|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||13 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||214.21 km 2|
|Residents:||216,530 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1011 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||23552-23570, 23627, 23628|
|Primaries :||0451, 04502 , 04508, 04509|
|License plate :||HL|
|Community key :||01 0 03 000|
|LOCODE :||DE LBC|
|City structure:||10 districts with 35 districts|
City administration address :
|Breite Strasse 62
|Mayor :||Jan Lindenau ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Lübeck in Schleswig-Holstein|
|Hanseatic City of Lübeck|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|Reference No .:||272bis|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||1987 (session 11)|
The Hanseatic City of Lübeck ( Low German : Lübęk , Lübeek; adjective: Lübsch, