|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Lower Bavaria|
|Height :||312 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||69.57 km 2|
|Residents:||52,803 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||759 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||94032, 94034, 94036|
|Area code :||0851|
|License plate :||PA|
|Community key :||09 2 62 000|
|LOCODE :||DE PAS|
|City structure:||8 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Jürgen Dupper ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Passau in Bavaria|
Passau is an independent university city in the administrative region of Lower Bavaria in Eastern Bavaria . It lies on the border with Austria and at the confluence of the Danube , Inn and Ilz rivers and is therefore also called the “three-river city”. With around 52,000 inhabitants, Passau is the second largest city in the administrative district after Landshut .
Until the reunification of Germany in 1990, the city of Passau was the easternmost medium- sized town in the federal territory. Today it is the easternmost regional center of the Free State of Bavaria.
Geomorphology and geology
From a natural point of view, the urban area of Passau belongs to the main natural area unit of the Upper Palatinate and Bavarian Forest , in particular to the natural area unit Passau Abteiland and Neuburg Forest , which is located in the south of this low mountain range.
The city lies at the confluence of the three rivers Danube, Inn and Ilz. The rivers Danube and Inn cut their way into the crystalline basement during the uplift of the Bavarian Forest in the Late Tertiary and Quaternary . The result was the formation of an antecedent breakthrough valley . Here, the river cuts actively, keeping pace with the tectonic uplift, into the rising mountain body. Characteristic here is the high relief energy in places .
Petrographically, the Passau area - typical of the Moldanubic - is dominated by metamorphic rocks such as gneisses and diatexites, which are interspersed in many places with paleozoic plutonites . These are mostly granites ( Hauzenberg , Haidmühle, Schärding, Peuerbach granite), while diorites are only found sporadically. Two significant tectonic fault zones, the Bavarian Stake and the Passau Stake, run north of the urban area. To the south of Passau, the Molasse basin borders the Alpine foothills ( Lower Bavarian hill country ). This alpine "rubble trough" is filled with tertiary sediments of freshwater and marine molasses and has a continuous slope towards the Danube and the lower Inn. The shallow wave appearance of this area is due to solifluction and fluvial erosion during the last glacial periods . The tertiary sediments are also “interspersed” in places with Pleistocene loose sediments, such as gravel, which were deposited by the Inn River, which drained the Alps. The aeolian sediment loess or the loess derivative loess clay is also found here in isolated cases.
Passau lies at 48 ° north. As a result, the city is mainly influenced by air currents from the west . As can be seen from the climate diagram, Passau can be assigned to the cool, temperate climate . A continental impact is also present in the Passau area and is characterized by sometimes very cold and snowy winters and hot and dry summers. Heat thunderstorms also occur in summer.
On average there are 36 summer days with a maximum temperature of over 25 ° C. In contrast, there are 115 days of frost with a minimum temperature of below 0 ° C. The wettest months are October and November. Every year the Indian summer leads to mild temperatures in the late year.
The climate diagram shows the data from a measuring point in Fürstenzell (bordering on the southwest of Passau). However, this measuring point is almost 100 meters higher than Passau itself.
|Fürstenzell station 1997–2014|
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for the Fürstenzell station 1997–2014
Source: Climate in the Passau region
The division of Passau into districts is more of a statistical nature. There are no official or political districts. By 2013 at the latest, there were eight statistical city districts, which essentially reflect district or former municipality boundaries: Altstadt , Grubweg , Hals , Hacklberg , Heining , Haidenhof Nord, Haidenhof Süd and Innstadt . In 2013 a new division into 16 citizens' assembly areas took place. Despite the changed name, these are still most likely to have the character of a district and have therefore been called districts in colloquial language ever since.
The 16 citizens' assembly areas are: Old Town / Inner City , Auerbach , Grubweg , Hacklberg , Haidenhof North, Haidenhof South, Hals , Heining , Innstadt , Kohlbruck , Neustift , Patriching , Rittsteig , Schalding on the left of the Danube , Schalding on the right of the Danube and St. Nikola .
In the area of the city of Passau there are ten districts , including district part 1 of the Kirchberg district. The boundaries of the parishes often follow earlier municipal boundaries:
|corresponds to / is located in district (s)|
|6350||Ries||261.3694||Neck (western part)|
|6353||Passau||202.7418||Old town , parts of the Innstadt (Mühltal, Innvorstadt / Lederergasse)|
|6354||Haidenhof||1214.275||Haidenhof North , Haidenhof South (each western part)|
|6355||St. Nikola||150.1522||Haidenhof North, Haidenhof South (both eastern part)|
|6326||Kirchberg *||139.2863||Hacklberg (western part)|
|Passau||6956,8013||9 markings and 1 part of a mark|
|in the North||in the south||in the East||in the West|
(both in Upper Austria )
In 2013 there were 373 births, 586 deaths, 4,243 immigrants and 3,629 emigrations. This resulted in a growth of 401 people. In 2011 there were 303 marriages in Passau.
On December 31, 2013, 49,454 people lived in Passau, more than half of them, namely 26,153, were women. Overall, the population over 50 was around 40 percent. As the number of students grew, the number of single-person households increased by 33.9% from 1987 to 2011. The number of foreigners in Passau was 3,606 on May 9, 2011, updated on the basis of the 2011 census, which corresponds to 7.4% of the total number of residents. Between 1987 and 2011 there was an increase in the proportion of foreigners of around 75%.
In the course of industrialization in the 19th century, the city of Passau recorded steady population growth. Especially in the final phase and after the Second World War, Passau experienced a massive increase in population that temporarily increased the population to 70,000 people. In September 1945 there were over 28,000 refugees, displaced persons and displaced persons in the city. In the following months, the people who had arrived were distributed to the surrounding area or other parts of Bavaria. Various incorporations in the 1960s and 1970s led to a further moderate increase in population. Since the 1990s the population has leveled off at around 50,000 people.
In the period from 1988 to 2018, the city grew from 49,137 to 52,469 by 3,332 inhabitants or 6.8%.
On June 4, 1870, the previously independent parish of Sankt Nikola was incorporated. Haidenhof was added on January 1, 1909, and Beiderwies on July 1, 1923 . Grubweg , Hals (with Ries , which was incorporated in 1922 ), Hacklberg and Heining and parts of the Kirchberg vorm Wald area (the southern part with the village of Schalding to the left of the Danube and the hamlet of Minihof) followed on July 1, 1972.
Grubweg, Hals, Hacklberg and Heining became new districts, and the incorporated part of Kirchberg vorm Wald was assigned to the new Hacklberg district.
The Roman fortress Batavis ( Castra Batava ) was built on the site of today's cathedral as part of the Limes fortifications. The name "Batavis" is probably derived from the Germanic mercenaries from the Batavians who were initially stationed there . The current name “Passau” probably developed from Batavis.
