Freudenstadt


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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt
Map of Germany, position of the city of Freudenstadt highlighted

Coordinates: 48 ° 28 '  N , 8 ° 25'  E

Basic data
State : Baden-Württemberg
Administrative region : Karlsruhe
County : Freudenstadt
Height : 732 m above sea level NHN
Area : 87.58 km 2
Residents: 23,442 (Dec. 31, 2018)
Population density : 268 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 72250
Primaries : 07441, 07442, 07443
License plate : FDS, HCH , HOR, WOL
Community key : 08 2 37 028

City administration address :
Marktplatz 1
72250 Freudenstadt
Website : www.freudenstadt.de
Lord Mayor : Julian Osswald ( CDU )
Location of the city of Freudenstadt in the Freudenstadt district
Landkreis Böblingen Landkreis Calw Landkreis Rastatt Landkreis Rottweil Landkreis Tübingen Ortenaukreis Zollernalbkreis Alpirsbach Bad Rippoldsau-Schapbach Baiersbronn Dornstetten Empfingen Eutingen im Gäu Freudenstadt Glatten Grömbach Horb am Neckar Loßburg Pfalzgrafenweiler Schopfloch (Schwarzwald) Schopfloch (Schwarzwald) Seewald Waldachtal Wörnersbergmap
About this picture
Rebuilt center of Freudenstadt

Freudenstadt is a large district town with 23,442 inhabitants (December 31, 2018) in the administrative district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg and the seat of the district of Freudenstadt . Freudenstadt is a recognized climatic and Kneipp health resort as well as a traditionally popular vacation spot. For the surrounding communities it forms a middle center in the area of ​​the regional center Pforzheim . There is an agreed administrative community with the municipalities of Bad Rippoldsau-Schapbach and Seewald .

The city was founded in 1599 by Duke Friedrich I of Württemberg . The city fire of 1632, the great population losses in the Thirty Years' War and the extensive destruction of the inner city in the Second World War caused sharp cuts in urban development .

geography

Location in the Black Forest
View from the Friedrichsturm to the city center
Nocturnal view over the market square with the brightly lit town house, behind it the town hall

location

Freudenstadt is located in the north-eastern Black Forest . It is located 66 kilometers (as the crow flies) southwest of Stuttgart and 61 kilometers south of Karlsruhe on a high plateau on the eastern edge of the Northern Black Forest at an altitude of 591 to 968 meters in the Northern Black Forest region . The high plateau lies on the edge of a gently sloping incline to the east. This is the catchment area of ​​the Glatt , which then flows into the Neckar . Immediately to the west of the city center, the terrain slopes steeply to the deeply cut valley of the Forbach , which flows to the Murg . The Kinzig rises six kilometers to the south, in the climatic health resort Loßburg , and flows into the Rhine at Kehl. The largely forest-covered western urban area rises to the top of the pass at Kniebis and from there on to a height of 968 meters at the Alexanderschanze . The river Wolf rises south of the Kniebis district .

Neighboring communities

The following cities and communities border the city of Freudenstadt in a clockwise direction , starting in the north: Baiersbronn , Seewald , Grömbach , Pfalzgrafenweiler , Dornstetten , Glatten , Loßburg and Bad Rippoldsau-Schapbach (all districts of Freudenstadt ).

geology

The city is located in an overburden of Trias , which is located on an older basic mountain base. The predominant red sandstone deposits were disturbed in the course of the Tertiary by the Freudenstädter Graben , a twelve kilometer long and seven kilometer wide ditch with faults of up to 140 meters jump height. As in the neighboring Gäu to the east, the bottom of the trench consists of shell limestone. Especially at the edges of the ditch, for example in the Christophstal not far from today's city center, hydrothermal solutions have formed quartz - barite - passages .

A document from 1267 contains a first, albeit weak, reference to historical mining in the Freudenstädter Revier. Further references from the Middle Ages are missing. The main phase of mining was in the period 16-18. Century. As is the rule in the Württemberg Black Forest, this encountered great economic difficulties here too and was often interrupted. Above all, silver, copper and iron ores were mined. Limonite , which occurs in abundance near the surface, was mined for iron extraction and arsenic-rich pale ore was mined for silver and later also copper . The pale ores of the districts in the overburden have an increased bismuth content . The dismantling led to the first settlement of the Christophstal around 30 years before Freudenstadt was founded.

In 2008, the State Office for Geology, Raw Materials and Mining identified a “considerable” barite potential when drilling compared to other German dike areas . A trial dismantling is currently taking place at the Dorothea exploration tunnel near the valley road in Forbachtal.

City structure

The urban area of ​​Freudenstadt is divided into the core town of Freudenstadt with Christophstal and Zwieselberg (together 16,159 inhabitants) and the districts of Dietersweiler and Lauterbad (2256 inhabitants), Grüntal and Frutenhof (1027 inhabitants), Igelsberg (254 inhabitants), Kniebis (947 inhabitants), Musbach (761 inhabitants) and Wittlensweiler (2186 inhabitants). The districts are in turn divided into villages, hamlets, farms and houses.

The districts are officially named in the form of “Freudenstadt, district…” With the exception of Kniebis, the districts are formerly independent communities. In Freudenstadt, the false choice of suburbs has been introduced, that is, the urban area is divided into six residential districts in accordance with the Baden-Württemberg municipal code . The core city and the Igelsberg district are combined into one residential district, the remaining residential districts are identical to the districts. In the districts there are localities within the meaning of the Baden-Württemberg municipal code with their own local council and a local mayor as its chairman. There are administrative offices of the mayor's office in the villages .

Lost villages and castles that no longer exist today are Hofstätten Castle and the Burgberg settlement in the Black Forest in the Dietersweiler district, Schöllkopf , a farmstead that burned down in the Thirty Years War , the Wolfhaus settlements and individual farms in the Grüntal district, Slunwag in the Igelsberg district, and Gallushütte and Hilpertshöfle in the Musbach district.

Spatial planning

Freudenstadt is a middle center within the Northern Black Forest region , in which Pforzheim is designated as a regional center . The towns and communities of Alpirsbach , Bad Rippoldsau-Schapbach , Baiersbronn , Dornstetten , Glatten , Grömbach , Loßburg , Pfalzgrafenweiler , Schopfloch , Seewald , Waldachtal and Wörnersberg belong to the middle center Freudenstadt .

climate

Already at the beginning of the 20th century there were regular measurements of the amount of rain, the duration of sunshine and other climate values. In 1925 an advertisement said: "The largest average number of annual sunny days in Germany is in the city of Freudenstadt in Württemberg with 64.2 days (determination by the Prussian Meteorological Institute)".

The annual average temperature between 1990 and 2007 was 7.9 ° C. The highest average maximum temperature was 21.2 ° C in August, the lowest average minimum temperature in January was -2.2 ° C. Similarly, the highest and lowest daily average temperatures are distributed. The annual amount of precipitation measured between 1961 and 1990 is above average for Germany at 1681.4 millimeters due to the city's location on the edge of the mountains. Quite constant values ​​were recorded over the year, with the maximum of 189.9 millimeters being recorded in December. A similar picture emerges for the rainy days, with a fairly homogeneous distribution of 15.2 days in June and July and 19.7 days in December. In the year there were an average of 205.6 rainy days. With the average daily hours of sunshine between 1990 and 2007, Freudenstadt achieved a high value of 4.6, which is probably due to the fact that it was largely free of fog. Most hours of sunshine were recorded in June (7.1 hours), the lowest in December with 1.8 hours. Weather data for Freudenstadt is collected from the control room of the German Weather Service on the elevated Kienberg . The company Meteomedia maintains weather stations on the market square and in Freudenstadt-Langenwald.

history

Later districts and mining in St. Christophstal

Christophstaler coin from 1627

Today's Grüntal-Frutenhof district was first mentioned in a document in 1100 as Grindelen . The Frutenhof farmstead, on the other hand, was only mentioned in writing in 1470. In 1583 Grüntal got its own parish. The existence of Igelsberg is secured as Illigsberg around the year 1230 when the Count Palatine Rudolf von Tübingen became a fief of the diocese of Strasbourg . Since 1381 Igelsberg belonged to the Benedictines - Klosterreichenbach and only came in 1595 to Württemberg.

