detlef Fiedler from Berlin.
- Arbeitsgemeinschaft Freiburger Stadtbild eV (Ed.): Freiburg and its districts . Promo, Freiburg im Breisgau 2007, ISBN 978-3-923288-65-6 .
- Kurt Bauch : Freiburg im Breisgau (several editions, sizes, publishers and editions with different photographers) from 1937, 1953, 1961
- Heiko Haumann , Hans Schadek (Hrsg.): History of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau. 3 volumes, Theiss, Stuttgart 1992–1994, ISBN 3-8062-1635-5 .
- Peter Kalchthaler : Freiburg and its buildings. An art-historical city tour. Promo, Freiburg im Breisgau 2006, ISBN 978-3-923288-45-8 .
- Peter Kalchthaler: Small Freiburg city history. Pustet, Regensburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-7917-2009-8 .
- Peter Kalchthaler, Walter Preker (ed.): Freiburg biographies. A book about personalities who shaped Freiburg's city history . Promo, Freiburg im Breisgau 2006, ISBN 978-3-923288-33-5 .
- Walter Vetter: Freiburg. A guide to art and history. Rombach, Freiburg im Breisgau 1986, ISBN 3-7930-0496-1 .
- Leo Alexander Ricker: Freiburg - from the history of a city . G. Braun Buchverlag, Karlsruhe 1964, 2nd edition 1966; unchanged reprint of the first edition 1982.
- Hans Georg Wehrens: Freiburg im Breisgau 1504–1803. Woodcuts and copperplate engravings . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2004, ISBN 3-451-20633-1 .
- Freiburg in Breisgau. The film. The history. Documentary, Germany, 2011, 43:30 min., Script and direction: Anita Bindner, production: Haus des Dokumentarfilms , release date: November 30, 2011, first broadcast: August 31, 2014 on SWR , series: Geschichte im Südwesten
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- Official website of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau
- City network # Freiburg holds together
- Website of the city for the 900th anniversary in 2020
- Link catalog on Freiburg im Breisgau at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help ).
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