In the first century AD , the Boiodurum fort was built as part of the Roman province of Raetia on the right bank of the Inn , which lasted until after a German invasion in the second half of the 3rd century. His duties were by the late antiquity innaufwärts in the Roman province of Noricum built fort Boiotro assumed that until the withdrawal of novels had inventory. In the Vita Severini it is described that the garrison there initially persevered longer than elsewhere, when in the second half of the 5th century the pay was increasingly missing. The Roman troops then left the region between 476 and 490.
The Bavarians , who took possession of the area in the 6th century , built a ducal castle on the peninsula. As early as 739, Passau was the seat of a bishopric , at which time the Niedernburg monastery was founded, which owned large estates in the Ilz catchment area. In the 11th century Gisela, sister of Emperor Heinrich II and widow of the King of Hungary , Stefan I , was abbess. When in 999 the emperor transferred the secular rule over the city to the Passau bishop Christian , the dominance of the monastery ended. Between 1078 and 1099 the Passau bishops temporarily lost the power of rule over the city to the newly created Burgraviate of Passau and the Count Ulrich appointed by King Heinrich IV . After his death, the rights reverted to the bishops. There is evidence that Walther von der Vogelweide was also at the court of the Passau bishop and patron Wolfger von Erla , who bought a fur coat from him on November 12, 1203 for a sum that was actually far too high. The entry in the bishop's travel bills is the only documentary evidence of the poet outside of the mentions by contemporary poet colleagues.
In the first half of the 12th century, the Passau blacksmith trade was important. In 1217 Passau became a prince-bishopric . The monastery Niedernburg, which was given to the bishop in 1161 by Friedrich I. Barbarossa , became the seat of the prince-bishopric. Passau was granted city rights in 1225. There were several uprisings of the citizens against the rule of the prince-bishops, most recently in 1367/1368, but all of them failed. On the other hand, the diocese developed a considerable prosperity and repeatedly aroused the desires of its neighbors Bavaria and Austria .
The Liebfrauen Schiffleut and Salzfertiger Brotherhood , the oldest still existing German civil association, was first mentioned in a document in 1306.
Passau in modern times
In 1477 the Christian Christoph Eysengreißheimer was accused of having sold eight stolen hosts to the “Jewish enemies of the Savior”, which they then allegedly desecrated. The accused were arrested, tortured and beheaded after confession, provided they had been baptized beforehand, otherwise they were torn to pieces with red-hot tongs and burned.
Passau is the place of origin of the auspices , the oldest hymn book of Protestantism, still used by the Amish today. Its core collection was created between 1535 and 1540 in the dungeon of Passau Castle. The authors were incarcerated Anabaptists . Some of them died while in captivity. Most of the captive Anabaptists were martyred after their imprisonment . The first printed edition bears the title: Quite a few beautiful Christian chants as they are poems and sung by the Swiss brothers through God's grace in the prison in Passau in the castle. Ps. 139.
In 1552 the Passau Treaty was signed in the city , which paved the way for the toleration of the Lutheran denomination in the Peace of Augsburg . In the treaty, Lutheranism was formally recognized by the emperor for the first time. The Philosophical-Theological College was founded from 1622 to 1633, which, with a few interruptions, existed until 1978, when it was incorporated into the university. In 1676 the so-called imperial wedding of Leopold I and Eleonore von Pfalz-Neuburg took place in Passau .
The city was hit several times by floods and large fires. In 1662 a fire set the entire city to rubble and ashes. Italian builders ( Carlone and Lurago) then rebuilt the city and gave the city its current Mediterranean-style baroque appearance. The first Passau newspaper appeared in 1689. Passau's time as an independent principality ended with the secularization in December 1802, through which it came to the electorate of Salzburg for three years and to Bavaria in 1805. In 1821 the city became a bishopric again. From 1806 to 1839 Passau was the capital of the Lower Danube District . In 1860 the railway line to Straubing was opened. St. Nikola was incorporated in 1870, Haidenhof in 1909 and Beiderwies in 1923 . On November 8, 1918, a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed. In the course of this, a 200-strong vigilante group was set up to maintain public order in the urban area. The situation after the revolution was generally peaceful. It was only the murder of Kurt Eisner in Munich on February 21, 1919 that led to the destabilization of the situation, so the conservative Donauzeitung was censored and public meetings were prohibited. On April 7, 1919, the Soviet Republic was proclaimed in Passau . Finally, a general strike by dissatisfied Passau residents led to the Soviet republic being dissolved again eight days later. In 1927, the Kachlet power station on the Danube , which was the largest power station in Germany at the time , went online. The construction work began in 1922. It is said to have been the largest construction site in Europe, which employed around 3,000 workers at peak times.
time of the nationalsocialism
In 1921 a local branch of the NSDAP was founded in Passau. The founding pub was the Altdeutsche Bierstube . From 1934 to 1935 the Nibelungenhalle was built , which housed a unit of the Austrian Legion in 1935 . In 1940 the city made the building at Bräugasse 13 available to the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle .
A satellite camp of the Dachau concentration camp was located in Passau since 1942 . The prisoners were deployed in the Passau I branch to build an underwater power station at what is now the Oberilzmühle reservoir . From November 1942, this subcamp was subordinate to the Mauthausen concentration camp , which also opened the Passau II branch in March 1944 and the Passau III branch ( Jandelsbrunn ) in March 1945 . The prisoners were thereby in the forest works Passau-Ilzstadt and with the Bayer. Lloyd used to unload ships.
In the final phase of the Second World War, the city of Passau was bombed three times within a few months, with a total of around 200 fatalities and the destruction of almost 250 buildings. The main target of the attacks was the station area. After the US Army advanced further and further east through Bavaria in the spring of 1945, the German armed forces planned a major defense operation for the city of Passau. However, only minor fighting occurred and finally, on May 2, 1945, the city was handed over by former Mayor Carl Sittler to an infantry regiment of the US armed forces under the command of Stanley Eric Reinhart .
Post-war until 1989
As early as January 1945, the city and the surrounding area of Passau were the destination of refugees from Silesia , who reached Passau in horse-drawn vehicles and in overcrowded trains. Towards the end of the Second World War and in the immediate post-war period , refugees of German origin from Bohemia also arrived . In September 1945 there were over 28,000 refugees and displaced persons in the city. The shortage of housing made it necessary to build numerous temporary barracks in the city.
In autumn 1952 the European Weeks Festival took place in Passau for the first time , the first festival in post-war Germany to be dedicated to the idea of Europe.
In 1954, a devastating flood struck the city of Passau. A pronounced Vb weather situation caused heavy land rain in Bavaria. This flood, also known colloquially as the flood of the century , was the largest flood disaster in Passau in the 20th century. The Danube peaked at 12.2 meters on July 10, 1954, 10.1 meters on the Inn and 12.15 meters on the Ilz. The Ilzstadt district was hit hardest by this flood event, so several buildings were under water for several days up to the first floor.
