|Bornholm's regional commune|
|Residents :||39,499 (2020)|
|Area :||588.30 km² (2014)|
|Population density :||67 inhabitants per km²|
|Municipality number :||400|
( Social Democrats )
Bornholm [ -ˈhɔlm ] (Danish pronunciation: [ bɔʀnˈhɔlʔm ]) is together with six uninhabited minor islands (a total of eleven hectares) the easternmost island and municipality in Denmark . The Baltic Sea island lies between the Swedish Skåne and the Polish West Pomeranian Voivodeship , around 150 km southeast of Copenhagen and 80 km northeast of Rügen . The south coast of Skåne ( Sweden ) is about 40 km away. The island has 39,499 inhabitants (January 1, 2020), some of whom speak Bornholmsk , an East Danish- Scandinavian dialect.
The nearby archipelago islands of Christiansø and Frederiksø do not belong to any municipality, but are the only areas in Denmark that are administered directly by the Ministry of Defense . However, together with Bornholm they form a Landsdel ("Landesteil"), the Landsdel Bornholm .
The island of Bornholm is 588.3 km². It is 40 km long in the northwest-southeast direction. The greatest width in the southwest-northeast direction is 30 km. The island forms a 158 km long coast with the Baltic Sea. The surface shape of the island corresponds to a gently undulating hill country, which rises on all sides to its highest height in the interior of the island, the 162 m high Rytterknægten . Denmark's highest waterfall, 22 meters high, is located in Døndalen between Tein and Gudhjem, very close to the Bornholm Art Museum .
The landscape forms were largely formed in the Quaternary during the past cold ages through the influence of the glacier ice masses. The advancement of the glaciers to the south led to a strong erosion of rock and the formation of the island's current wave shape.
The presence of glaciers is still reminiscent of the sometimes centimeter- deep scratches in the rock, which were created by rock material that was carried along by the glaciers. Individual blocks that the glacier left behind after it melted, so-called boulders like the Bobbestenen , can also be found in many places on the island. Some wobble on their base and are therefore called Rokkesten (German: " Wackelstein ").
The increased erosion of rock fissures , rock changes and faults resulted in numerous gorges, most of which run in a south-west-north-east direction. Concise examples of gorges are the Ekkodalen below the Rytterknægten, the Kløvedal north of the Almindingen and the Dovredal south-west of Paradisbakkerne. After the glacier retreat, the Bornholm gorges were widened by meltwater.
Due to the meltwater flowing into the sea at the end of the Ice Age, the narrow, deeply cut canyon valleys in the north of Bornholm were created. These include in particular the valleys to be crossed Døndalen, Kobbeå (east of Gudhjem ) and Gyldenså (west of Listed ). If you look over the valley from a field bordering the valley, you can only see a green band formed by the treetops protruding from the valley. The valley is 20 to 30 meters deeper, below the viewer.
Due to the rock, the Bornholm coast is mostly steep and rocky . The rocks often break vertically into the sea. The highest cliffs are south of Hammerhus. The rocks at the Falkenschlucht (Falkeslugten) are over 40 meters high. The Helligdoms cliffs ( Helligdomsklipperne ) at Tejn reach a height of 22 m. The granite cliffs of Jons Kapel near Vang are also over 20 m high . Extensive, shallow, light sandy beaches are only found at the southeast corner along the towns of Dueodde , Snogebæk and Balka .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bornholm
Source: Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut (DMI): Normaler for Danmark Klimadata 1961–1990
In December 2010, after a snowstorm, snow depths of (at least) 146 centimeters were reached on the entire island. Snow drifts piled up to 6 meters.
In contrast to the rest of Denmark, the rock structure of Bornholm is predominantly shaped by Precambrian bedrock. These form a geological unit with southern Sweden.
The near-surface geological subsurface of the center and the north of the island is formed by Precambrian gneisses and granites . When it comes to granites , a distinction is made between hammer granite , which forms the Hammeren in the north and areas of the interior of the island west of Vestermarie, Vanggranit in a belt south of the Hammeren, Svanekegranit on the northeastern tip and Paradisbakkegranit on the Paradisbakkerne in the east of the island. Small areas in the south of the island are also occupied by the dark Rønne granite . The estimated age is given as 1.4 billion years. Most of these rocks can also be found very frequently as guiding debris in northern Germany and northern Poland. The largest boulder in northern Germany, the Buskam on Rügen, is made of hammer granite .
