Scattered settlement

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Typical scattered alpine settlement of Frutighäuser in the Bernese Oberland ( Adelboden , Kuonisbärgli)
Zinnwald-Georgenfeld , an example of a scattered settlement created by mining

A scattered settlement is not a closed form of settlement , from individual farms is in which the specialized farm buildings are more or less regularly distributed over the whole agricultural land. This creates a relatively dense settlement pattern of individual buildings. The individual courtyards are at least 100 meters apart.


Scattered settlements can arise through spontaneous, individual settlement or through planned colonization . As a rule, planned colonization led to regular settlement patterns, whereas scattered settlements settled individually and spontaneously are mostly irregular. Altitude, relief and climate played an important role in the settlement process and for the agricultural economy. They are characteristic of rural areas , where they consist of scattered farmsteads ( single yard settlement and the like), but there is also the form, for example, in tourist development.

Central Europe

Typical scattered settlement on the North Sea coast: Sönke-Nissen- , Reußen- and Bordelumer Koog in North Friesland from the air

The type of settlement is widespread in the entire Alpine region and adjacent lowlands around the more closed places, as well as in the area of ​​the Bohemian Massif . Old, irregular scattered settlements are the predominant form of settlement in large parts of Westphalia (in the historical sense, including western Lower Saxony , but not in the Hellweg zone east of Unna - there are purely closed villages).

In Switzerland , the scattered settlement dominates - clearly recognizable since the early modern era - in the hilly area of ​​the higher plateau with field grass farming and in the north Alpine scattered settlement area with cattle farming .

Communities consisting entirely of scattered settlements were called farmers in Low German .

Young scattered settlements from the 18th to 20th centuries were created through the cultivation of moors (Northern Germany, Danube lowlands , Spreewald ) and land reclamation on the Dutch and German North Sea coasts . Scattered settlements in the Oderbruch that emerged during the separation bear the name Loose ( e.g. Güstebieser Loose or Zckericker Loose ).

See also

Web links

Commons : Scattered Settlements  - Collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Streusiedlung  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Hans-Rudolf Egli: Einzelhofsiedlung. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
    These sections are largely based on the entry in the Historical Lexicon of Switzerland (HLS), which, according to the HLS's usage information, is under the Creative Commons license
    - Attribution - Distribution under the same conditions 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).