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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Emperor Matthias
Matthias becomes Holy Roman Emperor .
Axel Oxenstierna
Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Swedish Chancellor by Gustav II Adolf .
Andromeda Nebula
Simon Marius discovers the Andromeda Nebula .
1612 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1060/61 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1604/05 (September 10/11)
Bengali solar calendar 1017/18 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2155/56 (southern Buddhism); 2154/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the Water Rat壬子 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Pig 辛亥)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 974/975 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3945/46 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 990/991
Islamic calendar 1020/21 (turn of the year March 3rd / 4th)
Jewish calendar 5372/73 (September 26-27)
Coptic Calendar 1328/29 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 787/788
Seleucid era Babylon: 1922/23 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1923/24 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1668/69 (April)


Politics and world events


  • January 6th: Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Imperial Chancellor in Sweden by King Gustav II Adolf . He remained the holder of this office for 42 years, until his death, during which time he modernized the administration and had considerable domestic and foreign political influence.
Älvsborg fortress

Holy Roman Empire

Ferdinand as Archbishop of Cologne
Coronation and anointing of Matthias

Polish-Russian War

The second Russian Landwehr contingent reached the gates of Moscow , which is in Polish-Lithuanian hands , in July . It comprises 25–30,000 men with a wide variety of armaments and around 1,000 riflemen. Between August 22nd and August 24th it fought in the Polish-Russian War against an arrived Polish relief army. After the initial successes of the Poles , the Russians succeed in repelling the Polish attacks and preventing a Polish relief of the fortress. The Polish garrison under Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz , which withstood the Russian siege for a total of 19 months , was forced to surrender and withdraw on October 25 before the Landwehr contingent led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitri Poscharski due to hunger and the failed Polish relief . Nevertheless, Polish troops continue to occupy large areas in the west of the Moscow Empire .

Other events in Europe

Francesco IV Gonzaga
Coat of arms Marcantonio Memmos
  • July 16: The doge Leonardo Donà , extremely unpopular with the people, dies surprisingly, which is interpreted by the population as a punishment from God. On July 24th, the 75-year-old Marcantonio Memmo was elected as his successor as Doge of Venice in the first ballot . Since he was ailing throughout his reign, he made little public appearance.

South America and the Caribbean

Indian Ocean

science and technology



Judith and Holofernes, early version


  • May 10: Prince Khurram, who later became the Indian mogul Shah Jahan , marries the 19-year-old daughter of Asaf Khan , Arjumand Banu Begum, who is given the name Mumtaz Mahal . The prince's third wife subsequently becomes his favorite wife.
  • July / August: At the Pendle witch trials in England , ten accused are found guilty and hanged, one person is acquitted.


Historical maps and views

Casting 1612
New France 1612


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


First half of the year

Rudolf II., 1594
  • January 20: Rudolf II , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1552)
  • January 28: Thomas Bodley , English statesman and scholar (* 1544)
  • 0February 6: Christophorus Clavius , German Jesuit, mathematician and astronomer (* 1538)
  • 0February 9: Vincenzo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1562)
  • February 12: Jodocus Hondius , Flemish cartographer and publisher of atlases and maps (* 1563)
  • February 12: Johannes Neldel , German rhetorician, logician, legal scholar and philosopher (* 1554)
  • February 17th: Ernst of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne (* 1554)
  • February 20: Johannes Gottsleben , German master's degree, professor and Protestant theologian (* around 1559/60)
  • February 22: García Guerra , Spanish Dominican, Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy of New Spain (* 1545)
  • February: John Gerard , English surgeon and botanist (* 1545)

Second half of the year

Leonardo Donà's tomb in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Venice
  • 0October 1: Elias Reusner , German historian (* 1555)
  • 0October 4: Cesare Aretusi , Italian painter (* 1549)
  • 0October 7th: Menso Alting , German preacher and theologian of the Reformation period (* 1541)

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1612  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files