The dark Rønne granite is still mined in two large pits near Knudsker (Klippelökken) .
The rocks in the south of Bornholm are weathering remnants and sedimentary rocks of more recent date. The southeast is formed by Paleozoic schists . These are marine sedimentary rocks from the Cambrian , Ordovician and Silurian times . Their age is between 540 and 430 million years. Mesozoic loams and sandstones form the transition to the bedrock at Nexø and Åkirkeby and the entire south-west of the island at Rønne. Most of them come from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods between 190 and 70 million years ago. Large-scale Quaternary deposits occur mainly in the form of sand dunes in the southeast of Bornholm near Dueodde. Limestone is rare on Bornholm and occurs in small areas in the form of the Arnager limestone from the Upper Cretaceous in the south of the island.
Fossil remains of the living world of the sea that existed at the time of the Cambrian and Ordovician can be found in large numbers in the slates in the south of the island. Graptolites and trilobites are widespread . In 2006 the 170 million year old traces of two dinosaur species were found on the west coast between Hasle and Rönne . As early as 2002, researchers found the 135 million year old tooth of a velociraptor .
Vegetation, flora and fauna
Potential natural vegetation on most of the island of Bornholm is red beech forests in acidic soil (Luzulo-Fageten). Beech and sessile oak dry forests in acidic soil are to be expected, especially on rocks on the south-facing slope. On steep north-facing slopes and in canyons with air humid climate occur naturally ravine forests of sycamore maple , elm and Common Ash on. By nature, coniferous wood is not to be expected outside the pine forests on the dune sands near Dueodde.
The natural vegetation was strongly displaced by the intensive land use. Near-natural forests have disappeared from Bornholm with the exception of a few remains. For centuries, intensively used arable land has formed a ring around the island's interior. There, on the former Allmende ( Almindingen ), the cattle used to be herded. The forest was pushed back further and further by the forest pasture , as well as by the exploitation of the forest for shipbuilding . Nevertheless, the Almindingen is still the second largest contiguous forest area in Denmark. The heather ( Lyng ) areas created there (see map of Bornholm around 1900) were only reforested later, after the establishment of an orderly forestry , with non-site-appropriate and mostly foreign, but fast-growing conifers . From this the plantations , the forests of the island, arose. Only small heathland, natural fens and pools (for example Bastemose and Olene ) are left in Almindingen.
A large contiguous coastal heath area is the Hammeren in the north.
The wild animal world on Bornholm is limited - in relation to the larger mammals - to deer, hares and hedgehogs as well as bisons , which live in a large, walk-in outdoor enclosure and are to be released into the wild after a period of acclimatization. Bones find evidence that reindeer, beavers, martens and wild boars have lived here. It is believed that these animals came to this region at the end of the Ice Age, when Bornholm was still part of mainland Europe, or came across the ice from Sweden during severe winters. The current deer population was introduced in the 19th century.
Municipalities and administration
The Bornholm Office (Bornholms amtskommune / amt) was abolished at the end of 2002. The office and the previous five municipalities were combined in the Bornholms regional municipality . From January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2006, this municipality had the status of an independent municipality and was thus on a par with Copenhagen and Frederiksberg . The formerly independent municipalities Aakirkeby , Allinge-Gudhjem , Hasle , Neksø and Rønne have become part of Bornholm. This regional reform was the result of a referendum on May 29, 2001. The administrative center is still Rønne. Bornholm, like Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, has belonged to the Hovedstaden region since 2007 and has lost its official status.
The following parishes are located on Bornholm , Danish. : Sogn (except Christiansø , which is 18 km northeast of Bornholm) and places with over 200 inhabitants ( byer according to the definition of the Danish statistical office ), with a registered population of zero the place had more than 200 inhabitants in the past:
|18th||Aaker Sogn||56.77||3.215||Aakirkeby||2,108||Sønder Herred|
|2||Allinge-Sandvig Sogn||9.61||1,536||Allinge-Sandvig||1,491||Nørre Herred|
|19th||Bodilsker Sogn||32.52||864||Balka||211||Sønder Herred|
|1||Christiansø Sogn||0.36||84||Sønder Herred|
|6th||Gudhjem Sogn||1.30||700||Gudhjem||742||Øster Herred|
|7th||Hasle Sogn||4.17||1,726||Hasle||1,603||Nørre Herred|
|8th||Klemensker Sogn||57.13||1,538||Klemensker||626||Nørre Herred|
|11||Knudsker Sogn||19.21||2,758||Vester Herred|
|20th||Nexø Sogn||4.31||3,630||Nexø||3,607||Sønder Herred|
|4th||Olsk Sogn||25.18||1,220||Tejn||848||Nørre Herred|
|21st||Pedersker Sogn||29.82||578||Pedersker||241||Sønder Herred|
|22nd||Poulsker Sogn||32.00||1,032||Snogebæk||683||Sønder Herred|
|3||Rutsker Sogn||29.21||570||Nørre Herred|
|5||Rø Sogn||26.07||418||Nørre Herred|
|16||Rønne Sogn||9.78||11,544||Rønne||13,772||Vester Herred|
|15th||Svaneke Sogn||2.23||1.006||Svaneke||1.101||Øster Herred|
|12||Vestermarie Sogn||69.77||1,331||Vestermarie||250||Vester Herred|
|9||Østerlarsker Sogn||38.40||805||Østerlars||237||Øster Herred|
|13||Østermarie Sogn||53.78||1,426||Østermarie||490||Øster Herred|
|Bornholm||581.98||39,644||21 byer||30,450||4 harden|
- ↑ The town of Gudhjem also extends to the parish of Østerlarsker Sogn.
- ↑ a b The settlement area of the city of Rønne now extends to the parish of Knudsker Sogn.
- ↑ Parts of the city of Svaneke are in the area of the Ibsker Sogn parish.
In the Middle Ages, the four Harden were called Michlingœ (Sønder Herred), Rothnœ (Vester Herred), Haslœ (Nørre Herred) and Hœnnings (Øster Herred), as can be seen on a Harden map of Denmark, which shows the situation in the Middle Ages.
Source: statistikbanken.dk Statistical Yearbook 2009: Area and population. Regions and inhabited islands (PDF; 38 kB)
The municipality reported on September 22, 2014 that 39,922 people lived on Bornholm.
Prehistory and early history
Bornholm's landscape was shaped by the Ice Age . When the glacier melted, a large river delta formed east of Rønnes . A larger plain was created by floating up considerable amounts of sand. On Bornholm, after the last glaciers had melted, tundra, on which reindeer lived, first spread. The first groups of hunters reached around 8000 BC. Today's island. The hunting and fishing groups were found at Hammer in the north, in Melsted near Gudhjem and in Grisby south of Svaneke on the east coast of the island. From the interior of the island, there are known places to live by the rivers Baga (Baggeå) and Blykobbeå . Hunting equipment and fishing spears made of wild bones could be recovered from the Vallensgard moor , which was still a lake at that time. Even a bone flute, Denmark's oldest musical instrument, was found in this area. Klemensker's reindeer antlers can be seen in the museum in Rønne.
The climate continued to warm. Now moose, red deer and wild boar came into the country. From around 7500 BC. In BC (in the Preboreal ) pine, birch and hazel could find their way. Fishermen fetched pine stumps from the Baltic Sea from a depth of 40 meters, which are considered evidence of the land connection with Rügen. It probably tore off 7000 years ago. With the retreat of the glaciers, the land had risen. At the same time, the sea level rose, but faster than the land, so that about 5000 BC. Large parts of the old country were covered with water and today's island was created. Deciduous forests mainly of linden and oak spread out. The aurochs became rare, while deer and wild boar were able to adapt to the changed climatic conditions. The last red deer was shot on Bornholm in 1770. The hunters now lived near the coast on lagoons and bays, in the interior near forests, on streams and rivers and in covered swampy landscapes.
Then arable farmers reached the island. About 6000 years ago, people began to clear the forests, cultivate fields and settle down ( Limensgård ). The barrows (14 passage graves and eleven dolmens ), none of which are more than 2.5 kilometers from the sea , also date from this period .
Tracks the Bronze Age (1700-500 v. Chr.) Left, are the rock carvings in Allinge-Sandvig (best preserved the rock carvings of Madsebakke) and numerous Röser and standing stones, rune stones , stone boxes , stone circles and stone ships (Egeby, StammersHalle , Trodeskoven and the Galgebakken east of Vestermarie). These monuments are very numerous on Bornholm and far more common than in any comparable large region in Denmark.
