|Part of the country (landsdel) :||Götaland|
|Province (län) :||Skåne County|
(December 31, 2015)
|Population density:||104 inhabitants per km²|
Skåne ( standard Swedish and Danish [ ˈskoːne ]; Latin Scania , not to be confused with Scandia , a name for Scandinavia ; German earlier occasionally Schonlandt ) is a historical province in southern Sweden . Skåne belonged to Denmark until the 17th century . It almost coincides with today's province ( län ) Skåne län and the area of the associated provincial parliament , which also includes a formerly independent municipality in the historic province of Halland . The landscape borders Halland and Småland in the north, Blekinge in the east, the Baltic Sea in the east and south, and the Öresund in the west .
Important cities are the provincial capital Malmö , Helsingborg , Kristianstad , Landskrona , Lund , Trelleborg and Ystad . Scania, together with the Danish islands of Zealand , Bornholm , Lolland , Falster and Møn, forms part of the transnational Öresund region .
Geography and geology
The southernmost historical province of Sweden is a predominantly flat, undulating peninsula with heavy, nutrient-rich clay soils . This has made the cultural landscape one of the most productive agricultural areas in Northern Europe. For centuries, Skåne was Denmark's granary and is still often called Sweden's granary . Even today, the fields of the multi-colored patchwork carpet ( Selma Lagerlöf ) cover a good 30 percent of Sweden's agricultural needs. In the northeastern part of the region, on the other hand, the landscape is already shaped by the wooded hills made of gneiss and granite that are typical in Sweden . The so-called rupture zone , which separates the geological primeval Europe of the north from the actual, younger Central Europe , runs through the middle of Skåne . The hills in northern and central Scania are caused by this geological fracture zone and separate Scania from the more northerly landscapes. The most famous of these hills is Hallandsåsen .
The oldest grave and dwelling finds near Trelleborg date back to approx. 5000 BC. Dated. The numerous Neolithic barrows ( large stone grave Havängsdösen , megalithic graves from Hagestad ) and the Bronze Age burial mounds suggest that Skåne had a high population density from an early age. The stone buildings (e.g. the megalithic complexes at Hagestad ) date from between 3500 and 2800 BC. BC, the hills date from 1800 to 500 BC. The cemetery at Vätteryd represents the following period. A regional trading center of the Iron Age was z. B. Uppåkra , south of Lund . This place, which can be synchronized with centers of the same kind as Gudme on Fyn , was discovered in 1990 and has been the subject of intensive archaeological excavations ever since. Among other things, the remains of a pagan temple were found.
The first written document called Skåne is a peace treaty of 811 that Charlemagne concluded with the Danes. In the Danish entourage was an Osfrid of Skåne , who was probably a regional ruler. Another mention was made around 870 when the merchant Wulfstan made a trip along the southern Swedish Baltic coast. The extent to which the naming of Skåne kings in Nordic heroic poems is based on historical facts has not yet been clarified.
The relationship between Skåne and Denmark at the beginning of the process of becoming a state is a subject of controversial science. One view is that the original affiliation of Skåne, as well as the current Swedish landscapes Blekinge and Halland , to Denmark can be traced back to an attachment to the older Västgötalag . According to this, the border between Denmark and Sweden is said to have been established in 1050. In the meantime it has been proven that this system dates from a much later period. According to this view, one cannot speak of a Danish country or Danish empire that is said to have included Skåne. The other view assumes that the heartland of Denmark was originally Skåne with the east Danish islands. It is based on Alfred the Great's record of the voyages of Ottars and Wulfstans (the earliest evidence of this), in which southern Sweden including Scania, Falster , Lolland , Langeland , probably also Zealand and the other east Danish islands were referred to as "Denmark" . It was not until the North Jutian Skivum stone from the time of the Jelling Stone that North Jutland was also included in Denmark, possibly a result of the agreement under Harald Blauzahn . From this point of view, it would be reported on the Jellingstein that Harald had conquered eastern Denmark. The difference is likely to be based on a different understanding of what is meant by “Denmark”. The first view is based on the current term "Denmark" and asks whether Skåne belonged to this domain, whatever it was called at the time. The second asks what the contemporaries of Alfred the Great and Harald Blue Tooth understood by “Denmark”. Apart from that, “Skåne” was the name given to an area with a strongly varying extent. Adam von Bremen wrote in the 11th century that Skåne borders Västergötland, which would mean that Halland was part of Skåne at that time. King Christian III spoke of vaart land Skaane (our country Scania), by which he meant Scania, Halland and Blekinge. Together with the island of Bornholm , historians sometimes use the term Skåneland for these areas . Even if Harald Blauzahn, who introduced Christianity in the 10th century and thereby created a permanent all-Danish kingdom, had a strong influence in Skåne, it is doubtful whether it was already part of his empire. After all, the Öresund was much easier to cross with the means of transport at the time than the dense Småland forests.
It is assumed that there were two different types of landscape at that time, which was also reflected in the different way of life of the inhabitants: the lowlands without forests, where agriculture was practiced and dense settlements predominated, and the woodlands, where livestock and timber management dominated life . Lonely farmsteads predominated there. It was deciduous forest; There weren't any spruces there back then. These different conditions led to very different lifestyles, which can still be understood archaeologically today in different burial customs. The arable population buried their dead in coffins. Cremation graves predominate in the wooded east.
In the times of Sven Gabelbarts and Knuts the Great , the artisan and educated elite in Skåne consisted mainly of Englishmen who had been brought from England by the Anglo-Scandinavian kings. So there are works of art in an English-Scandinavian mixed style and in a distinct Winchester style. The royal mintmasters came to Lund from England, where the Danish coins were minted. A pen box was found with the inscription "LEOWINE ME FECIT" (Leowine made me). The name Leowine can also be found on coins from Lund. He came from Lincoln , England, where he had struck coins for King Æthelred .
As the cultural center of the Danish Empire, Skåne was home to two rival bishops from 1060 to 1066 : the Englishman Henrik in Lund and the German Egino in Dalby . When Henrik died and Denmark lost contact with the Danelag in England at the same time , Egino moved to Lund to take over the office there, and so the Lund diocese came under the Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Nonetheless, Lund remained a small Christian island in the pagan countryside, as the tombs that were built decades later show. In 1103 Lund was raised to the seat of archbishop for all of Scandinavia. Absalon von Lund , previously Bishop of Roskilde, was Archbishop of Lund in the last quarter of the 12th century. His insistence on the payment of the tithe and the strict implementation of priestly celibacy led to the peasant and priest uprising in Skåne and the battle of the Dösjöbro in 1181. His successor in Lund was Andreas Sunononis (Danish Suneson).
King Magnus Eriksson bought Skåne in 1332 from a Holstein count, who had it as a pledge, for 34,000 silver marks . Shortly afterwards he was proclaimed king by the inhabitants of Skåne. So Skåne temporarily became a sovereign kingdom, independent of Sweden and Denmark. However, this kingship was not recognized by the Pope, and Skåne fell back to Denmark as early as 1360/61.
Given the richness of herring off its coast Scania was from the Middle Ages to modern times a target area Hanseatic merchants ( Schonenfahrer ).
During the Thirty Years' War , Swedish troops invaded Jutland and Skåne in a surprise attack and without a declaration of war . This war was named after the two Swedish commanders Torstensson (in Jutland) and Horn (in Skåne) (see Torstensson War ). In Skåne they conquered a number of then still Danish cities such as Lund, Landskrona and Helsingborg, while the fortresses in Malmö and Kristianstad held out. In August 1643 the Swedes were again driven out of Skåne. In the peace of Brömsebro had Denmark-Norway nevertheless suffered first major territorial losses.
During the Second Northern War , Denmark declared war on Sweden in June 1657. This dispute ended in the Peace of Roskilde of 1658 when Denmark had to evacuate its property in Skåneland (today's southern Sweden). Skåne including Bornholm , Blekinge and Halland were ceded to Sweden. Bornholm returned to Denmark two years later in the Treaty of Copenhagen in 1660, but the island of Ven now became Swedish. The borders between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, which are still in force today, were established after centuries of armed conflict.
In the decades after the Peace of Roskilde in 1658, guerrilla warfare against the new Swedish state power developed in Schonen, Halland and Blekinge. The guerrilla war against the Swedes was bitter and bloody in the north and north-east of the province and did not gradually end until 1715/20. The free shooters were pejoratively referred to as " Snapphanar " by the Swedes . The last Freischütz, Nils Tuasen , was executed in 1700. Plans to relocate the original Skåne population to the Baltic States were not implemented.
After the transition to Sweden, Skåne was administered by a governor general. In 1683, the Scandinavian law , which originated in the Danish period, was replaced by Swedish law. In 1719 the Generalgouvernement was abolished and Skåne was incorporated into the normal Swedish administrative order. Two administrative provinces , Malmöhus län and Kristianstads län , were established (which were merged to form Skåne län in 1999 ).
In order to connect Skåne more closely with the Swedish "Altreich", the Regia Academia Carolina was founded in Lund in 1666 as the fifth university of the then Swedish Empire (after Uppsala , Dorpat , Greifswald and Åbo ), so that students no longer travel to Copenhagen needed. The Swedish legal order and the Swedish church order were introduced in 1683.
The last Danish attempt to retake the lost province failed in 1710 in the battle of Helsingborg . This was the last battle in Skåne between Denmark and Sweden.
In the 19th century, Skåne experienced an economic boom. Contacts with Denmark improved as the last existing restrictions were removed. The industrial revolution was particularly noticeable in Malmö. The standard of living rose significantly, especially in those places that were connected to a railroad .
In Skåne, the construction of motorways began in the 1950s . The section between Malmö and Lund was even Sweden's first motorway, the beginning of today's E 22 . Shortly afterwards, additional routes were built, which were networked based on the German model. In this way, Skåne initially differed from other Swedish regions, where only short sections of the motorway were built in the 1960s. The Skåne motorway network usually began at the international ferry ports and the Øresund Bridge was also integrated.
The railway network in Skåne is also well developed. A line of the X2000 high-speed train to Stockholm begins in Malmö . For regional rail traffic, Pågatåg and Öresundståg are the most important. With the establishment of the Öresund connection, the rhythm of the Skåne railways changed so that they harmonize with the trains of Zealand in Denmark.
The name of Skåne and Skåne has just as English Scania probably the same etymology as Scandinavia (Scandinavia) . The southernmost tip of today's Sweden was called Scatinavia or Scandia by the Romans . The name possibly comes from the ancient Germanic name * Skaðin-awjō , which occurs in Old Norse as Skáney. According to some researchers, the meaning can be associated with the Germanic root * Skaðan- ("danger" or "damage"). The name of the town of Skanör in Skåne, composed of the word ör , which means "sand bank", has the same root skan .
See also: Skan language
The official language and colloquial language in Skåne is Swedish . Most of the Skåne, however, speak more or less dialect . The Swedish spoken in Skåne still has some of the characteristics of Danish . There are still a large number of Danish words; however, the spelling has mostly changed. Some examples are: spand (Danish: 'spand', Swedish: 'hink', German: 'bucket'), mölla (Danish: 'mølle', Swedish: 'kvarn', German: 'mill'), sviskon (Danish: 'Svisker', Swedish: 'katrinplommon', German: ' Backpflaumen '), alika (Danish: 'allike', Swedish: 'kaja', German: 'Dohle') and visping (Danish: 'hvepse', Swedish: 'geting ', German:' Wasp ').
- In Lund , the original cultural center of Skåne, Denmark up to approx. 1400 and the leading city of Scandinavia in the Middle Ages , the Lund Cathedral (1085–1145) is the only pure Romanesque sacral building in Scandinavia.
- Lund University was founded in 1666 .
- Selma Lagerlöf lets Nils Holgersson's journey begin and end on the back of the gander over “the large diced cloth” from Skåne.
- Through the crime novels by the Härjedalen- born author Henning Mankell , most of which are set in the vicinity of Ystad , and their film adaptations, Skåne became better known, although Mankell described the winters in particular as gray, wet and depressing. Other Swedish thrillers, some of which have also been translated into German , also take place in Skåne, such as Björn Hellberg's Sten Wall series, which comprises over 20 volumes .
- On the coast near Kåseberga east of Ystad are the Ales Stenar , the largest stone setting in Scandinavia.
- The medieval castle Glimmingehus is located near Simrishamn .
Famous Schonen (also called Schoninger)
- Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), imperial court astronomer
- Sophie Brahe (1559–1643), Danish astronomer, sister of Tycho Brahe
- Mikkel Escholt (≈1600–1669), Norwegian priest and scientist
- Dieterich Buxtehude (≈1637–1707), Danish-German organist and baroque composer
- Levin Möller (1709–1768), theologian and mathematician, Provost of Linköping
- Alexander Roslin (1718–1793), painter
- Johan Christopher Toll (1743–1817), count, knight, field marshal and politician
- Gustaf Wilhelm Palm (1810–1890), painter
- Amélie von Schwerin (1819–1897), landscape painter and animal painter
- August Palm (1849–1922), social democratic pioneer and agitator
- Vilhelm Ekelund (1880–1949), poet
- Per Albin Hansson (1885–1946), Prime Minister of Sweden
- Ruben Rausing (1895–1983), inventor of the Tetra-Pak
- Hjalmar Gullberg (1898–1961), poet
- Gunhild Sehlin (1911–1996), children's book author
- Birgit Nilsson (1918–2005), opera singer
- Jarl Kulle (1927–1997), actor
- Ernst-Hugo Järegård (1928–1998), actor
- Max von Sydow (1929-2020), actor
- Bo Widerberg (1930–1997), film director, screenwriter and film editor
- Jan Troell (* 1931), film director, cameraman, screenwriter and film editor
- Anita Ekberg (1931–2015), model and actress
- Siw Malmkvist (* 1936), pop singer
- Ola Billgren (1940-2001), artist
- Bo Larsson (born 1944), football player
- Mikael Wiehe (* 1946), musician
- Marie Fredriksson (1958-2019), singer
- Lukas Moodysson (* 1969), writer and director
- Henrik Larsson (born 1971), football player
- Timbuktu (* 1975), musician
- Zlatan Ibrahimović (* 1981), football player
- Lykke Li (* 1986), singer
- Kim Wall (1987-2017), journalist
- Eric Saade (* 1990), pop singer
- Flower: Leucanthemum vulgare ( Lat. Leucanthemum vulgare )
- Animal: red deer ( Cervus elaphus )
- Bird: Red Kite ( Milvus milvus )
- Fish: eel ( Anguilla anguilla )
- Population: 1,184,500 (December 31, 2006) = 13% of Sweden's population
- of which foreigners: 64,437
- Area: 11,368 km²
- Agricultural used: 5,607 km² (49.4%)
- Forested: 3,825 km² (33.7%)
- Population density: 104 inhabitants / km²
- Unemployment rate: 2.3% (July 2008)
- Medium temperature
- January: 0 to −2 ° C
- July: 17 ° C
- Annual rainfall: 500–800 mm
- Highest point: Söderåsen 211 m above sea level. d. M.
- Largest lake: Ivösjön
- Magistri Adam Bremensis: Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae Pontificum. (Episcopal history of the Hamburg Church). In: Werner Trillmich , Rudolf Buchner (Ed.): Sources of the 9th and 11th centuries on the history of the Hamburg Church and the Empire = Fontes saeculorum noni et undecimi historiam ecclesiae Hammaburgensis necnon imperii illustrantes. 5th revised edition. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1978, ISBN 3-534-00602-X , pp. 135–499 ( selected sources on the German history of the Middle Ages 11).
- Peter Carelli: Det Medeltida Skåne. En arkeologisk guidebok . Historiska Media, Lund 2010, ISBN 978-91-85377-91-6 .
- Eldbjørg Haug: Margrete. Den siste Dronning i Sverreætten. Nordens fullmektige frue and rescue husbonde. Cappelen, Oslo 2000, ISBN 82-02-17642-5 .
- Arbetsförmedlingen (PDF file; 11 kB).
- Fredrik Svanberg: Vikingatiden i Skåne. Historiska media, Lund 2000, ISBN 91-89442-04-0 .
- Picture book : South Sweden - Scania peninsula. Documentation, Germany, 45 min., Production: NDR , script and direction: Cornelius Kob, first broadcast: November 16, 2008, synopsis by ARD
- Tourism and Economic Development Agency in Skåne, press release
References and comments
- (Skåne) " http://www.regionffekta.com/Skane-lan/Befolkning-och-hushall/Befolkning/Folkmangd-31-december-alder/
- Fredrik Svanberg: Vikingatiden i Skåne. Historiska media, Lund 2000, ISBN 91-89442-04-0 , p. 12
- Herbert Jankuhn and others: The peoples and tribes of Southeast Schleswig in the early Middle Ages . Schleswig 1952, p. 151 ff.
- Verum Westragothia confinis est provinciae Danorum, quae Sconia dicitur (Västergötland borders on the Danish province called Scania.) Adam IV 23.
- Fredrik Svanberg: Vikingatiden i Skane. Historiska media, Lund 2000, ISBN 91-89442-04-0 , p. 17.
- Svanberg, p. 93.
- Haug, p. 46. A letter from the king of July 4, 1343 from Helsingborg begins with the words: "Magnus medr guds nad Noreghs Svyia ok Skana konongr ..." Diplomatarium Norvegicum No. 220 :
- Søren Sørensen: Den danske litteratur begynder i Malmø , In: Norden Nu, June 2008 ( Memento of the original from January 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 2.6 MB)
- Treaty text - Peace of Copenhagen (Swedish), Institut for Kultur og Samfund, Aarhus Universitet, Denmark, accessed on June 9, 2013
- Einar Haugen: The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History . Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 1976.
- Knut Helle (ed. E. I. Kouri et al.): The Cambridge History of Scandinavia . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-47299-7 ; Introduction, p. XXII: "The name Scandinavia was used by classical authors in the first centuries of the Christian era to identify Skåne and the mainland further north which they believed to be an island." (“The name Scandinavia was used by the classical [Roman] authors in the first centuries of the Christian era to refer to Skåne and the northern mainland [Sweden, Norway, Finland], which they believed to be an island . ")
- Kenneth R. Olwig: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage — Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony . In: International Journal of Heritage Studies , Vol. 11, No. March 1, 2005; Introduction, p. 3: “The very name 'Scandinavia' is of cultural origin, since it derives from the Scanians or Scandians (the Latinized spelling of Skåninger), a people who long ago lent their name to all of Scandinavia, perhaps because they lived centrally, at the southern tip of the peninsula. " (“The name 'Scandinavia' itself is of cultural origin, as it is derived from the Scanians or Scandians (Latinized form of Skåninger), a people who very early gave their name to all of Scandinavia - perhaps because they lived in the center of the southern end of the peninsula. ")
- Uffe Østergård: The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity - From Composite States to Nation States . In: Øystein Sørensen, Bo Stråth (Ed.): The Cultural Construction of Norden . Scandinavian University Press, Oslo 1997, p. 25-71.
- Carl Edlund Anderson: Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia . PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999.
- Knut Helle (ed. E. I. Kouri et al.): The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-47299-7 ; Introduction.
- Erik Björkman : Studies on the proper names in Beowulf . M. Sendet, 1973, ISBN 3-500-28470-1 , p. 99
- Richard North: Heathen Gods in Old English Literature . Cambridge University Press , Cambridge 1997, ISBN 0-521-55183-8 , p. 192.
- Statistiska Centralburån Befolkning.