In 1963, a Bundeswehr base was set up in the Kohlbruck district of Passau . The first pioneers arrived on September 15, 1963 in the newly built Ritter von Scheuring barracks . As a result of the urban and economic growth in the post-war period, the energy demand rose continuously. In 1965 the Passau-Ingling run-of-river power plant was completed and the Oberilzmühle power plant expanded.
On the initiative of the German Youth Hostel Association, the Passau observatory was built in 1962 on the grounds of the Veste Oberhaus, right next to the youth hostel .
In response to the massive damage caused by the flood of the century in 1954 , the first major closed measure of this type in Germany was flood protection in the Ilzstadt district, because this was where the greatest damage occurred. In the process, all buildings at risk of flooding were demolished and 28 of 60 properties were rebuilt on a filled-in level. In addition, a concrete fortification to the Ilz and the Danube was built, which acts as a substructure for a four-lane road. For the remaining properties, replacement buildings were created in the higher Grubweg . Around half of the district population had to change accommodation.
In 1970 Passau received the flag of honor of the Council of Europe, which is a prerequisite for the later award of the honor plaque and the actual European price. In the same year, on October 14th, the largest bridge in Passau, the Schanzlbrücke , was inaugurated.
The incorporations in 1972 as part of the municipal reform led to the urban area growing from 20 to 70 square kilometers and the population increased by 40 percent to almost 50,000.
In 1980, the city of Passau was the first Bavarian town on its efforts in the European integration thoughts with the European Prize awarded.
After the turn
In 1989 a large number of refugees from the GDR came to Passau via Hungary . In August 1989 there were first GDR refugees from Hungary, later, after the opening of the Iron Curtain on September 11, 1989, thousands of GDR citizens reached the city and were then accommodated in various tent camps and accommodations in the Passau district. For example, a reception camp for several hundred people was set up in Passau's Nibelungenhalle.
In 1993 Passau passed the 50,000 mark and was elevated to the status of the regional center of the Danube Forest planning region . It has one of the highest centrality indicators in Germany. In the mid-1990s, an extensive urban redevelopment project was initiated which, in addition to a shopping center, also included an office tower, the “Central Bus Station” (ZOB) and a park. After several drafts had been discussed, construction work to create the New Center finally began .
After the Dreiländerhalle was put into operation at the turn of 2003/2004, the Nibelungenhalle was demolished in the spring of 2004 and construction of the New Center began. This urban redevelopment measure represented a significant change in the cityscape. At the end of the 2000s, the last construction work was finished.
Millennium flood 2013
In the months of May and June 2013, the city suffered the worst flooding in five hundred years when the historic mark of 12.89 m was reached at the Passau / Danube gauge . The drinking water supply had to be temporarily stopped, and teaching was canceled at schools and the university. During and especially after the flood disaster, Passau university students gave dedicated help. The Facebook initiative Passau cleans up , founded and managed by students, was awarded the German Citizens Prize in 2013 .
2015 refugee crisis
In 2015 Passau was so badly affected by the refugee crisis that it was given the title Lampedusa Germany . Since the city is at the end of the extended Balkan route , it is the arrival point for many refugees in Germany. During the Munich Oktoberfest , up to 10,000 people came to Passau every day. The city reported on October 19 that within three weeks alone, more than 100,000 refugees had crossed the Austrian border, i.e. more than 4,750 people per day.
The city council consists of 44 city councilors and the mayor. In the 2014 local elections, the SPD managed to overtake the CSU in terms of number of votes for the first time since 1945. However, the number of mandates was the same. In the 2020 elections, the SPD won one more seat than the Union.
|year||CSU||SPD||Green||FDP 2||ödp 1||REP||FWG||Students
|Young List /
|Pro Passau||AfD||The left||Future of Passau / The young list||Total seats||Voter turnout (
|2008||12 3||12||3||7 3||7th||-||3||-||- 1||-||-||44||54.45|
Mayor / Lord Mayor
Since 1900 the mayor or lord mayor of Passau were:
- Joseph Muggenthaler (1894-1919)
- Carl Sittler (1919–1933)
- Max Moosbauer (1933–1945)
- Carl Sittler (1945)
- Rudolf von Scholtz (1945–1946)
- Alfred Lobinger (1946)
- Heinz Wagner (1946–1948)
- Hans Riedl (1948)
- Stephan Billinger (1948–1964)
- Emil Brichta (1964–1984)
- Hans Hösl (1984–1990)
- Willi Schmöller (1990-2002)
- Albert Zankl (2002-2008)
- Jürgen Dupper (since 2008)
Joseph Muggenthaler resigned from his position as legally qualified mayor in 1917 , but no new mayor was elected until 1919.
2008 was Jürgen Dupper (SPD), succeeding Albert Zankl selected (CSU) as mayor and in 2014 and 2020 confirmed in this office. In the local elections on March 15, 2020 , he was re-elected in the first ballot with 54.62 percent.
Political Ash Wednesday takes place in Passau and the surrounding area every year . In 1975 the CSU moved its event from the Wolferstetterkeller in Vilshofen to the Nibelungenhalle due to a lack of space , and the three-country hall on the outskirts of Passau has been in use since 2003 .
In 1998 some residents of Passau founded the so-called Passauer Aktion Zivilcourage (PAZ) in protest against a meeting of the NPD . The aim of this campaign was not to leave the resistance against the right-wing extremist NPD's regular events in Passau exclusively to the Antifa , but to gain broad approval from the population for these goals in order to disrupt the NPD conference through blockades and the like. A corresponding appeal to the citizens of Passau was signed, among others, by the cabaret artists Bruno Jonas and Sigi Zimmigart , some city council members, union secretaries, innkeepers, schoolchildren and church representatives, the vicar general of the diocese, the head of the Passau public utilities and the manager of the slaughterhouse. Ultimately, however, the NPD event was protected by the right of assembly under the Basic Law . The consistent resistance of the population over many years (even before 1998), high hall rents, the planned demolition of the Nibelungenhalle and also the refusal of the hall restaurant tenant to entertain, meant that the events of the NPD or DVU have not taken place in Passau since 2000 and 2001 respectively.
Since the introduction of the municipal citizens' initiative, the Passau population has been able to make six decisions so far. So far, all votes have reached the quorum required for validity in Bavaria for approval or rejection of 15 percent of the eligible voters.
- On February 11, 1996, 57% of the Passau citizens decided against the maintenance of the swimming pools in Bschütt and Neustift, as well as the preservation of the indoor pool and thus the construction of a new year-round pool in the Kohlbruck district.
- On November 12th, 2000 they voted with 66% to move the folk festivals Maidult and Herbstdult to the Kohlbruck district.
- On July 18, 2004, two requests from the city council and a citizens' initiative on the extent of the new building project Passauer Neue Mitte were put to the vote. The city council's request prevailed in a casting vote with 51%.
- On October 22, 2007, the so-called European House , a concert hall in the New Center , was voted on. 55% of the citizens who took part in the vote refused to build the house.
- On September 27, 2009, voters rejected a partial opening of the pedestrian zones for cyclists with 51%. The referendum “Promotion of bicycle traffic” received only 49%.
- On April 28, 2013, the citizens of Passau rejected a bicycle and pedestrian tunnel under the Georgsberg with 73% of the votes cast. The council motion for the construction received 33% yes-votes.
Passau maintains the following cities partnerships :
- Hackensack , New Jersey , USA , since 1952
- Dumfries , Scotland , 1957-1979 (terminated due to incorporation)
- Cagnes-sur-Mer , France , since 1973
- Krems an der Donau , Austria , since 1974
- Akita , Japan , since 1984
- Málaga , Spain , since 1987
- Budweis , Czech Republic , since 1993
- Liuzhou , China , since 1999
- Veszprém , Hungary , since 1999
- Montecchio Maggiore , Italy , since 2003
Passau is on friendly terms with:
The Godfather cities of Passau are Bad Griesbach , Freyung , Hauzenberg , Pocking and Simbach . All sponsored cities were added to the Passau city sponsorship concept after the Second World War, when all locations were elevated to city status. The aim of this project was to provide the “New Cities” with “advice and action” with regard to their structural development.
- to the Sudeten Germans of the Bohemian Forest , who were expropriated and expelled due to the Beneš decrees in 1945 (since 1961)
- to the mine-hunting boat Passau , which was last stationed in Kiel (1990-2013)
- for the Airbus A340-300 Passau of Lufthansa ( aircraft registration D-AIFE, since 2002)
- to the ICE Passau (since 2003)
Culture and sights
The old town lies on a narrow peninsula at the confluence of the Inn and Danube rivers. The St. Stephan's Cathedral stands on a small hill. On both banks of the river, the alleys sometimes drop in steep stairs. Thanks to Italian builders, the cityscape has a Mediterranean flair and is characterized by houses in the Inn and Salzach style . That is why Passau is often referred to as the Venice of Bavaria . Beyond the two banks of the river, the landscape rises in green hills. The city is dominated in the north by the fortress Oberhaus and in the south by the pilgrimage church Mariahilf .
The area to the west of the old town between the main train station and St. Nikola monastery was redesigned by 2011. Since the Deutsche Bahn had dismantled track systems and the withdrawal of the Bundeswehr made a new event location possible in Kohlbruck, a large area in the city center could be redesigned. This project, known as the New Center , was completed in September 2008.
Three river city
At the foot of the Veste Niederhaus castle complex , the Ilz first flows from the left and shortly afterwards the Inn into the Danube from the right . The water of the Inn, which comes partly from the Swiss Central Alps, is green, that of the Danube is blue and the Ilz, which comes from a moor area, is black, so that the Danube has three colors (green, blue, black) for a longer stretch after the confluence . What is striking here: the green Inn pushes the water of the Danube aside - this is mainly due to the sometimes very large amount of water from the Inn and the different depths of the two bodies of water (Inn: 1.9 meters / Danube: 6.8 meters): " The Inn flows over the Danube ”. Although this also has about five percent more water on average over the year, it is mainly due to the strong floods of the Inn due to the snowmelt, while the Danube has a much more constant water flow. It has more water than the Inn for seven months (October to April). Even if the visual impression suggests speaking of the confluence of the Danube into the Inn, the naming Danube for the river is still justified - not only by the length of the distances covered (Danube: 647 km; Inn: 510 km).
The location at the confluence of several rivers repeatedly causes flood events, which particularly affect the historic city center
Buildings worth seeing
The St. Stephan's Cathedral is the seat of the Passau bishop . It goes back to a church that already existed around 450. The episcopal church was first mentioned in 730 and has been the cathedral of the diocese since 739 . During the term of office of Bishop Pilgrim , a new three-aisled episcopal church with a western double tower facade was built from 982. Between 1280 and 1325 this was partially replaced by an early Gothic cathedral. An eastern part in the late Gothic style was added from 1407 to 1560. The city fire of 1662 completely destroyed the cathedral, with the exception of the outer walls of the eastern part. From 1668 to 1693 the cathedral was rebuilt by Carlo Lurago , this time in the baroque style . Particularly noteworthy in the interior work are stucco work by Giovanni Battista Carlone and paintings by Johann Michael Rottmayr in the side altars. St. Stephen's Cathedral is the largest baroque cathedral north of the Alps. The cathedral organ with 17,974 pipes and 233 registers the largest cathedral organ in the world and the largest organ outside the United States.
In addition to the cathedral , the Lamberg-Palais is of particular relevance on the Domplatz , the highest point in the old town . The Passau Treaty was signed there in 1552 . South of the cathedral is the old residence , which today houses the regional court . The city theater is located in the former prince-bishop's opera house . The building, originally erected as a ballroom in 1645 , was used as a court comedy house from 1770 and was finally converted into an opera house by Johann Georg Hagenauer in 1783 on the instructions of Prince Bishop von Auersperg .
The monument to the Bavarian King Max I Joseph rises on the Domplatz . It was set up as a reminder that the Principality of Passau was dissolved in the newly formed Kingdom of Bavaria after secularization in 1803. A bronze statue of the king in coronation regalia rises on a high cubic granite pedestal, which is supposed to symbolize the Bavarian constitution, with a gesture of blessing. The design of the monument, dated 1824 and erected in 1826, probably goes back to Karl Eichler, the statue was made by Christian Jorhan the Elder. J. modeled and cast by Karl Samassa.
The 14th century town hall with its 38 meter high tower is located on the banks of the Danube . However, this was not added until 1890. On the town hall square in front of it, the patrician house Wilder Mann houses the Passau Glass Museum with exhibits of the world-famous Bohemian glass . To the east of Rathausplatz is the classicist main customs office built by Friedrich von Gärtner from 1848 to 1851 .
Not far from the town hall is the former Jesuit church St. Michael with the neighboring complex of the former Jesuit college , further towards the top of the village the former Benedictine convent of Niedernburg . In the village is the bourgeois orphanage , which was donated by the shipbuilder Lukas Kern in 1749. The building was built from 1750 to 1755 by cathedral chapter builder Johann Michael Schneitmann . In front of the orphanage is a statue of Johannes Nepomuk by the Passau sculptor Joseph Carl Hofer from 1759.
The so-called tip is located at the confluence of the Danube, Inn and Ilz rivers. The gun bastion in the form of a clover leaf from 1531 used to secure the river valleys to the east.
The parish church of St. Paul was first mentioned in a document in 1050; the current building stock dates from the years 1663 to 1678. At the Rindermarkt next to it is the two-aisled hospital church from 1380 of the St. Johannes hospital founded in 1200.
In the center of the old town is the Residenzplatz with its patrician houses and the New Episcopal Residence . The Cathedral Treasury and Diocesan Museum can be visited in the residence . In the middle of the square is the Wittelsbacherbrunnen, which was built in 1903 by Jakob Bradl from Munich to mark the 100th anniversary of the city's membership in Bavaria . The Herberstein-Palais (Schustergasse 4) with its facade structured by wall pilasters has a Renaissance arcade courtyard in the Italian style from 1590 and houses the Passau District Court .
A stroll along the picturesque and sunny Inn promenade is worthwhile. There you pass the Schaiblingsturm, a round defense tower that was built in the Middle Ages to protect the salt port.
The civil armory is located in Schießgrabengasse . The Protestant parish church, built in 1856 according to plans by Friedrich Bürklein , is located on Theresienstraße .
Beyond the Danube, the mighty Oberhaus fortress rises up on a hill . Among other things, it houses the Upper House Museum with the City Museum and other collections with a focus on Eastern Bavaria and the neighboring countries of Bohemia and Austria . Below the fortress, connected to it by a battlements , is the Niederhaus fortress , which is privately owned , between the Danube and Ilz . Leaning against the castle hill on the Ilz side is the former pilgrimage church of St. Salvator .
A few hundred meters up the Danube is Freudenhain Castle , which was built from 1785 to 1792 by the Passau Prince-Bishop Cardinal Joseph Franz Anton Count von Auersperg . It houses the Auersperg-Gymnasium Freudenhain named after him . Below that, near the Uferstrasse, is a late Gothic mansion with a baroque facade, the last remnant of the former Eggendobl Palace .
The Ilzstadt opposite the old town has lost much of its historical substance due to flood restoration in the post-war period, which resulted in the demolition of an entire row of houses. The Ilzstadt was originally a mule and fishing settlement and a transshipment point for the salt trade to Bohemia. This is where the golden path began . The parish church of St. Bartholomew with a sturdy Romanesque tower and Gothic nave stands above the houses in Ilzstadt.
Upstream of the Ilz is the Hals district , which is dominated by the picturesque Hals castle ruins . The name comes from the location on the neck of the narrow Halser Ilzschleifen . A pillory from 1510 can still be seen in front of the town hall on the market square of the former market town of Hals . With the construction of the Bavaria-Bad spa and hydrotherapy facility in 1890, spa guests such as the writer Peter Rosegger and the composer Franz Lehár came to Hals. During the First World War , however, the facility was closed. Since 1920, the water of the Ilz has been dammed into a lake by a weir behind the neck to generate electricity. This is also where the Ilztal hiking trail begins, on former wood trift paths, including a walkable Trift tunnel.
Beyond the Inn, the pilgrimage church of Mariahilf rises on a hill above the Innstadt. The pilgrimage staircase has 321 steps. In the inner city opposite the old town the medieval Severinstor with barbican from 1412 is still preserved. The associated gate tower was demolished in 1820. In addition, the round Peichterturm from 1403 on the Beiderbach and parts of the inner city wall from 1410 with square towers and kennels can be seen. In the center of the city center is the church of St. Gertraud on the small church square and opposite the rococo patrician house Zum schwarzen Adler . The Roman Museum with the excavation site of the Boiotro Roman camp is also located in the city center . The Severinskirche is also worth mentioning , the foundations of which go back to late antiquity.
The view from the Innsteg, known by the population as Fünferlsteg (after the earlier bridge toll of five pfennigs), of the old town is well known. The footbridge connects the city center with the university on the opposite side of the river Inn adjoining the old town , the administration of which is located in the former Augustinian canons of St. Nikola .
The Mollnhof was built in 1560 as the country house of the prince-bishop's keeper Wolfgang Friedrich Moll. The original manor was rebuilt after the fire in 1831. Today it serves as an office building.
The European Weeks Festival has been taking place since 1953 . Founded by US officers, it was the first festival in post-war Germany to be dedicated to the idea of Europe. During his lifetime, Lord Yehudi Menuhin was often a guest artist at the festival. Every year, top-class artists, such as Krzysztof Penderecki , but also politicians from all over Europe come to Passau and the surrounding area, because with the fall of the Iron Curtain , the numerous events no longer only take place in Southeast Bavaria and Upper Austria , but also in South Bohemia .
In the 1970s, the Scharfrichterhaus in Milchgasse created a cabaret and cabaret scene that became known beyond the city. At that time, the executioner's stage set a counterpoint to the petty-bourgeois-conservative atmosphere of the city and led to strong polarization in the population. Since 1983 one of the most important German cabaret prizes , the “ Scharfrichterbeil ”, has been awarded every year on the occasion of the Passau Cabaret Days . The best-known winners include Hape Kerkeling (1983), Urban Priol (1986) and Günter Grünwald (1988).
The Nibelungenhalle , which dates from the time of National Socialism and was the venue for the CSU Political Ash Wednesday from 1975 to 2003, was demolished in February / March 2004. As a functional successor to the Nibelungenhalle, the three-country hall was rebuilt in the Kohlbruck district. Around the former location of the Nibelungenhalle, the abandonment of railway areas by the DB AG and the demolition of the hall itself were used to redesign this area. This project, known as the New Center, includes several shopping facilities, an underground multiplex cinema, and an office and hotel tower.
At festivals there are in addition to the Maidult and Herbstdult in September, which both take place in the newly designed exhibition center in Kohlbruck since 2005, the three-day Haferlfest in Ilzstadt in July and the two-day, bi-annual town festival in the old town in June. In the district of Hals , the island festival takes place every year on an island in the Ilz.
In cooperation with the University of Passau , the biennial International Film Festival Passau , the Ibero-American film festival ¡muestra! and the Crank Cookie Short Film Days established three festivals for filmmakers.
Music concerts are held regularly in the “Zauberberg” concert hall, which is financed by crowdfunding . In 2019, 130 to 150 music groups performed in the live club.
Roman Catholic Church
Passau is the seat of the eponymous diocese of Passau and a predominantly Catholic city. In addition to St. Stephen's Cathedral, there are numerous Catholic churches in various parishes. The deanery Passau consists of seven parish associations, thirteen parishes and two branches with a total of 33,326 Catholics (as of May 9, 2011). In 1987 there were still 40,717 Roman Catholic Christians in Passau. This corresponds to a decrease of 18.2% compared to 2011.
Evangelical Lutheran Church
The city of Passau is the seat of the Evangelical Lutheran deanery district of Passau , which covers a total area of 384,026 km² in the east of Lower Bavaria. Almost 32,000 Protestant Christians live in this district in 16 parishes. There are two parishes in the city, namely the parishes of St. Matthew and St. John , which have a total of 5,385 Evangelical Lutheran Christians (as of May 9, 2011). Between 1987 and 2011, the number of believers decreased by 0.3 percent.
