Bohemian mass

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Bohemian mass
Česká vysočina
Highest peak Schneekoppe ( 1603  m nm )
location Czech Republic , Germany , Austria , Poland
part of Hercynian (Variscan) Mountains
Bohemian Massif (Bohemian Massif)
Bohemian mass
Coordinates 50 ° 44 ′  N , 15 ° 44 ′  E Coordinates: 50 ° 44 ′  N , 15 ° 44 ′  E
Type Rump Mountains
particularities Encircles the Bohemian Basin

The Bohemian Massif or Bohemian Massif (Polish: Masyw Czeski , Czech Český masiv or Česká vysočina "Bohemian Highland") is the geologically old trunk mountains in the Czech Republic and adjacent areas in Austria , Germany and Poland . As a heavily eroded remnant of a Upper Palaeozoic fold mountain range, it is a characteristic element of the geology of Central Europe and part of the European low mountain range threshold .


Surface shape

The Bohemian Massif is mostly flat. The hull area north of the Danube is characterized by gentle hollows and valleys as well as wide, low ridges and crests . Brown soils in particular have developed from the acidic bedrock, and Gley soils influenced by groundwater in hollows and flat areas .

As in other mountains of the European low mountain range threshold , the valley structures are more irregular and less sharply structured than in the comparatively young blanket and fold mountains of the Alps. On the other hand, the plateaus are orographically more uniform . The breakthrough valleys that belong to this geological region are the Wachau , the Strudengau , the Danube valley from Vilshofen via Passau and the Schlögener Schlinge to Aschach .

Geographical breakdown

The Bohemian massif in the broader sense can be divided into the following units:

Geomorphological classification in the Czech Republic

  • Bohemian mass
  • Central European lowlands
  • Western Carpathians
  • West Pannonian Basin
    • System: Hercynian
    • Subsystem: Hercynian Mountains
    • Province: Bohemian Massif ( Česká vysočina )

    It is a geomorphological province that occupies a large part of the Czech Republic (all of Bohemia and part of Moravia ). It also extends far beyond the borders of the Czech Republic to the neighboring countries of Austria, Germany and Poland. The area of ​​this geomorphological province is divided into six sub-provinces ( subprovincie ) or systems ( soustava ):


    The Bohemian Massif ( Teplá-Barrandian and Moldanubic ) as part of the Variscides in Central Europe

    Geological classification

    The Bohemian massif, together with the Black Forest and the Vosges, form the central area of ​​the Central European Variscan Mountains .

    The Czech Stratigraphic Commission decided on the following six regional geological units for the Bohemian Massif with resolutions from 1992 and 1994:

    • Moldanubian Zone
    • Kuttenberg-Svratecká zone
    • Bohemikum (Central Bohemian Zone)
    • Saxon-Thuringian Zone (southeastern part of the Saxothuringikum)
    • West Sudetic Zone
    • Moravosilica (Moravian-Silesian Zone)


    The Bohemian mass consists of crystalline rocks , mainly granites and gneisses . The first-mentioned deep rocks and transformation rocks are stored in the south and west, but continue in the northern border of Bohemia . The metamorphic rocks of gneiss and crystalline slate are mostly in the inner ring, as well as in Moravia and Lower Austria.

    Geological faults

    Several fault zones move northeast from the southern edge of the Bohemian Massif . These are the Rodl- that Vitiser and Diendorfer disorder who are also identify the satellite image. The Danube Fault, Pregarten Fault and Klam Fault run diagonally.

    The Bohemian Massif and the Alps

    During the Paleozoic , Mesozoic and Cenozoic Era , the Bohemian mass was in the tropical-subtropical climatic area. It was only in the later Tertiary that the Eurasian plate turned north.

    The Bohemian Massif was the abutment of the Alpidic mountain formation . It is also known as the crystalline basement because it came to lie over large areas under the younger formations of the Eastern Alps and the molasses of the Alpine foothills . Some of these are tectonic thrusts of well over 100 kilometers, driven by the African plate and its north drift . About 30 million years ago, this triggered the alpine mountain formation and large-scale movements.

    Under the Northern Alps are the rocks of the Bohemian Masses as long, flat deformed strips. At Traunstein  - about 60 kilometers south of the Danube near Linz and thus almost 100 kilometers from today's Rumpfgebirge - this crystalline is 7 to 10 kilometers deep. The density anomalies make up only a few percent, but can be detected in the local gravity field despite these depths .

    Natural resources

    In contrast to the Harz , Urals and other Variscan mountains, there are hardly any deposits of ores in the Bohemian Massif. In contrast, granites, granodiorites and a few diorites have been developed in many quarries . Kaolin is z. B. dismantled in Schwertberg . In the district Kropfmühl the city Hauzenberg is graphite mined (see Hauzenberger graphite ). One of the largest gold deposits in Europe is located south of Prague , Czech Republic . There are currently plans to exploit this.

    See also

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Walter, Roland et al .: Geology of Central Europe. 5th edition, Schweizerbarth'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1992. ISBN 3-510-65149-9
    2. ^ Ivo Chlupáč et al .: Geologická minulost České Republiky . Praha (Academia) 2002. pp. 13-19 ISBN 80-200-0914-0
    3. On the geology and genesis of the kaolins of the Bohemian Massif (PDF file; 68 kB)
    4. ^ Kilian Kirchgessner: Czech Republic: fight the gold rush. In: Zeit Online. March 4, 2014, accessed January 2, 2015 .

    Web links

    Commons : Bohemian mass  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

    Czech Republic category