In today's Kniebis there was a chapel of a Herrenalber monk around 1250 , which was converted into a Franciscan monastery in 1278 , which came to Württemberg in 1320. In order to protect himself against possible attacks by the Habsburg bishop of Strasbourg, Count Eberhard , who defected from the Habsburgs under Frederick the Fair to become Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian, had entrenchments built on the Kniebis. The Musbach district, namely the present-day Untermusbach, found its way into documents as Muosbach in 1274 and was part of Württemberg from the start. Today's Untermusbach came to the Reichenbach Monastery from the Count Palatine of Tübingen in 1291. It only became part of Württemberg in 1595. Dietersweiler was first mentioned in 1347 as Dietrichsweiler . Together with the Wittlensweiler district, which already existed as Witelineswilare at the beginning of the 12th century , it was sold by the Lords of Lichtenfels to the Lords of Neuneck . Wittlensweiler went to Württemberg in 1473, Dietersweiler followed in 1511.

From 1520 to 1534, under Austrian rule, ore was mined near the former Schöllkopf homestead. In 1544 the monastery on the Kniebis was dissolved. Many small mines, the tunnels of which led horizontally into the mountain, were built, including the "St. Christoph Erbstollen" named after Duke Christoph or his patron saint around 1560, whose name also refers to the valley section and the settlement that arose shortly afterwards. passed over. The steep slopes of the Christophstal favored the construction of tunnels, vertical shafts remained significantly behind in number and importance. But pits were not only dug in the Christophstal. The Charlottengrube was built near Lauterbad, the Georgsstollen on the Kienberg and the “Schweitzer Treu” mine. Mining was also carried out in the later districts: In Wittlensweiler, between 1812 and 1824, a mine was operated in Pfarrgasse ("Friedrich- and Wilhelmina-Fundgrub in Kirchgass"), which mined barite and brown iron.

The miners were given special privileges as early as 1536. In 1598, 87 tons of ore were mined, containing up to 1,800 grams of silver and 140 kilograms of copper per ton. The silver melt was heated with charcoal from the surrounding forests. In 1603, 94 kilograms of silver were extracted. The so-called Christophstaler came from this . Later mining focused on copper and iron.

On January 23, 1572, Duke Ludwig ordered the construction of a steel works. His successor Friedrich I ensured that the duchy established further processing plants in view of the extensive autarchy of raw materials . In 1595, master builder Heinrich Schickhardt planned an iron forge, from which the later upper large hammer emerged. 1606–1610 a brass factory with kilns and a forge was added. In 1616 the upper wire train was installed, in 1621 the lower one. A copper hammer, a pan hammer, and another large hammer, the later Wilhelm hammer, were created. A second melt was set up between the copper hammer and the (lower) pan hammer. There was also a bell foundry in a place unknown today. Between 1622 and 1628 a mint was operated in the Christophstal , in which coins from the Kipper and Wipper times and later regular coins were minted.

urban planning

Friedrich I , founder of Freudenstadt

As a representative of early absolutism, Duke Friedrich I pursued an active power and economic policy. The promotion of mining in Christophstal and the settlement of Protestant religious refugees should secure the income of the sovereign in the mercantilist sense. The existing state fortresses were expanded. On the west flank, near the strategically important Kniebis Pass, a new fortified residence with Freudenstadt was supposed to secure further planned territorial acquisitions in the west as a bridge to the possessions on the west Rhine. In 1595 the Duke bought Besigheim and Mundelsheim of Baden. In the same year he enforced his claims against Reichenbach by force. His further aim was to acquire the diocese of Strasbourg . In 1604 he obtained the Oberkirch pledge from this diocese for at least thirty years . Friedrich commissioned his master builder Heinrich Schickhardt around 1598 to examine the area around today's Freudenstadt. Looking back, Schickhardt reports in 1632 in the summary of his life's work ("inventory"):

" Since it was still a forest, I had my first eyesight, had the soil explored quite deeply in many underside places, but found few guots, which because of my underthonigkhait I thought it was not necessary to build a statute there [...] "

Nevertheless, the duke insisted on building the city. Schickhardt's square floor plan for Freudenstadt probably goes back to drawings by Albrecht Dürer in his fortress theory . Schickhardt designed Freudenstadt at the behest of Friedrich I on the drawing board . First, he presented the duke with what is known as the building block plan, in which several houses are laid out in rows or in rectangles, some with an inner courtyard. The massive fortress with the castle was planned in this first plan in a corner of the complex, the market square in the center of the city was planned to be relatively small. Schickhardt's second draft is a further development of the building block plan. There are already clear beginnings of the rows of houses realized later. The castle, which was customary at the time, was again embedded in the fortress walls in a corner of the complex. In fact, Freudenstadt was then built according to the three-line plan , with the castle and fortress now planned in the center of the city being built later. This decision allowed the city to expand flexibly until a constant number of inhabitants was reached. In the three-line plan, the castle was planned to be centered on the market square and rotated 45 ° to the geometric city. The planned massive construction of the fortress was withdrawn and resembles more of a city wall, which suggests that the duke was no longer so interested in the military function of his city at this point in time. Nevertheless, a plan by Schickhardt is known that expanded the three-line plan to include a mighty fortress. However, it is not known whether it was more a "gimmick" or a real plan. The center is surrounded on the plan by three rows of houses that are reminiscent of a mill board . Even the names of the first residents, mainly craftsmen who wanted to benefit from the construction of the new city, are registered. These comments are likely from Elias Gunzenhäuser, the local site manager.

City foundation

March 22, 1599, when the first houses and streets of Schickhardt were marked out in the presence of the Duke, is considered to be the founding date of the city. The houses on the market square had roof gables facing the square and were therefore called "gabled houses". They were typical half-timbered houses . A frame made of beams set up by the carpenter was filled with masonry and lightly plastered, while the beams, some of which remained visible, were painted dark. Today there are no such houses in the city center. In Dornstetten , not far away , this type of construction is still visible in the historic town center.

On May 1, 1601, the foundation stone was laid for the town church, which was probably designed by Elias Gunzenhäuser and was built on the market square as an angular church . From 1602 the department store was built in the north-west corner - also by Gunzenhäuser - and the town hall in the north-east corner in the 1660s, both also as angular buildings. On May 6, 1601, the "City above Christophstal" was first mentioned in a document as "Freudenstadt". How this name came about is not clear. Then on November 3rd, a tender was issued to specifically address those willing to settle, who were promised a building site, wood and fields. In this way, mainly Protestant religious refugees from the Austrian crown lands of Styria , Carinthia and Carniola , who were affected by the Habsburg Counter-Reformation , were directed to the young city. Since many refugees from Carniola only spoke Slovene , a Slovene pastor soon preached. In 1603 the young city received a coat of arms and the first mayor , two years later its district . For this purpose, parts of the Dornstetter Waldgedings and the neighboring municipality of Baiersbronn were separated. Freudenstadt became the seat of a small office .

Since the population was developing well, Duke Friedrich I ordered the expansion of the city complex. Schickhardt then created the five-line plan . Two additional rows of houses, together with the three existing approximately 2,500 residents, should offer living space. In 1608 Duke Friedrich I of Württemberg died. Since the previous parcels of the now four- row town were not fully developed at this point in time, the citizens asked his son and successor, Johann Friedrich von Württemberg , to give up at least the extension of a fifth row of houses; the request was granted. After Duke Friedrich's death, the plans for the palace in "Friedrichs Stadt" were no longer taken into account. The free area in the center thus remained a huge square, which is now considered the 'largest built-up marketplace ' in Germany (see below: City relationship, among others, to Heide with the 'largest undeveloped marketplace' in Germany). In addition, the city had no city wall for a long time. There were always plans for this (for example Schickhardt's plan from 1612, see above); in some cases work was started, but it was not actually completed.

In 1619 the mayor of Freudenstadt asked Duke Johann Friedrich in vain for a city wall. The city was too poor to finance a fortification itself, so a wooden fence was built around the city in the following years. This fence is clearly recognizable on the Merian engraving from 1643. In 1616, the hamlet of St. Christophstal was the first to be incorporated into the young town.

Years of misery and revival

Freudenstadt on an engraving by Merian from 1643

Only a few years after it was founded, when Freudenstadt is said to have had almost 3,000 inhabitants, the plague broke out in 1610/11; it is said to have carried away 800 people, and another 900 emigrated as a result. Animal diseases and poor harvests made the situation worse. In 1632 a fire broke out in the Zum Güldenen Barben inn on the lower market square, which spread quickly due to the arrangement of the half-timbered houses in rows of houses. Heinrich Schickhardt comments on the extent of the damage:

On May 24th in the year 1632 an extremely low heat broke out in Fredenstatt, [3 people died and 144 houses burned down. The fire broke out in the Inn zum Güldenen Barben, which was the first house ever in this city. A ruling has been made that to build the burned-down houses, they need 8 scrapers of oak and fir timber: 18,577 logs, boards 44,125 and slats 44,350.] "

After the lost battle of Nördlingen in the Thirty Years' War , buildings were again set on fire by imperial - Habsburg troops and the few remaining inhabitants were almost completely murdered and looted. The population in those days should have been in the lower double-digit range. The plague broke out again in 1635 and again destroyed almost all life. Freudenstadt remained largely deserted for years. Even in 1652, almost twenty years after the tragic events, only about 300 citizens are recorded.