Association of Evangelical Free Churches
The Association of Evangelical Free Churches is represented in Passau with five congregations. At Leonhard-Paminger-Strasse 35–37 and in Ries 18a are the places of worship of the two evangelical free church communities. The Advent community is also domiciled in Ries 18. The community center of the Free Christian Congregation Treffpunkt Leben is located at Innstrasse 77H. A Free Evangelical Congregation is in the founding phase . She meets at Höllgasse 14.
After 1945, a Jewish community made up of former camp inmates / displaced persons formed in the city . In January 1946 a Jewish community was founded. In August 1946, 150 Jewish people lived in the city, most of them emigrated after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Since the 1990s, there has been a slightly larger influx of Jewish people and families from the CIS states (“ contingent refugees ”).
There are two Muslim religious communities in Passau, on the one hand the relatively larger Islamic Community. V. Passau and on the other hand the Islamic Center Passau (IZP), which are organized independently of each other and have their own prayer rooms. Since a radical Salafist repeatedly preached on the premises of the IZP , it has been observed by the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution since 2015, even if the IZP distanced itself a little later with reference to the guest sermon "from all kinds of extremism and terrorism worldwide" .
- Oberhaus Museum with city museum and other collections with a focus on Eastern Bavaria and the neighboring countries of Bohemia and Austria on the Veste Oberhaus
- Roman museum Kastell Boiotro in the city center
- Museum of Modern Art
- Passau Glass Museum
- Cathedral Treasury and Diocesan Museum
- Ottfried Fischer's Flood Museum, Unterer Sand 2
- Passau Maths Museum in the foyer of the Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics
- Dachshund Museum Small Residence
- The monument on Domplatz commemorates King Max I of Bavaria.
- A memorial in the Innstadt cemetery commemorates all victims of the Nazi tyranny .
- The memorial for the victims of National Socialism has stood on the Inn promenade since 1993 .
As landscape reserves the Gaißatal, Kohlbruck and the part of the landscape Ilztals are listed in the urban area having a total area of 1,515 ha. In addition, there are seven large natural monuments with a total area of 410 hectares and 32 individual natural monuments (individual trees and groups of trees) in the urban area .
- List of nature reserves in Passau
- List of landscape protection areas in Passau
- List of FFH areas in Passau
- List of natural monuments in Passau
- List of geotopes in Passau
Passau trade fair location
Shortly after the Second World War, in 1948, the first fair took place on the small parade ground and in the Nibelungenhalle in Passau under the name “Passau Spring Exhibition ” . The Messepark Kohlbruck has been used for the exhibition since the Nibelungenhalle was demolished in 2004 and redesigned to create a new center . As part of the move, the name was changed to Passauer Frühling - DreiLänderMesse . Accordingly, exhibitors from Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic , who give the fair their name, are mainly represented . The fair takes place every two years in March / April. The 7th edition at the beginning of March 2016 saw around 450 exhibitors and 70,000 trade fair visitors. It is considered to be one of the largest consumer exhibitions in Bavaria. The trading volume, which arose purely through purchase contracts, for example at the trade fair in 2014, amounted to almost 24 million euros. The trade fair planned for 2020 (period: March 21, 2020 to March 29, 2020) was prohibited by the authorities on March 10, 2020 due to the corona pandemic . In mid-April, the fair's organizer, Kinold-Ausstellunggesellschaft mbH , announced that it had to file for bankruptcy.
The Passau prefabricated house fair has been held annually since 1996, and was supplemented in 1998 by the Passau building and energy saving fair, which also takes place annually . The fairs focus on energy saving (solar systems, solar collectors, photovoltaic systems, thermal insulation, heat pumps), prefabricated and solid house construction and the renovation and modernization of old buildings.
An annual training fair has been held on the exhibition grounds since 2007, which acts as an information and communication platform for young people and companies and is intended to provide information about training positions and professions in the region. With several thousand visitors and up to 100 exhibitors, the Passau training fair is the third largest fair of its kind in Bavaria.
- One of the clubs with the largest number of members in Passau is 1. FC Passau . The club's men's soccer team played in the sixth class national league in 2019/20. The home games are played in the Dreiflüssestadion . Four preliminary round and two intermediate soccer matches of the 1972 Summer Olympics were held in the same stadium .
- SV Schalding-Heining , founded in 1946, was promoted to the fourth-class Bavarian regional soccer league in 2013 .
- The Passau rowing club from 1874 e. V. is the oldest Bavarian rowing club and with over 600 members it has been one of the five largest rowing clubs in Germany for years. He has produced many successful rowers, including world champions and Olympians. One of the most famous athletes is Felix Wimberger .
- The EHF Passau Black Hawks has been an ice hockey club in the city since 1997 . This plays in the ice hockey Bavarian league . With minimal changes, the indoor stadium can also be made available for inline hockey in summer. In 2007 the IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship took place in the cities of Landshut and Passau . This event represents the first world championship that was held in Passau.
- The city's largest athletics club is the Passau Athletics Association , whose members have already won several German championship titles.
- With the TTC Fortuna Passau, a table tennis club in the city has been playing in the 2nd Bundesliga South since the 2001/02 season.
- SK Passau 1869 plays chess in the 2nd Bundesliga East .
- Passau is a stage of the international three-country cycle race Linz – Budweis – Prague.
- The largest running event is the DJK cathedral run over 7.4 km.
- The 1st PBC Passau is one of the largest billiards clubs in Bavaria and is represented at the federal level in the Regionalliga Süd-Ost.
Education and Research
Passau is an important school location in the region. Some of the Passau schools have a catchment area that extends far beyond the city limits to the neighboring regions of Rottal , Bavarian Forest and Upper Austria .
Elementary and middle schools
In Passau there are eight state primary schools and one private Montessori primary school spread across the city districts . There are also two secondary schools , the Sankt Nikola elementary school and the Neustift elementary school , at which the M-branch offers the opportunity to acquire the secondary school leaving certificate. There are also support centers for mentally and learning disabled children that are affiliated with mainstream schools and work closely with them.
As a school town, Passau can look back on a great tradition. The Jesuit College in Passau was founded as early as 1612 and still exists today as the Leopoldinum Gymnasium , making it one of the oldest schools in Germany. In addition, there are three other grammar schools, the Auersperg grammar school (Freudenhain) , which is operated by the Maria Ward school foundation, the Gisela grammar school for girls, which is also run by the church, and the Adalbert Stifter grammar school (ASG) .
In Passau there is a technical college (FOS) and a vocational college ( BOS) , which operate together as fosbos Passau . Schoolchildren with an intermediate level of maturity or adults who have completed vocational training can acquire their Abitur there.
With the state Drei-Rüsse- Realschule and the church Gisela-Realschule, which is affiliated with the Gisela-Gymnasium (Niedernburg) and like this is a girls' school, there are two Realschulen in Passau. There is also the state business school in Passau and the private business school in Pindl.