On Bornholm there are said to have been over 1000 building blocks , today there are around 250. In Louisenlund there are 70 stones up to 2.5 meters high, in Gryet near Neksø there are 67 stones. They are most often associated with graves, but also with places of worship. In memory of the dead, building stones were erected over their grave sites. The stones are arranged in different groups, presumably to the graves of the families, even if most of the stones on the grave fields seem to be in disorder.
On the way from Gudhjem to Helligdomsklipperne there are four building stones on the edge of the high cliff (34 meters above sea level), the "Hestestenene" ("horse stones"), which serve as navigation marks for shipping. It is reported that the Vikings sacrificed people here. According to legend, a wedding couple fell off the cliff with a horse and cart.
At Listed , close to the mouth of the Gyldenså, a small group of building stones stands on a low cairn ( Röse - a ship-shaped cairn grave from the Nordic Bronze and Iron Ages), which is called Hellig Kvinde . An old legend tells that the big stone was a holy woman and the small stones were her children. They were all turned into stones at the woman's request to avoid an impending danger. In ancient times, passers-by reverently greeted the holy woman and her children.
Bornholm is after almost 20 years of research by the “ Stenalder Project ”, which is also used to study settlement activity in the Neolithic , a prehistorically very well researched and described area in Central Europe.
Finds of luxury items are evidence of intensive trade contacts in the Iron Age (approx . 500 BC to 800 AD) and Viking Age (approx. 800 to approx. 1060 AD). There was a distinct social hierarchy and probably even a local ruler similar to Gudme on Funen . Agriculture continued to develop with the livestock and structures that can still be found today.
The name Bornholm was since the 8th century Old Norse Burgundarholmr ("island of Burgundy "). In antiquity, North Germany was considered the original home of the East Germanic Burgundian tribe, and Bornholm was later a stopover on their migration from Scandinavia to the Vistula region . The Burgundian tradition of Scandinavian origin is allegedly supported by place names and archaeological evidence. Most of the island's place names only date back to the Viking Age and around 300 AD, most of the island's population apparently disappeared. Most of the grave fields were no longer used, and only a few burials were carried out on the remaining ones. In modern research the thesis of the origin of the Burgundy is controversial.
The first written sources around 890 report Bornholm as a kingdom, which, however, was conquered by the Danish King Harald Blue Tooth around 961/985 . Numerous rune stones (e.g. the Brogård stone ) mark the beginning of writing on the island. From the Gamleborg ( "Old Castle") from Bornholm was administered, but the island was soon at the mercy of church and state because the king Svend Grathe 1149 large parts of the island to the Archbishop of Lund bequeathed. The Danish state then administered its part of the island from Lilleborg (Little Castle), the church from Hammershus, which was built around 1250 . Disputes between the two led to the imprisonment of the clerical island administrator in 1259 and, in return, to the destruction of Lilleborg. The hostility came to an end with an agreement in 1362, and in 1522 ecclesiastical rule ended for good.
During the Danish-Hanseatic War (1426–1435) and the Danish-Hanseatic War (1509–1512) Bornholm was sacked several times by the German Hanseatic League .
Early modern age
After the Danish defeat in the Swedish War of Independence , the king pledged the island to the Hanseatic city of Lübeck in 1525 to pay off debts. The Bornholm population suffered heavily from taxes, levies and forced labor. After the Lübeck defeat in the Danish Civil War (1534-1536) and a failed uprising of the island population (1535), the island came back to Denmark as a fief and was administered by a Lübeck official as a bailiff and Danish fief. The pledging of Bornholm to Lübeck ended in 1576. A total of six Lübeck bailiffs ruled the island in succession during these 50 years, the first of which, Bernt Knop , expanded the destroyed Hammershus fortress during his tenure from 1525 to 1543 and Schweder Ketting in his tenure from 1556 to 1572 During the Three Crown War, the important Lübeck naval base in the Baltic Sea was successfully secured against the Swedes in spite of the naval battle off Bornholm (1563) .
