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Map of the district of Hasel in Baden in 1904 with a proposal to swap areas in order to round out the hunting border between the hunting district of Hasel and the local domain hunting district

A district (also denunciation , in Switzerland also Gemarchen in Austria Cadastral ) is a unit area of the real estate cadastre . The ownership structure of the individual parishes is recorded in the land register. The district forms a property association from a larger number of usually contiguous properties or parcels . Between parcels and their district nearly always the plane located hallway .

General connections between the district and the municipality

The name of a district usually corresponds to the name of the settlement on it . This is an indication of socio- historically significant, historically evolved relationships that exist between the area of ​​responsibility z. B. a political municipality (municipality territory) and a certain property association (district) exist.

A district is not an administrative unit . Nevertheless, the boundaries (and mostly also the names) of the modern administrative units (boundaries of a municipality, a city district, city or district ) often coincide with those of a district. However, when the were incorporations since the 1970s, the districts of the merged municipalities often no longer united, today Gemeindegebiete often why several districts (or - in Austria - cadastral) have. In earlier parishes, however, the districts were often merged.

Marking of the district

The municipal coat of arms of Bobenheim contains a district sign

The boundaries of the district are marked with landmarks , which are traditionally provided with the initials of the place names or individual district symbols. These geometric figures, similar to house brands, served as the basis for the municipal coat of arms in many places and thus developed into common figures in heraldry .


Originally, the (ge) mark meant “limit”. Later, the word content "community area" developed (in addition to property association, this could also mean tax district, district of the community court and many other things ) or "certain community-free area " (ausmärkisches area). As a rule, the landmarks were precisely documented and delimited with natural and later artificially set marks. The tradition of many communities was the annual "downfall", (also: Schnadegang ) that is the pacing and checking of the district boundary.

Landmarks in today's sense have existed since the introduction of the realm cadastre by the Land Estimation Act of 1934. They replaced the tax districts .


In numerous cases it also happens that parts of a district belong to different political communities or community-free areas. Such cases are historically caused by the dissolution of municipalities through municipal area reforms and, especially in Bavaria, by the dissolution of unincorporated areas or the incorporation of parts of unincorporated areas into neighboring municipalities, whereby the district boundaries that originally followed the municipal boundaries were retained. Of the 7804 districts in Bavaria, 522 belong to two municipalities or unincorporated areas, 67 to three, 19 to four, and one to five. In the latter case, it is the area "Forstmühler Forst" in the district of Regensburg , which belongs to the communities Altenthann , Bach an der Donau , Brennberg , Wiesent and the community-free area Forstmühler Forst .

Another specialty is the Tägermoos , which belongs to Switzerland under constitutional law and forms part of the municipality of Tägerwilen and at the same time represents a district of the German city of Konstanz .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Marking  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Karl Siegfried Bader : The district boundary . In: Grenzrecht und Grenzzeichen . [Dedicated to Theodor Knapp on his 85th birthday] (=  The legal landmark . No. 2 ). Freiburg im Breisgau 1940, p. 56-67 .
  2. Rolf Räch: The history of demarcation - illustrated with examples from the Palatinate . In: Andrea Zeeb-Lanz, Reinhard Stupperich (Ed.): Palatinatus Illustrandus. Festschrift for Helmut Bernhard on his 65th birthday . Mainz / Ruhpolding 2013, p. 35-38 .
  3. ^ Franz Irsigler : The influence of political borders on the development of settlements and cultural landscapes . In: settlement research . tape 9 , 1991, pp. 9–23, therein p. 10 f . ( Kulturlandschaft.org [PDF; 33.8 MB ; accessed on December 1, 2016]).
  4. mark. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 12 : L, M - (VI). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1885, Sp. 1657 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
  5. district. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 5 : Gefoppe – Drifts - (IV, 1st section, part 2). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1897, Sp. 3165 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
  6. Hans K. Schulze: Basic structures of the constitution in the Middle Ages . 3rd, improved edition. tape 2 . Stuttgart 2000, chap. II.3 c) Die Mark (district, Allmende, Großmark) , p. 68-71 .
  7. ^ Karl Siegfried Bader: The medieval village as a peace and legal area . Weimar 1957, 1st chapter. The village , S. 20th f., 37-51 .
  8. ^ Karl Siegfried Bader: Village cooperative and village community . 2nd, unchanged edition. Vienna / Cologne / Graz 1974, Chapter 3. I. The Markgenossenschaft , S. 116-129 .
  9. Rudolf Völkel: The Ortsgemarkungskarte as a basis for cultural landscape research (=  Rhein-Mainische Forschungen . No. 17 ). Frankfurt a. M. 1937, chap. II. Source value and evaluability of the municipal boundaries , p. 25–40 (In the first chapter and in the concluding remarks, the author proves himself to be a National Socialist who classifies his work as a contribution to the blood-and-soil ideology . The remaining chapters are ideologically unencumbered and argue scientifically).
  10. ^ Karl Siegfried Bader: Legal forms and layers of real estate use in the medieval village . Vienna / Cologne / Graz 1973, Chapter 8. Usage disputes and their settlement , p. 235-252 .
  11. ^ Karl Siegfried Bader: The Swabian Downfall. Studies on border law and limiting process in the Middle Ages (=  Freiburger legal history essays . No. 4 ). Berlin 1933.
  12. ^ Gerhard Walther: Community-free areas and their history. In: 250 Years of the Bavarian State Forest Administration , in: Mitteilungen aus der Bayerische Staatsforstverwaltung , 51, 2002, Volume II, pp. 623–632, here pp. 623–624.