Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar | Daily item
◄ | 16th century | 17th century | 18th century | ►
◄ | 1580s | 1590s | 1600s | 1610s | 1620s | 1630s | 1640s | ►
◄◄ | ◄ | 1608 | 1609 | 1610 | 1611| 1612 | 1613 | 1614 | 1615 | 1616 | ► | ►►
|Matthias becomes Holy Roman Emperor .||Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Swedish Chancellor by Gustav II Adolf .|
|Simon Marius discovers the Andromeda Nebula .|
|1612 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1060/61 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1604/05 (September 10/11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1017/18 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2155/56 (southern Buddhism); 2154/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle
Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Pig 辛亥)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||974/975 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3945/46 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1020/21 (turn of the year March 3rd / 4th)|
|Jewish calendar||5372/73 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic Calendar||1328/29 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1922/23 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1923/24 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1668/69 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 6th: Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Imperial Chancellor in Sweden by King Gustav II Adolf . He remained the holder of this office for 42 years, until his death, during which time he modernized the administration and had considerable domestic and foreign political influence.
- In May, the predominantly German succeeds mercenaries existing Danish troops in Kalmar War , the fortress Älvsborg on Göta älv and the only access to Sweden's Kattegat take. Kalmar is occupied in August . In return, Swedish troops burn down the then Danish city of Vä in Skåne .
Holy Roman Empire
- Ferdinand von Bayern succeeds his uncle Ernst von Bayern , who died on February 17th, as Archbishop and Elector of Cologne , as well as Prince-Bishop of Münster , Liège and Hildesheim . He is not ordained priest or bishop during his entire term of office.
- The Archbishop of Salzburg , Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau , who was captured by Bavarian soldiers in the ox war in 1611 , is forced to abdicate on March 7th. Wolf Dietrich's nephew Markus Sittikus von Hohenems is elected as the new archbishop by the cathedral chapter on March 18, still under the Bavarian occupation . In return, he agrees to the conclusion of a new salt contract between Salzburg and Bavaria and promises to pay the war costs. The episcopal ordination will be donated on October 7th by the Bishop of Chiemsee , Ehrenfried von Kuenburg . Markus Sittikus was ordained a priest just a few days earlier . He kept his uncle Wolf Dietrich imprisoned in strict solitary confinement until the end of his life, first in the Hohenwerfen Fortress and later in the princely parlor of the Hohensalzburg Fortress .
- June 13: The Habsburg Matthias , King of Hungary and Bohemia , becomes Holy Roman Emperor . He succeeds Rudolf II , who died in January, to the throne.
The second Russian Landwehr contingent reached the gates of Moscow , which is in Polish-Lithuanian hands , in July . It comprises 25–30,000 men with a wide variety of armaments and around 1,000 riflemen. Between August 22nd and August 24th it fought in the Polish-Russian War against an arrived Polish relief army. After the initial successes of the Poles , the Russians succeed in repelling the Polish attacks and preventing a Polish relief of the fortress. The Polish garrison under Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz , which withstood the Russian siege for a total of 19 months , was forced to surrender and withdraw on October 25 before the Landwehr contingent led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitri Poscharski due to hunger and the failed Polish relief . Nevertheless, Polish troops continue to occupy large areas in the west of the Moscow Empire .
- September 12: The Russian Tsar Vasily IV, deposed in 1610, dies in Polish captivity.
Other events in Europe
- February 18: Vincenzo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat , dies. He leaves his son Francesco IV Gonzaga , who succeeds him to the throne, a heavily indebted country on the verge of ruin. On December 22nd, Francesco also dies without descendants, whereupon his younger brother Ferdinando Gonzaga has to give up the church career planned for him.
- July 16: The doge Leonardo Donà , extremely unpopular with the people, dies surprisingly, which is interpreted by the population as a punishment from God. On July 24th, the 75-year-old Marcantonio Memmo was elected as his successor as Doge of Venice in the first ballot . Since he was ailing throughout his reign, he made little public appearance.
South America and the Caribbean
- A French expedition founds the colony of France Équinoxiale and Fort Saint Louis in a part of Brazil that has not yet been colonized by Portugal .
- The first permanent settlement of Saint George’s is established in Bermuda .
- 29./30. November: In the naval battle of Suvali , four galleons of the English East India Company under Captain Thomas Best resist a small Portuguese fleet off the coast of Gujarat in India. This is the beginning of the end of the Portuguese naval rule in the western Indian Ocean that has lasted since the Battle of Diu in 1509 . The company then founds its first trading branch in India in Surat .
science and technology
- October 15: The Juleum lecture hall and library building of the university is inaugurated in Helmstedt .
- December 28th: Galileo Galilei is the first astronomer to see the planet Neptune in his telescope , but considers it a fixed star .
- Simon Marius discovers the first astronomical nebula , the Andromeda nebula .
- The tragedy The White Devil by John Webster has its world premiere .
- around 1612: Artemisia Gentileschi produces a first version of the subject Judith and Holofernes .
- May 10: Prince Khurram, who later became the Indian mogul Shah Jahan , marries the 19-year-old daughter of Asaf Khan , Arjumand Banu Begum, who is given the name Mumtaz Mahal . The prince's third wife subsequently becomes his favorite wife.
- July / August: At the Pendle witch trials in England , ten accused are found guilty and hanged, one person is acquitted.
- In Japan is Christian faith in directly to the Tokugawa shogunate assumed Tenryō prohibited -region.