Fortress

The course of the Thirty Years War prompted Duke Eberhard III. to revisit urban development and fortification plans. Eberhard III. was considered very fond of the Freudenstadt people, he helped the population in many ways. In order for the residents to stay in the city, they were promised six years of tax exemption. New citizens did not have to pay taxes for twelve years. There were cheaper building sites, the timber was given away. For the first time after the long war, the offices were filled again. The Latin school, a corner building behind the town church, was also reopened. Life began to flourish again in Freudenstadt.

In 1667, Duke Eberhard III. Finally, according to the ideas of the engineer d'Avila, start building a huge fortress. Matthias Weiß (1636–1707) was in charge of construction, supported by Georg Ludwig Stäbenhaber, who later became known as a cartographer . It was built until 1674. The fortress now covered an area twice as large as the inhabited city. It consisted of eight bastions with curtains (connecting walls ) and four city gates. Due to the steep slope to the Christophstal, the three western bastions were much smaller than the other five bastions.

City gates

The Royal Statistical-Topographical Bureau describes the four “massive, very solid, vault-like” city gates built in 1858 in more detail. The Stuttgart gate in the east was decorated with "cannon and mortar barrels carved out of stone" and bore the ducal inscription EHZW 1668 (for Eberhard Herzog zu Württemberg) as well as the Württemberg and Dettingen coats of arms. It also housed higher district court prisons. The Strasbourg Gate in the south was “less ornate” and received the same coat of arms and the inscription 1678. Above the archway there was a rented apartment and a prison for the Oberamt and Oberamtsgericht. The Murgthal-Thor in the west comprised the apartment of the senior clerk and two prisons of the senior clerk Freudenstadt. The inscriptions read EHZW 1631 on the outside and FCHZW 1681 on the inside. This corresponds to the initials of Friedrich Carl , the guardian of Duke Eberhard Ludwig . The Hirschkopf-Thor in the north, inscribed with the year 1622, was the oldest city gate. There the apartment of the High Court Clerk and three prisons of the High Court were housed.

Fortress plan

Floor plan of the Freudenstadt Fortress

With the exception of the citadel shown on the left on the Kienberg - it was not built - the plan corresponds to the state of the fortress when construction work was completed in 1674.

Decay of the fortress

In 1674 - the fortress was not yet completely finished - Duke Eberhard III died. ; construction was stopped immediately. His successor, Duke Wilhelm Ludwig , had Lieutenant Colonel Andreas Kieser draw up an expert report on the fortress. This report only contains arguments against the fortress; this made it easy for Duke Wilhelm Ludwig to end the unpopular, expensive project.

The population took advantage of the government's lack of interest in the fortress and for decades bought building materials from the fortress walls. The hewn stones were found in private buildings, ditches and walls became gardens and pastures for the small cattle. The city took this into account and leased individual parts of the fortress to the citizens. The agricultural use and later the development changed the appearance of the fortress.

In 1820 it was planned to convert the remains of the Freudenstadt Fortress into a federal fortress. The Federal Assembly then decided to build federal fortresses in Ulm and Rastatt . From 1870 the city gates were sold for demolition and the fortress was finally left to decay. In 1880 only the fortifications in the area of ​​today's city station and east of it were well preserved.

Today only very few remains of the fortress are left. B .:

  • Between Blaicherstrasse and Musbacher Strasse, behind the Friedenskirche, there is a short, fairly well-preserved part of the "eastern bulwark", it is still around 5 m high today.
  • In the vicinity of the city station, on the corner of Dammstrasse and Wallstrasse, remains of the wall can still be seen.
  • A coat of arms stone with a grimace is the only remnant of the former Loßburger Tor (demolished in 1865) is set into the wall of the Kurhaus. On the left it shows the coat of arms of Duke Eberhardt (Württemberg stag bars, diamonds from Teck, Reichssturmfahne and the barbs from Mömpelgard) , on the right the coat of arms of his wife, Maria Dorothea Sofie, née. Countess of Öttingen .
  • In the Stuttgarter Straße, at the entrance to the former tax office, there are two pillars with decorative stones and peepholes from the Loßburger Tor.

Fortification walls were built on the Kniebis from 1674 to 1675 for the imperial war against Louis XIV , the Sun King . Duke Karl Alexander had this expanded to Fort Alexander , now commonly known as Alexanderschanze . It was the scene of hostilities between Austrians and French during the coalition wars from 1799 to 1801 . The Kniebis monastery building also fell victim to a fire.

From the garrison town to the Oberamt and health resort

In 1721 the Gut Lauterbad, which was founded by Christoph Wilhelm Dietrich and named after it, was one of the first buildings in the Lauterbad hamlet, which is now part of the Dietersweiler district .

In 1737 Freudenstadt became the location of a small garrison. In 1759, the Freudenstadt office was elevated to a higher office . In 1784 mining was completely stopped with the closure of the Dorothea tunnel in the Christophstal. The Oberamt Freudenstadt was one of the smallest offices in Old Wuerttemberg . In 1807, one year after the Kingdom of Württemberg was founded and the associated upheavals in the administrative structure , the Freudenstadt district increased significantly in size. In 1833 the urban area was enlarged by around 2,300 hectares of the former forest estate. In 1837 a “sick ward” with four beds opened. Freudenstadt was increasingly becoming a city of handicrafts, which was favored by the connection to the route network of the Württemberg railway with the Gäubahn in 1879. In 1864 the Freudenstadt city gates were torn down. In 1876, Hartranft, the then city councilor, announced the intention to make Freudenstadt with its pure air a health resort . The project succeeded, and towards the end of the 19th century a steadily growing spa business began. The most famous hotels of that time were the Hotel Rappen, the Hotel Waldlust owned by the Luz family of hoteliers and the Hotel Palmenwald owned by the Stuttgart entrepreneur Lechler. In total there were around 20 hotels in the small town around 1930, five of which were of the highest category. Freudenstadt was known worldwide as a health resort and attracted guests such as the English King George V , the Swedish Queen, John D. Rockefeller , Mark Twain and the Sultan of Selangor .

The district hospital in Herrenfelderstrasse was opened in 1888 . Two city doctors and two deaconesses took up their duties. The city became a popular vacation spot for city dwellers. In 1899, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the city, a lookout tower was opened on Freudenstadt's local mountain, the Kienberg, and named Herzog-Friedrich-Thurm (after Duke Friedrich I).

Role in the “Third Reich” and World War II

In 1938 the Oberamt became the Freudenstadt district . During the Second World War , a command center of the Wehrmacht for the defense of the western front was built on Kniebis , which is almost 1,000 meters high , not far from the Alexanderschanze : the Tannenberg Fuhrer's headquarters (near the boundary in the area of ​​the municipality of Baiersbronn). In the area, especially on the Schliffkopf and the Hornisgrinde, heavy flak positions with the associated supply and accommodation buildings were built as part of the LVZ West (Air Defense Zone West) . Many wounded were treated in the Freudenstadt hospital. Hitler's one-week visit to Tannenberg and Freudenstadt in 1940 (after the French campaign) on the occasion of the inauguration of the headquarters was presented as propaganda in weekly news reports. Freudenstadt and the surrounding area in France thus became a symbol of the Nazi regime and the French defeat, which in 1945 was to play an important role.

Destruction in World War II

On April 16, 1945, just a few weeks before the end of the war, the city was unexpectedly attacked by troops of the 1st French Army under General Lattre de Tassigny , which resulted in extensive destruction through bombs and artillery shelling. Freudenstadt was the junction of the French advance in the direction of Stuttgart and the Upper Rhine, while the Americans advanced eastward in the Rhine-Main area. Four hours before the French marched into Freudenstadt, the Wehrmacht had blown up one of the three half-timbered viaducts on the Eutingen railway in the Gäu – Freudenstadt , as the railway was not supposed to fall into the hands of the enemy. The French army report names a department of the SS (according to German sources a dozen so-called werewolves ) who had set up a barrier in front of the city. Freudenstadt came under artillery fire for about 16 hours with interruptions. No resident dared to approach the French troops to surrender the city; conversely, they expected considerable military resistance. Since the main aqueduct had been destroyed by US air strikes and the main fire engines had been destroyed by artillery fire, the fire could spread almost unhindered. Slurry was partly used for extinguishing. A handover did not take place until the French troops had advanced to the town hall. There were a few dozen civilian casualties; Around 600 buildings, 95 percent of the entire city center, were destroyed directly or indirectly in the night of April 16-17, leaving 1,400 families homeless. When the French troops marched in and in the following three days, there were numerous violent attacks by Moroccan units. According to the doctor Renate Lutz, more than 600 raped women had been treated with her alone. According to reports from contemporary witnesses, the civilian population received the answer to reproaches that it was war and that Freudenstadt must burn for three days .