Numerous vocational schools have their headquarters in Passau, including the Karl-Peter-Obermeier-Schule (vocational school 1), vocational school 2 and the PTA school. The catchment area of these schools includes the entire district of Passau and extends into the Bavarian forest .
University of Passau
The University of Passau was founded in 1978 and is one of the youngest and with around 13,000 students (as of September 30, 2017) one of the smaller Bavarian universities. It offers over 30 different courses, including political science, law , business administration and cultural studies. The university campus was named the most beautiful campus in Germany by Unicum magazine in 2009 .
Due to the high number of students in comparison to the total population, the city of Passau has one of the highest student densities in Germany (approx. 24%).
Other educational institutions and libraries
There are numerous other educational opportunities in Passau. The adult education center (VHS), which is jointly supported by the city and the district , offers a wide range of courses, including numerous language and art courses. The municipal music school in Passau is under purely urban management , and its range of courses is aimed at both children and adults. Students from the city's music school regularly win prizes at national and international music competitions.
The educational offer of the city is rounded off by several libraries. The city of Passau maintains the Europa-Bücherei with a branch in the Neustift district , whose offer mainly includes entertainment literature. In addition, some parishes maintain their own parish libraries. The largest library in Passau is the university library , which provides a large selection of specialist literature. The university library is also available to people who are not registered at the university and is one of the largest libraries in Bavaria. The Passau State Library (popularly known as “Stabi” for short), which is located in the old town of Passau , works closely with the University Library, but is organizationally separate from it. It can look back on a long history and is one of the oldest libraries in Bavaria.
In the past Passau was the location of the Bavarian Army , Reichswehr , Wehrmacht and Bundeswehr . The old Nikola barracks close to the city center (called Somme barracks from 1938 ) was no longer used after 1945. The town's garrison history ended in 1993 with the abandonment of the Ritter-von-Scheuring barracks , which had been rebuilt in the early 1960s near Kohlbruck on the western outskirts. The engineer battalion 240 and the airborne engineer company 250 were stationed there.
The since 1966 standing at the entrance of the barracks about three meters high stone - sculpture beam support the Passauer sculptor Otto Zirnbauer was implemented after the dissolution of the barracks and get damaged; After restoration by the sculptor Christian Zeitler, it has been standing on Pionierstrasse near the Dreiländerhalle in Passau-Kohlbruck since 2006.
After the Second World War, there were two US armed forces properties in Passau. The 51st CON Squadron of the United States Constabulary was stationed on the Maybach Air Strip until it was relocated to Landshut in 1947 . The 237th Engineer Battalion of the Seventh United States Army (USAREUR) was represented in the Kohlbruck Ammo Storage Facility until 1957 .
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In silver a rising red wolf."|
Reasons for the coat of arms: The origin of the heraldic animal is not clear. According to tradition, it goes back to Bishop Wolfger von Ellenbrechtskirchen (Wolfger von Erla for short, 1191–1204). As a (prince) episcopal heraldic animal, the wolf can only be proven from 1259/1264.
The red wolf has been the official coat of arms of the city since 1432. However, from 1300 onwards it was already in use as the official trademark of the Passau knives and clingers. The oldest surviving seal from 1368, which shows the city's patron saint St. Stephan , also bears the red wolf in a small shield.
Sons and daughters of the city are people born in Passau, regardless of whether they later had their sphere of activity in Passau or not. There are also personalities who were not born in Passau, but who lived and worked in the city.
The Lord Mayor and the parliamentary groups of the Passau City Council are entitled to submit proposals for honorary citizenship. The mayor then forwards the suggestions made to the city council's cultural committee for preliminary advice. The decision and resolution are finally made in the plenary session of the city council.
The most important passenger station in Passau is the main station , which is also the border station between the transport networks of DB and ÖBB . The main lines from Linz and Regensburg / Munich as well as the branch lines from Mühldorf , Freyung and Obernzell or Hauzenberg meet here, although the latter is currently not used. Efforts are being made to reactivate them, however.
ICE and IC trains run daily via Passau to Frankfurt , Dortmund , Vienna and Hamburg-Altona and occasionally to Berlin . In addition, regional trains run every hour to Mühldorf , Munich and Linz . There is seasonal train service on summer weekends on the Ilztalbahn as well as to Ulm and Vienna Franz-Josef .
The only passenger station that is still in operation next to the main train station is the Neustift demand stop (near Passau) on the Rottalbahn , which is served hourly by regional trains of the Südostbayernbahn on their way to Mühldorf (Upper Bavaria) .
Passau is connected to Regensburg by the federal autobahn 3 and to Wels in Upper Austria by the Innkreis autobahn . To the west of the urban area, the A3 route runs over the Danube bridge Schalding . At 1.02 km, it is the longest bridge on Federal Motorway 3 and the longest German bridge over the Danube.
South of Passau near Pocking, the federal motorway 94 to Munich is to flow into the A3 in its final development. So far, however, only sections of the route have been completed. With the federal highways B 8 , B 12 , B 85 and B 388 Passau is connected to the other trunk road network. Passau is also connected to the Austrian Nibelungenstrasse B 130 via the former Achleiten border crossing via the St 2125, which runs through the city .
More than 3.5 million trucks were counted at the Suben border crossing in 2018. (On the other hand, at the Brenner Pass, which was often regulated by Austria with traffic jams in Bavaria, there were only 2.4 million trucks). Against this background, citizens of Passau who live near the A3 have been calling for an improvement in noise protection for a long time, supported by the city of Passau.
Of the three rivers in Passau, only the Danube is navigable. Since the completion of the Main-Danube Canal , it has been part of the European shipping line from Rotterdam in the Netherlands to the Black Sea . The waterways play no role in public transport , even if the introduction of a water taxi is regularly discussed. However, there is a tourist-oriented liner shipping service both up and down the Danube, where Obernzell , the Schlögener Schlinge and Linz, among others , are regularly served. The shipping company Wurm & Köck is the provider of this regular service . In addition, Passau is used by several tourism companies as a starting point for Danube cruises . Passenger ship piers are located along the Danube in the old town and in Lindau , the latter being specially tailored to cruise ships.
The Bayernhafen Group operates the port of Passau , which consists of two transshipment points in the districts of Schalding on the right of the Danube and Auerbach . The port area has a total area of 23 hectares and a 650 meter long quay with four 40-tonne cranes. A roll-on / roll-off system and a loading ramp for rail traffic are part of the port.
Long-distance bus transport
Passau is connected to the national and international long-distance bus network through several companies . From the station forecourt, buses from Flixbus and eurolines run daily to numerous destinations.
City and regional bus transport
Passau is the hub of a system of regional bus routes operated by the Ostbayernbus (RBO) . The majority of these lines meet at the main station , where the bus station for regional buses is located. There are connections to the trains and the city bus network . The tariffs of the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Landkreis Passau (VLP) apply . In addition to the buses of the RBO, Passau is also occasionally served by buses of the Austrian Postbus .
