|Matthias becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire .||Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Swedish Chancellor by Gustav II Adolf .|
|Simon Marius discovers the Andromeda Nebula .|
|1612 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1060/61 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1604/05 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1017/18 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2155/56 (southern Buddhism); 2154/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||974/975 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3945/46 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1020/21 (turn of the year March 3rd / 4th)|
|Jewish calendar||5372/73 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1328/29 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1922/23 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1923/24 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1668/69 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 6th : Axel Oxenstierna is appointed Chancellor of the Reich in Sweden . He remained the holder of this office for 42 years, until his death. During this time he modernized the administration and had considerable influence on domestic and foreign policy.
- In May, the predominantly German succeeds mercenaries existing Danish troops in Kalmar War , the fortress Älvsborg on Göta älv and the only access to Sweden's Kattegat take. Kalmar is occupied in August . In return, Swedish troops burn down the then Danish city of Vä in Skåne .
Holy Roman Empire
- Ferdinand von Bayern succeeds his uncle Ernst von Bayern , who died on February 17th, as Archbishop and Elector of Cologne , as well as Prince-Bishop of Münster , Liège and Hildesheim . He is not ordained priest or bishop during his entire term of office.
- The Salzburg archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau , who was captured by Bavarian soldiers in the ox war in 1611 , is forced to abdicate on March 7th . Wolf Dietrich's nephew Markus Sittikus von Hohenems is elected as the new archbishop by the cathedral chapter on March 18, still under the Bavarian occupation . In return, he agrees to the conclusion of a new salt contract between Salzburg and Bavaria and promises to pay the war costs. The episcopal ordination will be donated on October 7th by the Bishop of Chiemsee , Ehrenfried von Kuenburg . Markus Sittikus had been ordained a priest just a few days earlier . He kept his uncle Wolf Dietrich imprisoned in strict solitary confinement until the end of his life, first in Hohenwerfen Fortress and later in the Princely Chamber of Hohensalzburg Fortress .
- June 13th : The Habsburg Matthias , King of Hungary and Bohemia , becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire . He succeeds Rudolf II , who died in January, to the throne.
The second Russian Landwehr contingent reached the gates of Moscow , which is in Polish-Lithuanian hands , in July . It includes 25–30,000 men with various armaments and around 1,000 riflemen. Between August 22nd and August 24th it fought in the Polish-Russian War against an arrived Polish relief army. After the initial successes of the Poles , the Russians succeed in repelling the Polish attacks and preventing a Polish relief of the fortress. The Polish garrison under Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz , which withstood the Russian siege for a total of 19 months, had to surrender and withdraw on October 25 before the Landwehr contingent led by Kuzma Minin and Dmitri Poscharski due to hunger and the failed Polish relief . Nevertheless, Polish troops continue to occupy large areas in the west of the Moscow Empire .
Other events in Europe
- February 18 : Vincenzo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat , dies. He leaves a heavily indebted country on the verge of ruin to his son, Francesco IV Gonzaga , who succeeds him to the throne. On December 22nd, Francesco also dies without descendants, whereupon his younger brother Ferdinando Gonzaga has to give up the church career planned for him.
South America and the Caribbean
- A French expedition founds the colony France Équinoxiale and Fort Saint Louis in a part of Brazil that has not yet been colonized by Portugal .
- In Bermuda the first permanent settlement is Saint George's founded.
- November 29th / 30th : In the naval battle of Suvali , four galleons of the English East India Company under Captain Thomas Best resist a small Portuguese fleet off the coast of Gujarat in India. This is the beginning of the end of the Portuguese naval rule in the western Indian Ocean, which has lasted since the Battle of Diu in 1509 . The company then founds its first trading branch in India in Surat .
science and technology
- October 15 : The Juleum lecture hall and library building of the university is inaugurated in Helmstedt .
- December 28th : Galileo Galilei is the first astronomer to see the planet Neptune in his telescope , but considers it a fixed star .
- May 10 : Prince Khurram, who later became the Indian mogul Shah Jahan , marries the 19-year-old daughter of Asaf Khan , Arjumand Banu Begum, who is given the name Mumtaz Mahal . The prince's third wife subsequently becomes his favorite wife.
- July / August: At the Pendle witch trials in England , ten defendants are found guilty and hanged, one person is acquitted.
- In Japan is Christian faith in directly to the Tokugawa shogunate assumed Tenryō prohibited -region.