Between 1643 and 1658 the island was occupied several times by the Swedes during the war . Under the leadership of Jens Pedersen Kofoed, the population freed themselves from Swedish rule of the island in 1658. Bornholm finally came to Denmark, endowed with numerous privileges. Under contract law, this was set out in the Treaty of Copenhagen in 1660 .
A long period of peace began for Bornholm. The Hammershus fortress was unimportant and finally razed , instead fortifications were built on the pea islands (Ertholmene) in the late 17th century . Their only use was in the bombing by the British in the coalition wars in 1808. They are still used for military purposes today, although they are freely accessible, but are under the administration of the Ministry of Defense .
The island's economy flourished, the branches of the ceramics industry, fishing and smokehouse still typical today. In terms of landscape, the island was given its present-day appearance in 1805 when the Almindingen forest was laid out by forester Hans Rømer.
Second World War
German troops occupied Denmark on April 9, 1940 , Bornholm was taken on April 10, 1940.
In the course of the war , Bornholm was a transshipment point for refugees who were smuggled from Copenhagen to the island, were hidden here by the resistance and peasants and a little later ended up in neutral Sweden. In the opposite direction, weapons were smuggled to the resistance movement in Copenhagen.
When the Danish government rejected the occupying power's bans on strikes and assemblies in 1943 and the cabinet was subsequently dissolved, the situation escalated on Bornholm as well. Around 500 Jews managed to escape from Bornholm on October 11, 1943, before the Gestapo became active on the island a few months later . Until the end of the war, there were reprisals against the Bornholm population and arrests of escape helpers and farmers who had hidden the persecuted on their farms.
After the surrender of the German troops in northwest Germany and Denmark on May 4, 1945 in the evening, the Bornholm Wehrmacht commander , Captain Gerhard von Kamptz , received a surrender request on May 6 from the commander of the Soviet armed forces in Western Pomerania . Commandant von Kamptz rejected the request, as the surrender was only valid towards the Western powers, and on May 7th (the day before the German total surrender ) had Soviet reconnaissance planes fired. As a result, the cities of Rønne and Nexø were bombed several times by the Soviet air force and partially destroyed, ten civilians were killed.
After the news of the total surrender on Bornholm had arrived in the meantime, General of the Artillery Rolf Wuthmann , who on May 6th with the remains of the IX. Army corps from East Prussia had been evacuated to the island, the resistance was stopped and Bornholm was handed over to a Soviet advance command of 110 men on May 9. The considerable damage to property was also repaired with Swedish help in the years that followed. Only on April 5, 1946 did the Soviet troops withdraw.
Traces of the war can still be seen today: Ammunition from conventional and chemical weapons , which were dumped on behalf of the western allies and the Soviet Union after the war ended, are partly in sunk wrecks near Bornholm. According to the Alfred Wegener Institute, investigations showed that cod in the fillet was degraded by chemical weapons in 13 percent of cases.
- Denmark's largest area of rock carvings is located at Allinge-Sandvig .
- The passage graves Arnager , Hallebrøndshøj , Lundestenen and Vasagård are four of many prehistoric monuments on the island.
- During excavations in the mid-1980s, above all in the Mulde variety, far more than 2,300 tiny gold sheet figures were found which, because of their figurative representations, are known as guldgubber , which roughly means "golden old men".
Fishing (especially herring fishing ) and rural agriculture shaped Bornholm's economy for a long time. The island gained its military importance from the Middle Ages. Bornholm was expanded as a naval base from the 17th century. Mining was added in the 19th century . The bedrock granite and gneiss were extracted in several quarries as building stones, road gravel, for curbs and paving stones and later for gravestones. Bornholm stoneware and bricks were produced from the Jura holdings near Rønne . During the Second World War, Jurassic coal was extracted underground. Jurassic and chalk sands were used for building purposes. The mining of the sands was banned on July 1, 1988 due to their importance for the drinking water supply . The generation of energy from wind power plays a major role. Jensen-Group comes from Bornholm and has a factory in Rønne.
Due to its peripheral location, Bornholm developed slowly in the post-war years. An upswing for the then almost 50,000 islanders began with tourism . The island is accessible through numerous hiking and cycling trails. Beach tourism is possible on several beaches. Dueodde beach in the south of the island has one of the finest sands on the Baltic Sea. Golf , climbing , horse riding , cycling and other sporting activities are possible. Bornholm's art museum and the natural science museum Natur Bornholm are important factors for art and cultural tourism .
Handicraft products are made on the island itself, such as products from the numerous glassblowing shops and Bornholm stoneware. Fish smokers offer a wide variety of local dishes, such as kippers . The port city of Rønne is popular with day tourists . The accommodation offer ranges from youth hostels in the main towns to five-star hotels in Rønne, in the southern Balka and in the northeastern Sandvig. Holiday home centers and the headquarters of several hotels are the coastal towns of Dueodde, Balka, Sømarken and Allinge-Sandvig.
The Hammershus ruins in the north of the island are the oldest castle ruins in Northern Europe. Sights also include the four whitewashed round churches Østerlars Kirke , Sankt Ols Kirke , Nylars Kirke and Ny Kirke . Salomons Kapel is a medieval church ruin on the northern tip. Some places like Gudhjem have numerous narrow streets lined with half-timbered houses.
Bornholm Art Museum
The Bornholm Art Museum was built in 1993 and modernized in 2003 and expanded to 4000 m². Based on the Bauhaus architecture, the building, which is equipped with a lighthouse-like tower, fits harmoniously into the coastal landscape at Helligdomsklipperne around six kilometers west-northwest of Gudhjem. The permanent exhibition includes oil paintings by Danish and especially Bornholm artists of the 19th century to sculptures of contemporary art; Danish design studies (for example by Georg Jensen) are also in the permanent exhibition. The temporary exhibition offers contemporary artists a generous exhibition area, which allows viewing of the objects through natural light through the floor-to-ceiling windows with a view of the Baltic Sea. In the back of the building you can get through the contemporary exhibition (e.g. glass art from Gudhjem) over a 30 meter long walkway to a viewing platform. A special feature of the museum is a trickle that guides the water from the sanctuary spring (Helligdomskilden) through the building. The spring was known in the Middle Ages for its healing powers.
The Andersen Nexøs Hus Memorial Museum in Nexø dedicates its exhibition to the writer Martin Andersen Nexø , who is known for novels such as Pelle the Conqueror and Ditte Menschenkind , which were also popular in Germany in the mid-1920s. Another museum in the city, the Nexø Museum , shows the city's history.
The old merchant's farm Grønbechs Gård in Hasle is used for various exhibitions by the Arts & Crafts Association Bornholm (ACAB). Bornholms Bilmuseum in Aakirkeby is the classic car museum of a private collector.
The Bornholm Defense Museum Kastellet (Forsvarsmuseet på Bornholm) is located away from the town of Rønne in an old powder tower. In Rønne there is also a cultural and historical museum, the main location of Bornholms Museum , which presents the history of the island from the Neolithic to the most recent times.
Erichsen's Gård in Rønne was a town house that is now used as a subsidiary of Bornholms Museum . It documents Bornholm's bourgeois living culture in the 19th century. It consists of the main house, an outbuilding and a garden. The ensemble is located at 7 Laksegade.
The Hjorth family's ceramic factory in Rønne, founded in 1859, was converted into the Hjorths factory ceramic museum in 1993 (opened in 1995) . It is also operated as a subsidiary of Bornholms Museum . The workshops are located in several adjacent buildings, in which the manufacturing process of the ceramic vessels and figures can still be seen and understood today.
The only open-air museum on Bornholm is the Agricultural Museum Melstedtgård in the village of Melstedt, which shows the region's agriculture before the start of agricultural mechanization. It is located on the north coast of Bornholm, directly on the coastal road just a little east of Gudhjem in Melstedvej 25. The museum is another subsidiary location of Bornholms Museum .
The Oluf Høst Museum in Gudhjem is the former home of the artist Oluf Høst (1884–1966), where he painted for almost four decades. His preferred motifs were people, buildings and landscapes in his surroundings. He depicted them in constantly changing light, weather and seasons, like a small courtyard with a courtyard entrance in the landscape.
Bornholm has a well-developed road network.
Bornholm's main ferry port is Rønne. There is a fast ferry from the Bornholmslinjen shipping company from Rønne to Ystad in Sweden (all year round, journey time around 80 minutes), where there is a connection to an Intercity or Bornholmerbus line 866 over the Öresund Bridge to Copenhagen . Furthermore, from September 2018 there will be year-round ferry connections with Mukran on Rügen (journey time around 3½ hours), Køge on Zealand (all year round, journey time around 5½ hours), and Kołobrzeg ( Kolberg , Poland).