Many of the buildings that had been spared were then claimed by the French occupation . Numerous families lived in poorly roofed cellars. Overall, the average living space per inhabitant was reduced to less than eight square meters. The need was great and cleaning up the rubble was slow at first.

The "miracle of Freudenstadt"

"New" Freudenstadt Town Hall

The new city map is based on the historical and natural occurrences and develops the old plan [Schickhardts] with modern means. Of course, this has made it a new plan. But he takes into account the tradition that has become cherished, above all by keeping not only the large market square, but also the arcades that are famous all over Germany. The city will get a new face and a new atmosphere after the old is irretrievably lost. But it is not just a new development, but a further development. "

- Ludwig Schweizer

A long discussion about the reconstruction of the city started (aerial photo see beginning of article). For this purpose, models by local architects and renowned urban planners of the time were examined. The aim was to find a balanced mix between tradition and modernity. The living space should be adapted to the changed lifestyle during the reconstruction. As early as 1945, a large number of different plans were submitted by Paul Heim, Hermann Gabler, Adolf Abel , Paul Schmitthenner and others.

In some concepts, the downsizing of the marketplace, which was perceived as oversized, was intended. The reconstruction on the market square without the eaves or the gable was also questionable. The "burned down" demanded that their houses be rebuilt on the old parcel boundaries. On the other hand, the increasing traffic and modern urban planning had to be taken into account. Carlo Schmid , among others, acted as mediator in the conflicts . In the end, the traditional minority around Ludwig Schweizer and his teacher Schmitthenner prevailed against the otherwise prevailing modernist opinion. Both were representatives of the design language of the Stuttgart school with its homeland security architecture . Schweizer was appointed city architect. Together with the city administration under Mayor Hermann Saam , a detailed and uniformly planned reconstruction concept was created. Freudenstadt emerged as a planned city again within just five years .

The rapid reconstruction was favored by the fact that Freudenstadt, along with Friedrichshafen in Württemberg-Hohenzollern, was the only city with such severe damage and therefore received generous support. The type and extent of the holistic Freudenstadt reconstruction as well as the enormous civic commitment associated with it brought the city a lot of attention and recognition. In particular, voices from the GDR praised the use of “national traditions” as exemplary, whereas the local KPD was the only party in the city council to vote against traditional reconstruction with gabled houses in 1949. In connection with the finally successful reconstruction, there is also talk of the “Miracle of Freudenstadt”. Today it is still regarded as a total work of art that (like only a few other cities) expresses the zeitgeist of the 1950s. To maintain the uniform appearance, a very strict design statute for the city center applies to this day .

Recent history

Congress center at the Kurhaus
Light rail at the city station

Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the state of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. The IX. International Mayors' Congress of the IBU in 1958 in Freudenstadt initiated a turning point in Franco-German relations at the municipal level and led to a large number of town twinning . In 1961, Freudenstadt entered into a partnership with the city of Courbevoie in the greater Paris area. During the district reform on January 1, 1973 , the Freudenstadt district received its current size, Freudenstadt remained the official seat of the enlarged district. This also became part of the newly founded Northern Black Forest region , which was then assigned to the newly circumscribed Karlsruhe administrative district . The former Württemberg Freudenstadt was now administered from the former Baden capital Karlsruhe.

In 1965, the district council decided to build a new Freudenstadt hospital in the Zehnmorgen area in the north of the city. The construction was completed in 1976. The renovated building of the old hospital has been the seat of the District Office since 1977. In the 1980s, many Freudenstadt residents opposed the federal and state plans to use a tunnel to ban the rampant traffic on the east-west axis Strasbourg- Freudenstadt-Tübingen from the city center and thus pave new paths for urban development. Retailers in particular feared a drop in sales due to reduced through traffic. The citizens' protest was successful, but is now considered to be the biggest mistake made in the post-war period. In 1983 the municipal swimming pool Panoramabad was opened. Also in the 1980s, the existing Kurhaus was expanded to include a congress center (see Kurhaus and Congress Center Freudenstadt , it was inaugurated in 1989). In 1986 the number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 20,000. At the request of the city, the Baden-Württemberg state government granted Freudenstadt the name of a major district town with effect from January 1, 1988 . In 1989, a spacious underground car park was built under the upper market square, so that the market square was largely car-free and a pedestrian zone.

On the occasion of the city's 400th anniversary in 1999, a parade took place. The conversion of the lower market square into a city park was completed with fifty illuminated fountains and a newly discovered former mine in the immediate vicinity of today's specialist medical center was opened to the public as a visitor mine . In 2003 Freudenstadt was connected to the Karlsruhe light rail network with the S31 and S41 lines . The yellow vehicles gave day tourism a powerful impetus and have shaped the cityscape ever since. In October 2008, the four-lane expansion of Stuttgarter Strasse ( the B 28 in town) began as the city's main artery.

Urban development

Incorporations

Shortly after the city was founded, Christophstal, which originally belonged to Dornstetten, was incorporated. The next incorporation followed in 1926 with Zwieselberg (previously the municipality of Reinerzau). The most drastic change was brought about by the regional reform of the state of Baden-Württemberg in the 1970s, according to which Igelsberg was incorporated on July 1, 1971, and Grüntal (with Frutenhof) on January 1, 1972 . On January 1, 1975, Dietersweiler (with Lauterbad), Untermusbach (with Obermusbach) and Wittlensweiler followed, as well as the parts of the hamlet Kniebis that had previously belonged to Baiersbronn and Bad Rippoldsau , which was already predominantly part of Freudenstadt.

Population development

Population development of Freudenstadt.svgPopulation development of Freudenstadt - from 1871
Population development of Freudenstadt; above from 1603 to 2016, below a section from 1871

After it was founded in 1599, the city's population grew to between 2,000 and 3,000 by the beginning of 1610, making it part of the Swabian cities. After the plague, a city fire, famine and the Thirty Years War, hardly any people lived in the village in 1652. It took over 200 years for the city to recover in terms of population. In 1849 a population census determined 5,154 inhabitants, around 1930 the ten-thousand mark was exceeded, which since then has only fallen below in the war years 1939–1945. In 1970, 14,375 citizens were registered with their main residence in Freudenstadt. Due to the regional reform of Baden-Württemberg in the early 1970s, the number of inhabitants increased to 19,454 as a result of incorporations. In 1986 the 20,000 inhabitant threshold was exceeded. Since 1995 the population has remained fairly constant at just under 24,000.

politics

Municipal council

The local elections on May 26, 2019 led to the following result:

Party / list Seats Share of votes
Christian Democratic Union of Germany 8th 25.2%
Social Democratic Party of Germany 5 17.7%
Free Democratic Party 2 5.5%
Free Voters Association 9 31.0%
Citizen Action 6th 20.7%
total 30th 100% *
Turnout: 49.8%

* after eliminating the rounding inaccuracies

mayor

The city of Freudenstadt was already administered according to the Württemberg model after it was founded, that is, there was a magistrate with several mayors who were initially called Stadtschultheiß (the designation mayor was introduced in Württemberg in 1930). Since it was elevated to the status of a major district town in 1988, the mayor has been named mayor .

On April 13, 2008, Julian Osswald (CDU) from Erolzheim , former director of the Donau-Iller regional association , was elected the new mayor with 82.48 percent of the vote in the first round of voting. He had two opponents. He was sworn in on July 2, 2008. On April 24, 2016, he was confirmed in office with no opposing candidates with 92.7% of the votes.

Former mayors of Freudenstadt are:

  • unknown: Balthasar (the elder) Münster (* 1648; † 1728)
  • unknown: Johann David Wölpper (* 1671; † 1741)
  • 1877–1919: Alfred Hartranft
  • 1919–1944: Ernst Blaicher
  • 1945–1948: Friedrich Rothfuß

coat of arms

City arms

Blazon : “In red under a golden shield head, inside a black stag pole, a golden“ F ”, accompanied by two pole-wise, turned away silver fish (barbel).“ The city flag is in the colors red and white.

The coat of arms has been used since 1603. The stag bar symbolizes the Duchy of Württemberg, the barbs are taken from the coat of arms of the County of Mömpelgard , which at that time belonged to Württemberg, the "F" refers to the city's founder, Duke Friedrich I of Württemberg. Today's blazon of the coat of arms - originally it had a completely red field color - was probably not determined until 1926. The city flag was then awarded in 1950 by the State Ministry of Württemberg-Hohenzollern .

City relationships

Place name sign in Courbevoie

The partnership with the French Courbevoie was at the beginning of the expansion of the Franco-German town twinning in the early 1960s and has been intensively pursued since 1961. There are regular student exchanges as well as cultural and local political visits.

In addition, Freudenstadt maintains three city friendships.

  • The friendship with Männedorf in Switzerland has existed since 1959.
  • The friendship with Heide in Schleswig-Holstein has existed since 1989. It is based on the fact that Heide also claims to have the largest marketplace in Germany. The cities have now agreed that both marketplaces are the same size, with Heide having the largest undeveloped marketplace and Freudenstadt the largest built-up marketplace in Germany.
  • Another city friendship has existed since 1990 with Schöneck in the Saxon Vogtland.

Some Freudenstadt schools and associations maintain a lively exchange with the Polish partner district of Tomaszów Lubelski . There is also a regular student exchange with the Foreign Language High School in Lovech , Bulgaria .

Culture and social life

Social

Among other things, the following networked social institutions are present in the city: The EIGEN-SINN children's and youth workshop is intended to promote and develop the personal, social and school skills of children and young people in social group work so that they can develop new and own strategies for action and conflict resolution ultimately being able to develop your own sustainable life strategy. The Erlacher height , the other in six counties in Baden-Württemberg is represented, is committed to ensuring that people are respected in social distress and respected and social exclusion is reduced. The Diakonie advocates for the poor, the marginalized and socially disadvantaged. The multi-generation house Familien-Zentrum-Freudenstadt e. V. provides “social space” in which people, v. a. Mothers and the elderly can see themselves (again) as part of a community. In the Freudenstadt Children's and Youth Center (KiJuz) , open child and youth work is offered to primary school children and young people. Furthermore, the Catholic Young Community (KjG) Freudenstadt offers campaigns in the field of child and youth work. The Frauenhilfe Freudenstadt operates a counseling center for women who are affected by violence or fear of violence and urgently seek help.

dialect

Freudenstadt lies on the language border between the Swabian and Alemannic dialects. Within the spatial structure of the Swabian dialect, the city is located in the Freudenstädter area , which extends from Alpirsbach via Freudenstadt to the Altensteiger area. The Baiersbronn area borders in the west, the Upper Enz region in the north and the Upper Neckar region in the east . In the south the Upper Rhine-Manic joins. As in the entire Swabian region, the use of the dialect is still very much alive. The dialect is usually spoken and accepted both in leisure time and at work, in public offices and in schools. However, the trend, especially in the city center and among younger people, is towards a kind of regiolect , a high-level language characterized by dialect.

Religions

Protestant church

City church in winter

The monastery Kniebis had since 1535 unused convent church that was burned down in 1799 by the French. As a result of its founding in Württemberg, Freudenstadt was for a long time an almost entirely Protestant city ​​with a so-called Winkelhakenkirche (see below under sights ) that was adapted to the new town plan . Initially, the young community belonged to the deanery or church district of Herrenberg within the Evangelical Church in Württemberg . In 1672 Freudenstadt became the seat of its own deanery (→ Freudenstadt Church District ), which encompasses the entire Freudenstadt area. At first there was only the Protestant town parish, in 1960 the Martinskirche was added. Together with the Kniebis parish, both churches form the Freudenstadt parish. There are also Protestant churches and parishes in the other parts of the city. In 1901, a parish of its own was set up in Dietersweiler, which was initially a subsidiary of Glatten. The church there is of Gothic origin and was rebuilt in 1745. Grüntal was initially a branch municipality of Dornstetten, but became its own parish in 1583. The parish church with its Romanesque tower was built by Heinrich Schickhardt in 1592 and renovated in 1871. In Igelsberg there is a Protestant church in the walled cemetery. The municipality of Untermusbach is a branch municipality of Grüntal. Wittlensweiler has been a parish since 1899. The old church was renovated in 1968.

In the 19th century a Christian community emerged in Freudenstadt, which later referred to itself as the Old Pietist Community . Its members are called Apis and belong to the Evangelical Church of Württemberg.

Catholic Tabor Church

Catholic Church

In the 19th century, more and more Catholics moved to Freudenstadt. As early as 1859 they founded their own parish. Your Church of Christ's Transfiguration ( called Taborkirche ) is a new building from 1931. The parish of Christ's Transfiguration in Freudenstadt is also responsible for the Catholics in the area and, together with the Catholic parish of Alpirsbach, forms a pastoral care unit within the Freudenstadt dean's office in the Rottenburg-Stuttgart diocese .

Evang.-meth. Friedenskirche

Free Churches

Free churches are also two parishes and parts of the Sozialwerk Süd (including the Hohenfreudenstadt Clinic) of the Evangelical Methodist Church , the people's mission of determined Christians , the Salvation Army , the Seventh-day Adventists , the Christ Church belonging to the Mülheim Association , the Vineyard- Congregation and the Crossroads International Church, which belongs to the Congregation of God Germany . A free Christian community has given itself the name GOTOP.

Further

The New Apostolic Church , which belongs to the Tübingen Apostle Area, is also represented by three congregations. These are located in Freudenstadt and in the districts of Dietersweiler and Wittlensweiler.

A Jewish community could never really establish itself. Around 1870 there were only two Jewish people living in the city; in 1910 there were 13. It was more likely that spa guests of Jewish faith came to kosher hotels, such as the Villa Germania opened in 1907 or the Hotel Teuchelwald opened in 1911 . The few local Jews joined the nearest Jewish community in Horb.

The Turkish-Islamic Cultural Association e. V. maintains the Fatih mosque. There is also a building for Alevis religious ceremonies .

Attractions

Marketplace

Market square: north side with town hall

Freudenstadt is best known for the largest built-up market square in Germany, which should actually be a castle (see section on history). It is considered the symbol of the city and is around 4.5 hectares in size and almost square with the dimensions 219 × 216 m. The surrounding porticoes , called arcades , are characteristic. Three ornamental fountains on the market square survived the Second World War unscathed. The market was rebuilt in the homeland security style in 1950 after being destroyed in World War II .

City Church

Angled interior of the city church

The Protestant town church is located on the southern corner of the square . Its floor plan is L-shaped, the pulpit is at an angle between the two wings. This Winkelkirche is one of two such churches in Germany that were planned as such due to local conditions - the second is St. Concordia , in Ruhla . In the 19th century, the sexes were separated when going to church: women and men sat in different naves without the possibility of eye contact. Only the pastor could see from the altar into both ships, which are still called the women's ship and the men 's ship today. The most important furnishing element is the lectern from 1150, which probably comes from the Hirsau monastery . The town church was planned and built by Elias Gunzenhäuser from 1601 until his death in 1606 , and continued by Heinrich Schickhardt until 1608 . The innovative roof construction ( hanging truss roof structure with two flat, lightly made of wood, now plastered, ribbed vaults suspended from it) comes from Elias Gunzenhäuser. Each nave is closed with a steeple, the bell tower and the clock tower. Oberbaurat Karl von Sauter led a complete renovation of the church from 1887 to 1899 with still colorful and lavish furnishings, partly in the neo-Gothic style . The town church was badly damaged in the Second World War in 1945. The works of art of European standing (unique evangelist lectern made of willow wood from 1150 from the Hirsau monastery, Romanesque font, crucifix) could be saved and later brought back. The reconstruction according to old plans was done by Paul Heim junior until 1950. (1905–1988) together with building officer Köber. 1978–2008 there were various interior renovations and redesigns. The neo-Gothic glass painting by Christian W. Anemüller (1885) and Waldhausen & Ellenbeck (1897) were not replaced by new glass paintings after 1945, except for a round window (1950) under the organ gallery.

town hall

On the opposite north corner of the market square is the town hall, which houses parts of the city administration and offers two viewing platforms . In the center of the square is the town house , which houses the local history museum with the departments of folklore, town history, handicrafts and tourism as well as the town library. A memorial column next to it commemorates the reconstruction of the city after its destruction in the World War. The monument is popularly known as Hypothekenvenus , alluding to the financing of the reconstruction .

The Friedrichsturm on the Kienberg offers a good view of the city

Friedrichsturm

The Friedrichsturm is a 25 m high observation tower built on the Kienberg in 1899 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the city . It was planned by the Black Forest Association and the Beautification Association and named the Duke Friedrich Tower at its inauguration in honor of the city's founder .

additional

The Freudenstadt visitor mine is a cultural and historical attraction .

The Black Forest High Road , part of the B 500 , is the oldest holiday route in Germany and connects Freudenstadt with hiking and skiing areas in the northern Black Forest and the city of Baden-Baden . Freudenstadt is on the Deutsche Alleenstrasse , which leads from Rügen to Konstanz . The Black Forest long-distance hiking trails Mittelweg and Ostweg run through the city.

leisure

Thanks to its central location and its tourist character, Freudenstadt has an unusually large number of leisure activities compared to cities of similar size. A golf club has existed since 1929 . The facility is one of the oldest in Germany.

The Panoramabad in the northern part of the city with a wellness area and a “sauna area” is known beyond the district . The pool can also be reached by tram ( Schulzentrum-Panoramabad stop ). For team sports there are three gyms, a stadium and several ball courts in the city center. There are several tennis courts on the Schierenberg. There is also a riding club in the north of the city. A football school is located near the stadium facilities. The largest sports club is TSV Freudenstadt . Numerous well-developed and signposted hiking trails are available for hiking and Nordic walking. If there is enough snow, there are cross-country trails or the ski lift on the Stokinger slope in the Lauterbad district. The winter sports opportunities in the higher district of Kniebis are even better.

The city has two cinemas. The Subiaco in the Kurhaus is non-commercial and geared towards alternative films. The Central at the District Court covers current movies. Numerous bars on Loßburger and Straßburger Strasse, on the market square and at the city train station provide entertainment in the evenings. The Freudenstadt pub night is popular . There is a discotheque outside the center near the main train station.

Regular events

The parades of the Freudenstadt fool's guild, especially the large carnival parade, which takes place the day after the torchlight parade , attracts thousands of rabbits and spectators to the city. In March and October the ZAEN (Central Association of Doctors for Naturopathic Treatment and Regulatory Medicine ) organizes the ZAEN Congress in the congress center. With its seminars, the event is a forum for further training and the exchange of experiences. The opening concert of the Black Forest Music Festival traditionally takes place in the town church from the end of April to the beginning of May . The series of events lasts until August and is also hosted in districts.

The fountains are the backdrop to the
magic of the fountains
City festival 2016 with high wire act

On a weekend at the beginning of July, the city ​​festival turns the entire market square into the scene of a folk festival, which culminates in a large fireworks display on Saturday evening. Since 2002, local associations have been entertaining the audience musically and artistically against the backdrop of the Freudenstadt fountains at the fountain magic on Lower Market Square in mid-July . The Africa Festival , which usually lasts several days , usually takes place in the last week of July on the Upper Market Square. The performances range from dance and music performances to artistry, cinema, ball games, workshops, exhibitions and bazaars to church services.

The Freudenstädter Sommertheater , an open-air performance that changes annually by local amateur actors, is extremely popular in July and August . The audience follows the actors to various natural stages in the urban area. For tennis fans, the Black Forest Open was a fixture in the ATP calendar, which was held annually from 1999 to 2009 parallel to the US Open . Players like Magnus Norman , Gustavo Kuerten and Marat Safin were already fighting for world ranking points on Schierenberg .

Changing events take place on the market square from spring to autumn. On the first weekend in October, the handicraft market of the Freudenstadt Trade and Industry Association (HGV) takes place on the Upper Market Square parallel to a Sunday shopping. The end of the year is sealed by the ten-day Freudenstadt Christmas market organized by the HGV at the end of November . Numerous craft shops and retailers offer their goods in a village of around 100 huts. The appearance of the tower blowers on the town hall tower is one of the highlights of the market.

Economy and Infrastructure

economy

The service sector accounted for 54.2% of value added in 2006 , and the manufacturing sector for 45.0%. The Agriculture played only a small role with 0.8%. The city has an above-average amount of purchasing power in the Northern Black Forest region . In 2005 the total income per inhabitant was 25,785 euros, the untied income amounted to 16,730 euros, 4% above the national average. In 2007 the city had an in-commuter surplus of 1,653. In 1993 there were 205 shops in Freudenstadt. In 2007, 2,832 guest beds were available in the urban area. The number of overnight stays was 339,292.

The manufacturing sector is largely located in the industrial areas. Particularly worth mentioning are Gebr. Schmid GmbH + Co. (photovoltaics, circuit boards, flat screens), Robert Bürkle GmbH (machines for surface finishing), Georg Oest Mineralölwerk GmbH & Co. KG (mineral oil works, petrol stations, mechanical engineering) and Hermann Wein GmbH & Co. KG ( Black Forest ham ). The Kreissparkasse Freudenstadt is also one of the largest employers. The former largest employer in the city, Schlott Gruppe AG (print products), had to file for bankruptcy in 2011. The Freudenstadt factory was shut down and almost all employees were laid off.

Road traffic

Due to its central location in the Black Forest, four main roads run through Freudenstadt.

The B 28 ( Kehl - Ulm ) and B 462 ( Rastatt - Rottweil ) meet at the market square ; In addition, the B 500 ( Baden-Baden –Freudenstadt), which runs congruently with the B 28, ends here . These streets then lead in a west-east direction on a common route through the urban area.

Since 1985 the B 294 ( Bretten - Gundelfingen ) running in north-south direction has passed Freudenstadt eastwards as a bypass.

After the final failure of the plans for the Black Forest motorway A 84 at the beginning of the 1980s, other solutions had to be planned to counteract the high volume of traffic, which is now gradually entering the implementation phase. This includes the four-lane expansion of the B 28 in the core city with the start of construction at the end of 2008 as well as underpassing the city center in a V-shaped tunnel (urgent need in the federal transport route plan ).

bus and train

Integration into the light rail network
Light rail to Karlsruhe and RE to Stuttgart at the main station

In 1879, the city was connected to rail traffic with the construction of the Gäubahn, which ran from Stuttgart via Herrenberg and Eutingen im Gäu to Freudenstadt . Since its continuation into the Kinzig valley was already planned at that time (and was built as part of the Kinzig valley railway in 1886), the main station was built in the southeast of the city, relatively far from the center. In 1901 the Württemberg part of the Murg Valley Railway to Klosterreichenbach was built. The city ​​train station, 60 meters higher, was built north of the center, a type IIIb unit train station . A continuous connection to Rastatt (Baden) was established in 1928. Freudenstadt is therefore the starting point for three railway lines.

The Murg Valley Railway is used by the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn . The lines S8 and S81 of the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (AVG) connect Freudenstadt via Rastatt with Karlsruhe . The S8 tram runs every hour to Karlsruhe city center and the accelerated line S81 runs every two hours to Karlsruhe main station . The stations within Freudenstadt are the main train station , the city ​​train station and the school center-Panoramabad and industrial area stops . All of them are served by light rail vehicles every half hour during the day. The S8 runs - unusual for rural areas - until the early hours of the morning.

The state capital Stuttgart is reached on the route to Eutingen and further on via the Stuttgart – Hattingen railway line . Both are also known as the Gäubahn . There is an hourly cycle with densities in school traffic. The S8 coming from Karlsruhe runs every two hours on the line that has been electrified since 2006 to Eutingen; there is a connection to the Regional Express (RE) Stuttgart – Singen. In between there is a direct connection to Stuttgart Central Station with the RE from Freudenstadt . As on the Murgtalbahn, the S8 runs here until early in the morning.

The connection to Offenburg is via the Kinzigtalbahn . Trains run by Südwestdeutsche Landesverkehrs-AG (SWEG) connect Freudenstadt every hour via Alpirsbach , Schiltach and Hausach with Offenburg .

Long-distance traffic has not existed in Freudenstadt since the turn of the millennium. In Hausach, Horb, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Rastatt you can change to Intercity (IC) or Intercity-Express (ICE).

The central bus station (ZOB) with more than 40 bus routes is one of the main transport hubs in the Black Forest together with the directly adjacent city train station with the S81 and S8 tram lines. City buses drive to destinations in the core city. Most of the municipalities in the district can be reached without having to change trains or via the Horb junction. Tourist destinations such as the Mummelsee and the Schliffkopf are also served , and there are seasonal offers such as ski buses . There are public transport connections to cities in neighboring districts such as Oberndorf , Wolfach , Altensteig or Dornhan ; however, many bus routes, especially in smaller communities, do not have a tight timetable. On the nights on Saturdays and Sundays and holidays traveling overnight bus supply are overnight express , in addition to the nightly rail transport.

The association tariff of the Verkehrs-Gemeinschaft Landkreis Freudenstadt (VGF) and the RegioX ticket offer of the Karlsruhe Transport Association (KVV) apply throughout the district . The Europass SWEG is also valid on the Kinzig Valley Railway .