In the city center, the buses operated by Verkehrsbetriebsgesellschaft Passau (VBP), a subsidiary of Stadtwerke Passau , run on eleven main lines and four minibus routes. In addition, a special line operated on behalf of VBP operates with the City-Bus. There is also a seasonally operated special line, the Oberhaus shuttle bus, which is included in the regular city bus tariff. Since January 2007, the central hub of this line network has been the roofed "Central Bus Station" (ZOB), which also houses a service building for the Passau municipal utilities. In terms of tariffs, the city bus network is not integrated into the existing transport association VLP, however, as part of special regulations, the VLP issues transition tickets that entitle the holder to a connecting trip in the city bus network. In addition, the true City-Ticket DB and the Bayern ticket . Since the summer semester of 2013, students at the University of Passau have been able to use the newly established semester ticket for free on the entire city bus network for a six-month fee of 16 euros. It is planned to extend the scope to the entire district of Passau.
Passau is connected to a number of national and international long-distance cycle paths, for example within the European network of EuroVelo long-distance cycle paths to the river route EV 6, which runs from the Atlantic to the Black Sea.Cycle paths run along each of the three rivers, some of which are for tourism play weighty importance. The Inn Cycle Path and the Danube Cycle Path in particular are seeing increasing use.
In 2013 there were 34,938 employees subject to social security contributions in the city of Passau, 15,686 of them from the city area. In addition to the surrounding district of Passau, employees from Austria and the Czech Republic commute.
In 2016, Passau achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 3.236 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 63,668 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. In 2017 there were around 52,100 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 4.0% in December 2018 (in the Passau district it was 2.8%).
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the independent city of Passau was ranked 83rd out of 402 rural districts, municipal associations and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "high future prospects".
Resident commercial enterprises
- The three branches (Passau- Grubweg , Patriching and Thyrnau ) of ZF Friedrichshafen AG , formerly ZF Passau GmbH , had a total of 4500 employees in 2015 and are the second largest employer in Lower Bavaria after BMW AG . The site's turnover in 2014 was around 1.2 billion euros. With 200,000 transmissions, axles and drive components manufactured at the site, ZF claims to be the world's leading manufacturer of drive technology.
- Paul Nutzfahrzeuge GmbH is a mechanical engineering company in the field of special vehicle construction. Own models are also developed and produced, for example the heavy-duty truck Paul Heavy Mover .
- The IT consulting and system integration company Msg Systems has an office in Passau with over 600 employees.
- The food producer Wieninger Hefe has its company headquarters and production facilities in the Rittsteig district .
- The Eterna Mode GmbH is a textile company in the metropolitan area with about 800 employees.
- The Passau publishing group, publisher of the local daily newspaper Passauer Neue Presse , has 6,500 employees across Europe.
- There are three breweries in Passau (as of 2019):
- The bell foundry Rudolf Perner operates nationwide.
- The company Orgelbau Eisenbarth GmbH among other organs of the Passau cathedral built.
- The furniture store XXXL Hiendl is based in Passau (addition XXXL after sale in 2007 to XXXLutz ).
- Mymuesli GmbH is an individualized online muesli delivery company in town; awarded the German Founder Prize 2013 .
- One Logic , which specializes in data science and artificial intelligence , has its headquarters in Passau and has over 150 employees nationwide.
The sights and shopping opportunities in the city and in the Passau region attract numerous tourists from home and abroad. The number of guest arrivals has been rising continuously for decades, so in 2014 a total of 283,938 vacationers (excluding day and cruise guests) from Germany and abroad were counted. The number of overnight stays increased to 467,310 people, of which 375,967 were from Germany and 91,343 from abroad (as of 2014). The length of stay of the guests averaged 1.6 days in 2014, whereby the value for domestic and foreign tourists differed by only 0.3. In June 2014, 40 hotels with almost 3,000 beds were open. In addition to the overnight guests, around 1.5 million day and cruise guests visited the city of Passau in 2014.
The river cruise industry is now of particular importance . In the Port of Passau there are 17 landing stages along the Danube with a total of 29 berths for passenger shipping . In 2014, more than 2000 cruise ships docked in the three-river city.
Several cycle paths run through Passau , of which the Inn and Danube cycle paths are the best known. Here, the city is often the starting point for bicycle tourists who, for example, have the Austrian capital Vienna as their destination.
In Passau there is a local newspaper , the Passauer Neue Presse (PNP), which has been published since 1946 . It appears six times a week, Monday to Saturday. '' Since October 1, 2000, the free magazine Am Sonntag has been delivered to households on Sundays . The tabloid advertising paper has over 100,000 readers a week and appears in full color. The publisher is Alle Tage Verlags-GmbH , which is a 100 percent subsidiary of Neue Presse Verlags-GmbH ( Passauer Neue Presse ). The editor-in-chief is Sebastian Daiminger from Upper Palatinate in the early 2000s.
There is also the Passau Week , published by the Wochenblatt Verlagsgruppe since 1973 , which appears on Tuesdays and is available free of charge in shops. The PR-aktiv , which is also available free of charge, has been published, initially monthly and since 2007 every fortnight, with a circulation of 43,000. It is published by Zeitungsproduktions- und -vertriebs GmbH & Co. KG (ZPV).
Since October 2005, the Bürgerblick Passau has been published on an irregular basis since June 2007, published monthly (for a fee, also available for subscription) by Hubert Denk, a freelance journalist.
TRP1 was founded as one of the first regional broadcasters in Bavaria in 1984 by the Passau entrepreneurs Andreas Werner and Christian Repa and went on air on March 14, 1985. The transmission area extends in the cable network from Freyung ( Bavarian Forest ) via Passau, Vilshofen , Pocking to Eggenfelden . Since 2003 the TRP1 program can also be received digitally via Astra 1F throughout Europe. The main focus of the program is daily reporting.
For Passau there was an online newspaper with Lokalnews.de from February 2011 to April 2012. The University of Passau's Campus Crew Passau student radio is offered via the Internet .
On November 4, 2009, digital radio reception via antenna ( DVB-T ) was introduced in the Passau area. The transmitter is mounted on the transmitter in Passau (Kühberg), some of which are also broadcasted by the Bavarian radio broadcasting company FM, DAB and PAL. There is also the Deutsche Telekom telecommunications tower Passau-Haidenhof , which transmits, among other things, the channels UnserRadio and Radio Galaxy .
South of the urban area, in the district of Passau , there is the Passau-Dommelstadl telecommunications tower , which transmits antenna Bavaria with some DAB programs. In addition, various Austrian analog and digital TV and radio programs can be received via the nearby Schardenberg transmitter in Upper Austria.
- Liebfrauen Schiffleut and salt paver brotherhood (Lamplbruderschaft)
- Passau boobies
- Association and Institute for East Bavarian Local History Research
- (16498) Passau
- The fall of the city of Passau
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