There are seasonal ferry connections from the port of Gudhjem on the northeast coast to the Pea Islands (Ertholmene) , which are also served daily by the post boat.
The regional airport Bornholm is located south of the main town Ronne; Another airport near Rø in the north-east of the island had to give way to a golf course in 2003.
Until 1968 there was rail traffic through the company De Bornholmske Jernbaner , which carried out passenger and goods transport on several meter- gauge lines.
Local public transport
The BAT company buses regularly connect all larger towns. City buses also run in Rønne. Bicycles can also be transported on the buses.
Cycle path network
Bornholm is covered by a dense, well-signposted network of cycle paths over 230 kilometers in length, some of which were laid out on the routes of the disused railway lines.
- Aura Dione (* 1985), Danish pop singer, grew up on Bornholm.
- Herbert von Garvens (1883–1953) lived in Allinge from 1932 .
- Hans Henny Jahnn (1894–1959) lived in Rutsker from 1934 to 1950.
- Martin Andersen Nexø (1869–1954) lived on Bornholm from 1877 to 1897.
- The mascot of the island of Bornholm is the 1943 by Ludvig Mahler created little troll Krølle-Bølle .
- The Bornholm port city of Gudhjem is exactly on the 15th degree of longitude, which corresponds to Central European Time (CET). This time is also called Gudhjem time in Denmark . In the south of the island, a little east of Slusegård, the 15th degree of longitude also intersects the 55th degree of latitude. This knudepunt is marked as a meridian stone by a granite slab.
- The infectious disease Bornholm's disease caused by coxsackieviruses was named after the island after the disease was first documented there.
- In autumn 2000 the 18-year-old participant in a geology course at Robbedale discovered the tooth of a predatory dinosaur, which was first described in 2003 as Dromaeosauroides bornholmensis . This is the first dinosaur remnant ever found in Denmark.
- The Danish adventure film for children The Lost Treasure of the Knights Templar is set on Bornholm. The plot of Martin Andersen Nexø's novel Pelle the Conqueror and the film adaptation of the same name are also set on the island.
- In the south of the island is the tallest Danish lighthouse, Dueodde Fyr .
- The Bornholmer Strasse border crossing in Berlin was the first open border crossing on the evening the Berlin Wall opened on November 9, 1989.
- The top of the 315.8 meter high transmitter mast near Rø (coordinates: 55 ° 09'36 "N 14 ° 53'13" E) is the highest point in Denmark with a height of 431.29 meters (apart from Greenland and the Faroe Islands Islands)
- Jørgen Butzbach: Bornholm was 1700 million years old. William Dams Boghandel A / S, Rønne 2000, ISBN 87-87021-78-1 .
- Claudio Casati, Lasse Sørensen: Bornholm i ældre stenalder - Status over Kulturel udvikling and Kontact Kuml 2006
- Peter Gravesen: Bornholm. Published in the Geologisk set series . Geografforlaget, Brenderup 1996.
- Christian Roland Hauck: Bornholm 1940-1946. From German to Soviet occupation with special attention to the presence of Soviet troops in the town of Allinge-Sandvig. Dissertation Flensburg 1999.
- Jørn Lund (Red.): The store Danske Encyklopædi Danmarks Nationalleksikon. København 1994, ISBN 87-7789-045-0 .
- Hilthart Pedersen: The Younger Stone Age on Bornholm. Grin, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-94559-2 .
- Bent Rying: Bornholm. Shape, history, culture. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1981, ISBN 3-529-06172-7 .
- Bornholms Velkomstcenter and Bornholms Amt: Bornholm. Cycling through nature and culture. 3. Edition. Rønne 1996, ISBN 87-88440-12-5 .
- At table on Bornholm. Ulrike Neubecker, ZDF , Germany 2014.
- Round trip Bornholm. WDR, Germany 2018.
Bornholm as a filming location
- Minute of silence . Thorsten Schmidt, Germany, Denmark, 2016.