Media and telecommunications

As regional daily newspapers , both the Schwarzwälder Bote and the Neckar Chronik of the Südwest Presse report on events on site. Free weekly newspapers are the WOM of the Schwarzwälder-Bote-Mediengesellschaft and the Anzeiger . There is also the radio station Freies Radio Freudenstadt (FRF).

The Hotel Palmenwald and various objects such as the town hall are filming locations for the ARD television series Der Schwarzwaldhof , which has been broadcast since 2008.

Courts, authorities and institutions

Freudenstadt is the seat of the local court , which belongs to the districts of the Rottweil Regional Court and the Stuttgart Higher Regional Court . The city is the seat of the district office of the district of the same name and houses most of its administrative authorities. There is also a tax office .

The city is the seat of the church district of Freudenstadt of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg . The Protestant school dean for the church districts of Freudenstadt and Sulz am Neckar is based in Freudenstadt, but the Roman Catholic dean's office in Freudenstadt is in Horb am Neckar . The Northern Black Forest Chamber of Commerce and Industry maintains an office in the Freudenstadt-Wittlensweiler industrial area.

education

The schools sponsored by the city are, on the one hand, the Kepler high school and the Kepler secondary school , both of which are located in a building complex north of the center and not far from the sports facilities. To the southeast in the direction of the main station is the Falken-Realschule , not far from it is the Hartranft-Grundschule , an open all-day school with a branch in the Kniebis district. The Theodor Gerhard Elementary School with an integrated Werkrealschule as the second elementary school in the city center is located opposite the Kepler schools mentioned above . The districts of Dietersweiler and Wittlensweiler each have their own primary school.

The schools sponsored by the district include the Eduard Spranger School , a commercial school with an economics high school, the Heinrich Schickhardt school as a commercial and technical school with a technical high school and the Luise Büchner school as a home economics school with a nutritional high school. All three schools are housed in a building complex in the northeast of the center near the main cemetery and have their own S-Bahn station. The Christophorus School , a special needs school, is located to the north near the building yard.

The lower school supervisory authority for the elementary, secondary, (work) secondary and special schools in Freudenstadt has been the Rastatt State Education Authority since January 1, 2009 . The schools initially subject to the regional council of Karlsruhe.

In Freudenstadt, two private schools are located in the north-west of the Protestant vocational school for child care Oberlinhaus and the free Waldorf school not far from the main train station .

After the city was unable to continue its youth music school in 2005 for financial reasons, a sponsoring association was formed from music teachers from the Kepler grammar school, church musicians from the two large churches and other committed citizens, who founded the Freudenstadt Region Music and Art School in 2006 . V. brought into being. Her work has meanwhile been awarded numerous prizes at Jugend musiziert and other competitions.

In the city there is also a state seminar for didactics and teacher training (elementary, industrial and secondary schools). The Eduard von Hallberger Institute offers prospective foreign students at German-speaking universities language and study preparation courses. Freudenstadt is also the seat of the University Institute for Psychology and Pastoral Care (IPS) of the Gustav Siewerth Academy . The European Theological Seminar (ETS) in the Kniebis district offers study opportunities in theology.

Personalities

sons and daughters of the town

Other personalities

  • Friedrich I (born August 19, 1557 in Mömpelgard; † January 29, 1608 in Stuttgart), founder of Freudenstadt
  • Heinrich Schickhardt (born February 5, 1558 in Herrenberg, † January 14, 1635 in Stuttgart), builder of Freudenstadt
  • Eberhard Gmelin (born May 1, 1751 in Tübingen; † March 3, 1809 in Heilbronn), founder of Heilbronn hypnosis
  • Karl Burger (born December 26, 1883 in Stuttgart, † October 3, 1959 in Freudenstadt), German national soccer player
  • Georg Lindemann (born March 8, 1884 in Osterburg (Altmark), † September 25, 1963 in Freudenstadt), Colonel General in World War II
  • Wolfgang Kohlrausch (born December 20, 1888 in Hanover; † August 7, 1980 in Freudenstadt), founder of German physiotherapy and head of the Hohenfreudenstadt sanatorium
  • Hans Rommel (born January 4, 1890 in Hausen ob Urspring; † May 24, 1979 in Freudenstadt), senior teacher, city archivist and founder of the "Freudenstädter Heimatblätter"
  • Martin Haug (born December 14, 1895 in Calw; † March 28, 1983 in Freudenstadt), regional bishop of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg
  • Hanns Vogts (born December 2, 1900 in Mönchengladbach; † June 20, 1976 in Freudenstadt), writer
  • Klaus Mehnert (born October 10, 1906 in Moscow, † January 2, 1984 in Freudenstadt), political journalist, publicist and author
  • Ludwig Schweizer (born December 8, 1910 in Schramberg; † June 10, 1989 in Freudenstadt), architect, town planning officer
  • Margret Hofheinz-Döring (* May 20, 1910 in Mainz; † June 18, 1994 in Bad Boll), painter, apartment in Freudenstadt from 1953 to 1974
  • Friedrich Schlott (born June 10, 1914 in Kirchbach; † December 21, 1997 in Freudenstadt), entrepreneur, patron and benefactor of the city
  • Joseph Abileah (originally Wilhelm Niswiszki) (1915–1994), Israeli violinist and peace activist, first convicted Israeli conscientious objector in 1948, died in Freudenstadt
  • Wolfgang Altendorf (born March 23, 1921 in Mainz, † January 18, 2007 in Freudenstadt), writer, publisher and painter
  • Werner J. Egli (born April 5, 1943 in Lucerne), Swiss writer
  • Wolfgang Tzschupke (born February 5, 1945 in Wurzen), German forest scientist, councilor
  • Costa Cordalis (born May 1, 1944 in Elatia, Greece; † July 2, 2019 in Mallorca), German-speaking pop singer; lives in the Kniebis district
  • Jürgen Klopp (born June 16, 1967 in Stuttgart), German soccer player and coach, graduated from the Eduard Spranger Business High School in Freudenstadt
  • Kevin Kurányi (born March 2, 1982 in Rio de Janeiro), German soccer player; completed his school education at the Kepler secondary school from 1997

literature

  • Erich Keyser: Württemberg city book . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1961.
  • City Archives Freudenstadt: Freudenstadt - Chronicle 1599–1999 . Braun Verlag, Karlsruhe 1999, ISBN 3-7650-8219-8 .
  • Ruth Schima, Gerhard Hertel, Karl H. Glocker: Freudenstadt to get to know. Interesting facts about the spa town and its surroundings . Ullstein Quadriga, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88366-160-0 .
  • Hans-Günther Burkhardt: Cityscape and Feeling of Home - the Reconstruction of Freudenstadt 1945–1954 . Christians, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-7672-1005-3 .
  • Wolfgang Altendorf, Gerhard Hertel: Freudenstadt. Dt./Engl./Franz . 1991, ISBN 3-88366-165-1 .
  • Adolf J. Schmid : The Kniebis and his Catholic Church St.Josef . Schillinger Verlag, Freiburg 1999, ISBN 3-89155-243-2 .
  • Jan Ilas Bartusch: The Freudenstädter Taufstein and the Bietenhausen Tympanum - Two early stone carvings of the Alpirsbacher monastery hut , in: (Ed.) Hohenzollerischer Geschichtsverein e. V .: Journal for Hohenzollern regional history , 51./52. Volume, Sigmaringen 2015/2016.