- The Greifswald law professor Joachim Stephani coined the phrase Cuius regio, eius religio .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- Philipp Valentin Voit von Rieneck , Prince-Bishop of Bamberg († 1672) January 7th:
- January 17: Thomas Fairfax , English general and Commander in Chief of the Parliamentary Army († 1671)
- January 31: Heinrich Casimir I , Count of Nassau-Dietz, governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe († 1640)
- Antoine Arnauld , French philosopher, linguist, theologian, logician and mathematician († 1694) February 5:
- Samuel Butler , English poet († 1680) February 8:
- February 15: Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve , French officer and founder of Montreal († 1676)
- James Stewart, 4th Duke of Lennox , Scottish nobleman († 1655) April 6:
- Rudolph Wilhelm Krause the Elder , German legal scholar and Chancellor of Saxony-Weimar († 1689) April 8:
- April 16: Abraham Calov , German Lutheran theologian († 1686)
- April 28: Odoardo I. Farnese , Duke of Parma († 1646)
- May 31: Margherita de 'Medici , Duchess of Parma and Piacenza († 1679)
- August Carpzov , German statesman († 1683) June 4:
- June 23: Justus Georg Schottelius , German language scholar († 1676)
- June 25: Johann Albert Wasa , Prince of Poland-Lithuania, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Cracow († 1634)
- Johann Balthasar Schneider , envoy of the Alsatian League of Ten cities during the negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia († 1656) July 9:
- July 27: Murad IV , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1640)
- Saskia van Uylenburgh , Dutch patrician daughter and wife of Rembrandt van Rijn († 1642) August 2nd:
- August 17: Jeremi Wiśniowiecki , Polish magnate and general († 1651)
- August 27: Joachim Kunkler , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1696)
- September 28: Michel Anguier , French sculptor († 1686)
- September 29: Michael Behm , German Protestant theologian († 1650)
- Claudia von Lothringen , Duchess of Lorraine († 1648) October 6:
- October 13: Gottfried Fibig , German legal scholar († 1646)
- October 20: Wolf Helmhardt von Hohberg , German writer († 1688)
- October 23: Bernardino Mei , Italian painter († 1676)
- Magdalena Sibylle von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , wife of Elector Johann Georg II of Saxony († 1687) November 1:
- November 11th: August Philipp , Duke of Oldenburg and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck († 1675)
- November 17: Dorgon , Chinese regent († 1650)
- November 17: Pierre Mignard , French painter († 1695)
- David Ryckaert , Flemish painter († 1661) December 2:
- Hans Caspar Waser , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1677) December 5:
- December 12: Janusz Radziwiłł , Lithuanian general and prince of the Holy Roman Empire († 1655)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Niels Aagaard , Danish writer and scholar († 1657)
- Detlev von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Haseldorf, Haselau and Kaden († 1686)
- Kaspar Amort , Bavarian court painter († 1675)
- Wolfgang Ebner , German organist, conductor and composer († 1665)
First half of the year
- January 16: Charles III. de Croÿ , governor in the Spanish Netherlands (* 1560)
- January 20: Rudolf II , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1552)
- January 28: Thomas Bodley , English statesman and scholar (* 1544)
- Christophorus Clavius , German Jesuit, mathematician and astronomer (* 1538) February 6:
- Vincenzo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1562) February 9:
- February 12: Jodocus Hondius , Flemish cartographer and publisher of atlases and maps (* 1563)
- February 12: Johannes Neldel , German rhetorician, logician, legal scholar and philosopher (* 1554)
- February 17th: Ernst of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne (* 1554)
- February 20: Johannes Gottsleben , German master's degree, professor and Protestant theologian (* around 1559/60)
- February 22: García Guerra , Spanish Dominican, Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy of New Spain (* 1545)
- February: John Gerard , English surgeon and botanist (* 1545)
- Joan Thynne , English noblewoman (* 1558) March 3:
- March 29: Anna Katharina von Brandenburg , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1575)
- March: Philipp Galle , Dutch draftsman and engraver (* 1537)
- Leonhard I. von Taxis , postmaster general in Brussels (* around 1522) May 5th:
- May 24: Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury , English statesman and minister under Elizabeth I and James I (* 1563)
- May 29th: Joachim Zehner , clergyman and superintendent in Schleusingen (* 1566)
- Hans Leo Haßler , German composer (* 1564) June 8:
Second half of the year
- July 16: Leonardo Donà , 90th Doge of Venice (* 1536)
- July 16: Jakob Wolff the Elder , German architect and sculptor (* 1546)
- July 20: Marija Fjodorovna Nagaja , Tsarina of Russia (* 1553)
- Philipp Ludwig II. , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1576) August 9:
- August 12: Giovanni Gabrieli , Italian composer (* 1557)
- August 28: John Smyth , English Baptist priest (* around 1566)
- September 12: Vasily IV , Russian tsar, sheared as a monk in 1610 (* 1552)
- September 13: Karin Månsdotter , wife of the Swedish King Erik XIV (* 1550)
- September 15: Marek Bydžovský z Florentýna , Czech historian, astronomer, mathematician, scholar and humanist (* 1540)
- September 28: Ernst Soner , German physician and philosopher (* 1572)
- September 30: Federico Barocci , Italian painter
- Elias Reusner , German historian (* 1555) October 1:
- Cesare Aretusi , Italian painter (* 1549) October 4:
- Menso Alting , German preacher and theologian of the Reformation period (* 1541) October 7th:
- Charles de Bourbon , Count of Soissons and Viceroy of New France (* 1566) November 1:
- Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales , eldest son of James I (* 1594) November 6:
- Paul Jenisch , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1551) November 9:
- November 10: Bernardino Poccetti , Italian painter (* 1548)
- Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona , Italian cardinal (* 1560) December 5:
- December 22nd: Francesco IV Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1586)
Exact date of death unknown
- Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville , Admiral of France (* 1537)
- Johann Rasch , Austrian cleric, writer, organist, mathematician and bookseller (* around 1540)