- Official website of the municipality (Danish)
- ↑ a b c Statistics Banks -> Befolkning og valg -> BY1: Folketal January 1st efter byområde, alder og køn (Danish)
- ↑ a b Statistics Banks -> Geografi, miljø og energi -> ARE207: Areal demands efter municipality / region (Danish)
- ↑ Statistics banks -> Befolkning og valg -> BEF4: Folketal pr. January 1st demands på øer (Danish)
- ↑ Danmarks Statistical Yearbook 2009 - Geography and climate, Table 3 Area and population. Regions and inhabited islands (English)
- ↑ a b Døndalen - Bornholm.
- ↑ wwwrockclimbing.dk
- ^ Stone industry history in North Bornholm ( Memento from July 2, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) (Danish).
- ↑ a b Bornholm - Student finds dinosaur footprints ( Memento from January 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Bison Bornholm. Naturstyrelsen, and to date. Tilgået: October 7, 2016.
- ↑ Hans Klüche: Bornholm. Goldstadt travel guide, 1993.
- ↑ Bornholmsk Turistleksikon
- ↑ Statistics banks -> Befolkning og valg -> KM1: Befolkningen January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st, so and folkekirkemedlemsskab (Danish)
- ↑ File: Administrative division of denmark in medieval times.jpg
- ↑ De bor nu under 40,000 on Bornholm. Jyllands-Posten from September 24, 2014 (Danish), accessed on September 26, 2014
- ↑ Hilthart Pedersen: The younger stone age on Bornholm. Grin, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-94559-2 .
- ↑ Gryet - bautasten og grave: Kulturstyrelsen .
- ↑ The Store Danske , building keys.
- ↑ Bornholm Atlas over byer, bygninger and miljøer. Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 2003, ISBN 87-91298-06-7 . (www.kuas.dk)
- ↑ Walk Gudhjem to Helligdommen
- ^ B. Gensbøl, L. Gensbøl: Bornholm: Nature Guide. Gyldendal A / S, 2009.
- ^ H. Bøggild: Bornholm. Gyldendals Bogklub, 1988, ISBN 87-00-27264-7 .
- ↑ Holy Woman - a monolith on Bornholm ( Memento from December 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
^ Hermann Kamp: Burgundy. History and culture. Beck, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-406-53614-4 , p. 11.
Hans Hubert Anton , Heinrich Beck (philologist) , Peter Berghaus , Max Martin , Günter Neumann , Hellmut Rosenfeld: Burgunden. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1981, ISBN 3-11-006513-4 , pp. 224-271 (here: p. 236).
- ^ Mollerup: Ketting, Schweder . In: Carl Frederik Bricka (Ed.): Dansk biografisk Lexikon. Tillige omfattende Norge for Tidsrummet 1537-1814. 1st edition. tape 9 : Jyde – Køtschau . Gyldendalske Boghandels Forlag, Copenhagen 1895, p. 132 (Danish, runeberg.org ).
- ^ Antjekathrin Graßmann: Lübeckische Geschichte. 2nd Edition. Lübeck 1989, ISBN 3-7950-3203-2 , p. 376 ff.
- ↑ Koefoed . In: Christian Blangstrup (Ed.): Salmonsens Konversationsleksikon . 2nd Edition. tape 14 : Kirkeskov – Kvadratrix . JH Schultz Forlag, Copenhagen 1923, p. 265 (Danish, runeberg.org ).
- ^ Sabine Neumann, Horst Schwartz: Bornholm . DuMont, 1997, ISBN 3-7701-3532-6 , pp. 33 ( limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed December 27, 2016]).
- ^ World War Ammunition in the Sea - Time Bombs in the Maritime Ecosystem. Retrieved November 26, 2019 (German).
- ^ Philipp Löwe: Ordnance clearance in German seas: time bomb under water . In: Spiegel Online . November 24, 2019 ( spiegel.de [accessed November 26, 2019]).
- ↑ Arkitektoniske elementer at Bornholms-kunstmuseum.dk
- ^ Museum in the Powder Tower.
- ^ Bornholm museums.
- ^ History of the ceramic factory in Rønne.
- ^ Bornholm painter Oluf Høst.
- ^ Eckhard-Herbert Arndt: Bornholm service optimized. In: Daily port report of January 29, 2015, p. 13
- ↑ https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x4717o3
- ↑ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kuVKbAZOsvk
- ↑ The filming locations of the “Minute of Silence” on Bornholm. Retrieved January 12, 2018 .
Coordinates: 55 ° 8 ' N , 14 ° 55' E