The field mark is the area of all undeveloped land ( arable land , meadows , pastures , forests , etc.) belonging to a district (i.e. a municipality or an estate ). The name derives from the fact that the boundaries of the district to neighboring community that are in the rural economy naturally in the open field (with so-called Mark mark hedgerows , trees, columns, mounds, pits, Rainenor stones). The name Feldmark has therefore also been retained in today's built-up areas as a designation for peripheral locations that lie on the outer borders of the current or former municipality area.
According to the old village custom, which still exists in some areas, the field mark is bypassed as a Schnadegang on a certain day of the year , whereby the marks are inspected, and those that have become inconspicuous are improved and supplemented in order to prevent any border disputes with neighboring communities. In order to stamp the individual border points as deeply as possible in the memory of young people, they used to pinch their cheeks and ears at such places , but at the same time they were given baked goods.
In the Middle Ages there was the divided field mark and the undivided field mark . In contrast to the parceled (divided to individual owners) field mark, the common mark , also called common land or in north-west Germany called meanness, was available to all villagers for common use. This often included the forest, parts of the meadows, the paths as well as bodies of water and their banks. Everyone who had their own smoke , that is, had their own fireplace, was entitled to use this undivided property .
Shared field mark
The divided field marrow was understood to mean the farmland of a village. The field marrow of clustered villages in the old settlement area was cultivated as an industrial corridor in the Middle Ages and early modern times . Each corridor or each winch was divided into as many lots as there were farms in the village; every peasant had his piece of land in every win. Even then, the size of the fields was different. The field mark of manors of the landlords did not belong to the Gewanneflur . In areas with scattered settlements , where every farm was surrounded by the associated field, there was no waste corridor, as was the case with solitary farms . Also in many new settlement areas there was no corridor. Here the field marrow was divided into Hufen . The farms of the forest , marshland or moorhof villages were lined up at intervals along the village road and every farmer had his hooves right behind the house.
- Feldmark . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 6, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 114.