Web links

Commons : Freudenstadt  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Freudenstadt  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
  2. State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
  3. a b c The Freudenstadt-Dornstetten-Schönegrund mining area. mineralienatlas.de, accessed on February 1, 2009 .
  4. ↑ Exploration of deposits by drilling in 2008. Basic data for a sustainable raw material supply. (PDF; 1.4 MB) Freiburg Regional Council. State Office for Geology, Raw Materials and Mining, accessed on November 16, 2014 .
  5. As of September 30, 2008 Facts and figures. (PDF) City of Freudenstadt, p. 14 , accessed on March 4, 2014 (7.8 MB).
  6. ^ Karlsruhe district . In: The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality . tape V. . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-17-002542-2 , p. 623-629 .
  7. ^ Main statute of the city of Freudenstadt. (PDF) City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 (81.9 KB).
  8. ^ Advertisement on Freudenstadt . In: Vossische Zeitung , July 8, 1925, evening edition, p. 14.
  9. Districts - Grüntal. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  10. ^ Districts - Igelsberg. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  11. a b c Districts - Kniebis. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  12. ^ City districts - Musbach. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  13. ^ City districts - Wittlensweiler. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  14. ^ Districts - Dietersweiler. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  15. "... Christophs-Thal, which has to thank the name and origin of Duke Christophen zu Würtenberg as a blessed memory." Christian Friedrich Sattler: Historical description of the Duchy of Würtemberg. Volume 2, Stoll and Mäntler, Stuttgart / Eßlingen 1752, p. 224 f. = Cap. XLVIII, § 5.
  16. ^ Kurt F. Kunzmann: The mining and the minerals of the Freudenstadt Revieres. In: Freudenstadt Contributions. 8/1992.
  17. Statistisch-Topographisches Bureau Württemberg: Friedrich I. In: W. Nitzschke (Ed.): The Kingdom of Württemberg: A description of land, people and state . 1863, p. 848 .
  18. Albert Raff: The importance of Christophstal for the Württemberg coin history. In: Freudenstadt Contributions. 9/1999.
  19. Dieter Stievermann: Friedrich I. In: Sönke Lorenz… In collaboration with Christoph Eberlein… and the Institute for Historical Regional Studies and Historical Auxiliary Sciences at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (ed.): Das Haus Württemberg - a biographical lexicon . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-17-013605-4 , pp. 139-142 .
  20. ^ A b Heinrich Schickhardt: Inventory . Built in 1632, Stätt von Newem. ( Landesbildungsserver Baden-Württemberg ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; accessed on March 4, 2014]). Inventory ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  21. Albrecht Dürer: Quite a few underricht, to fortify the Stett, castle, and spots. Nuremberg 1527. A plan of the Aztec city Tenochtitlán may have provided the basis for the corresponding drawing . In: Hanno-Walter Kruft: History of the architectural theory. From antiquity to the present. CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-34903-X , p. 124 .
  22. Although it is often claimed that the church was built by Schickhardt, the few historical sources speak against it; see Christoph Seeger: “It doesn't always have to be Schickhardt!” On the importance of Heinrich Schickhardt for church building in Württemberg at the beginning of the 17th century. In: Robert Kretzschmar (Hrsg.): New research on Heinrich Schickhardt (= publications of the commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg, B 151). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2002, pp. 111-143.
  23. ^ Heinrich Schickhardt and the founding of Freudenstadt. (No longer available online.) State education server Baden-Württemberg, archived from the original on July 19, 2011 ; Retrieved February 1, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.schule-bw.de
  24. ^ On the history of the Freudenstadt District Office before 1807. Baden-Württemberg State Archives, accessed on September 17, 2008 .
  25. a b Freudenstädter Heimatblätter, local history contributions to the "Black Forest Messenger", Volume XXIII No. 11, November 1992.
  26. a b Freudenstadt contributions to the historical regional studies between Neckar, Murg and Kinzig, Fortress Freudenstadt, Walter Kull, publisher. Heimat- und Museumsverein für Stadt und Kreis Freudenstadt, 1985.
  27. ^ Royal statistical-topographical bureau: Description of the Oberamt Freudenstadt . Published by Karl Aue in Stuttgart, 1858.
  28. ^ Post administrator Ernst Luz: Guide through Freudenstadt and the surrounding area . 1881, p. 16 .
  29. ^ History. Hospitals Landkreis Freudenstadt gGmbH, archived from the original on July 26, 2011 ; Retrieved October 20, 2013 .
  30. Photo of the inscription on the Friedrichsturm, on commons.wikimedia.org
  31. ^ F. Wein: The West Air Defense Zone . Explorate Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-937779-25-6 .
  32. a b c General State Archives Karlsruhe: The German Southwest at zero hour. Collapse and new beginning in 1945 in documents and pictures. Harschdruck, Karlsruhe 1975.
  33. The history of today's Freudenstadt district Grüntal-Frutenhof
  34. a b Hans Rommel: Ten years ago 16./17. April 1945 - How it came to the destruction of Freudenstadt. In: Freudenstädter Heimatblätter. Supplement 1. Oskar Kaupert, Freudenstadt 1955, p. 56.
  35. Raimund Weible: The miracle of Freudenstadt. Haller Tagblatt , July 26, 2008, archived from the original on February 12, 2009 ; accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  36. Volker Kopp: Busy. French occupation policy in Germany . be.bra-Verlag, Berlin 2005.
  37. Annette Bruhns: The war against women . In: Spiegel Special . No. 2 , 2005, The Eastern Campaign, p. 84 .
  38. Margarete Dörr : "Those who have not lived through time ..." Women's experiences in the Second World War and in the years after . Campus Verlag, 1998, ISBN 3-593-36095-0 , pp. 575 .
  39. ^ Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims: Documents of German War Damage . 1960, p. 181 .
  40. Ludwig Schweizer: The old and the new city . In: Der Grenzer (newspaper) . 1950.
  41. a b c Werner Durth , Niels Gutschow : Dreams in ruins . Friedr. Vieweg and Son Verlag, 1988, ISBN 3-528-08706-4 .
  42. The time after the war: Cities under construction in the Google book search
  43. Design statutes for the inner city of Freudenstadt. (PDF) City of Freudenstadt, accessed on February 3, 2009 (734 KB).
  44. IBU International Mayors' Congress, 12. – 13. May 1958 in Freudenstadt . In: International Mayor Union (Ed.): 10 Years International Mayor Union - For Franco-German Understanding and European Cooperation . tape IX , 1958.
  45. ^ Antonia Stock: Town twinning and intercultural encounters - selected German cities and their partners abroad . Ed .: University of Hildesheim. 2005 (Master's thesis).
  46. Four-lane expansion of Stuttgarter Straße. In: Black Forest Messenger. October 30, 2008, archived from the original on February 12, 2009 ; Retrieved October 20, 2013 .
  47. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 528 .
  48. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 492 .
  49. Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office: Results of the 2019 municipal council elections - City of Freudenstadt and City of Freudenstadt: Preliminary final results of the 2019 municipal council elections , accessed on April 6, 2020
  50. City information. City of Freudenstadt, accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  51. ^ Freudenstadt (district town) - Jewish history. Working group for research into the history of the Jews in southern Germany and the neighboring region, accessed on February 1, 2009 .
  52. ^ Hans Huth: The restoration of the fountain on the market square in Freudenstadt. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg. 5th year 1976, issue 3, pp. 90–93 (PDF) ( Memento from March 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  53. Christoph Seeger: "It doesn't always have to be Schickhardt!" On the importance of Heinrich Schickhardt for church building in Württemberg at the beginning of the 17th century. In: Robert Kretzschmar (ed.): New research on Heinrich Schickhardt (= publications of the commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg, B 151). Stuttgart 2002, pp. 111-143.
  54. ^ Freudenstadt (health resort)> Sights ( memento from November 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) on dooyoo.de
  55. ^ Friedrichsturm Freudenstadt on badische-seiten.de
  56. Photo of the information board next to the Friedrichsturm, on commons.wikimedia.org
  57. portrait. Freudenstadt Golf Club, accessed on October 20, 2013 .
  58. Directions and location of the Black Forest Equestrian Club ( memento from 23 August 2010 in the Internet Archive ). Website of the Schwarzwälder Reiterverein Freudenstadt e. V. Accessed April 4, 2010.
  59. Structure and regional database. Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office, accessed on February 1, 2009 .
  60. Road construction report 1985 (PDF; 4.5 MB)
  61. ^ Rainer Stein: The Württemberg standard station on branch lines . In: Eisenbahn-Journal Württemberg-Report . tape 1 , no. V / 96 . Merker, Fürstenfeldbruck 1996, ISBN 3-922404-96-0 , p. 80-83 .
  62. ARD mixes up the classic series. In: The world . January 18, 2008, accessed October 20, 2013 .
  63. State Education Authority Rastatt
  64. Flyer for the tenth anniversary of the music and art school , accessed on May 29, 2018
  65. Biography of Eugen Mahler on eugen-mahler.de (as of September 17, 2018).

Remarks

  1. In 2006, two American bombs were found and defused during construction work on the main train station. See page no longer available , search in web archives: Schwäbisches Tagblatt (accessed on February 5, 2009)@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.tagblatt.de
  2. Abel wrote to Schmitthenner: "I don't see why a Black Forest town needs a space almost as big as the Place de la Concorde in Paris", see also Haller Tagblatt. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009 ; accessed on March 4, 2014 .
  3. This in turn went back to architects from a working group founded by Albert Speer during the war ; more details from Durth a. a.
  4. ↑ Main theme of an exhibition on reconstruction from May 15, 2004 to September 19, 2004 in the town hall of Freudenstadt, page no longer available , search in web archives: further information from the city of Freudenstadt@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.freudenstadt.info
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on September 16, 2008 in this version .