- The Greifswald law professor Joachim Stephani coined the phrase " Cuius regio, eius religio " .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 17th : Thomas Fairfax , English general and Commander in Chief of the Parliamentary Army († 1671 )
- January 31 : Heinrich Casimir I , Count of Nassau-Dietz, governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe († 1640 )
- February 5 : Antoine Arnauld , French philosopher, linguist, theologian, logician and mathematician († 1694 )
- February 8 : Samuel Butler , English poet († 1680 )
- February 15 : Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve , French officer and founder of Montreal († 1676 )
- April 8 : Rudolph Wilhelm Krause the Elder , German jurist and Chancellor of Saxony-Weimar († 1689 )
- April 16 : Abraham Calov , German theologian († 1686 )
- April 28 : Odoardo I. Farnese , Duke of Parma († 1646 )
- June 4 : August Carpzov , German statesman († 1683 )
- June 23 : Justus Georg Schottelius , German language scholar († 1676 )
- June 25 : Johann Albert Wasa , Prince of Poland-Lithuania, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Krakow († 1634 )
Second half of the year
- August 2nd : Saskia van Uylenburgh , Dutch patrician daughter and wife of Rembrandt van Rijn († 1642 )
- August 27 : Joachim Kunkler , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1696 )
- September 28 : Michel Anguier , French sculptor († 1686 )
- September 29 : Michael Behm , German Protestant theologian († 1650 )
- October 6 : Claudia von Lothringen , Duchess of Lorraine († 1648 )
- October 13 : Gottfried Fibig , German legal scholar († 1646 )
- October 20 : Wolf Helmhardt von Hohberg , German writer († 1688 )
- October 23 : Bernardino Mei , Italian painter († 1676 )
- November 1 : Magdalena Sibylle von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , wife of Elector Johann Georg II of Saxony († 1687 )
- November 11th : August Philipp , Duke of Oldenburg and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck († 1675 )
- November 17 : Dorgon , Chinese regent († 1650 )
- December 2 : David Ryckaert , Flemish painter († 1661 )
- December 5 : Hans Caspar Waser , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1677 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Niels Aagaard , Danish writer and scholar († 1657 )
- Detlev von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Haseldorf, Haselau and Kaden († 1686 )
- Kaspar Amort , Bavarian court painter († 1675 )
- Wolfgang Ebner , German organist, conductor and composer († 1665 )
First half of the year
- January 20 : Rudolf II , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1552 )
- January 28 : Thomas Bodley , English statesman and scholar (* 1544 )
- February 6 : Christophorus Clavius , German Jesuit, mathematician and astronomer (* 1538 )
- February 12 : Jodocus Hondius , Flemish cartographer and publisher of atlases and maps (* 1563 )
- February 12 : Johannes Neldel , German rhetorician, logician, legal scholar and philosopher (* 1554 )
- February 17th : Ernst of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne (* 1554 )
- February 18 : Vincenzo I. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1562 )
- Feb. 20 : John God lives , German Magister, professor and theologian (* around 1559 / 60 )
- February 22nd : García Guerra , Spanish Dominican, Archbishop of Mexico and Viceroy of New Spain (* 1545 )
- March 3 : Joan Thynne , English noblewoman (* 1558 )
- March 29 : Anna Katharina von Brandenburg , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1575 )
- May 24 : Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury , English statesman and minister under Elizabeth I and James I (* 1563 )
- May 29 : Joachim Zehner , clergyman and superintendent in Schleusingen (* 1566 )
- June 8 : Hans Leo Haßler , German composer (* 1564 )
Second half of the year
- July 16 : Leonardo Donà , 90th Doge of Venice (* 1536 )
- July 20 : Marija Fjodorovna Nagaja , Tsarina of Russia (* 1553 )
- August 9 : Philipp Ludwig II , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1576 )
- August 12 : Giovanni Gabrieli , Italian composer (* 1557 )
- August 28 : John Smyth , English Baptist priest (* around 1566 )
- September 12 : Vasily IV , Russian tsar, sheared as a monk in 1610 (* 1552 )
- September 13 : Karin Månsdotter , wife of the Swedish King Erik XIV (* 1550 )
- September 15 : Marek Bydžovský z Florentýna , Czech historian, astronomer, mathematician, scholar and humanist (* 1540 )
- September 28 : Ernst Soner , German medic and philosopher (* 1572 )
- September 30th : Federico Barocci , Italian painter
- October 1 : Elias Reusner , German historian (* 1555 )
- October 4 : Cesare Aretusi , Italian painter (* 1549 )
- October 7 : Menso Alting , German preacher and theologian of the Reformation period (* 1541 )
- November 9 : Paul Jenisch , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1551 )
- November 10 : Bernardino Poccetti , Italian painter (* 1548 )
- December 5 : Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona , Italian cardinal (* 1560 )
- December 22nd : Francesco IV Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1586 )
Exact date of death unknown
- February: John Gerard , English surgeon and botanist (* 1545 )
- March: Philipp Galle , Dutch draftsman and engraver (* 1537 )
- Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville , Admiral of France (* 1537 )
- Johann Rasch , Austrian cleric, writer, organist, mathematician and bookseller (* around 1540 )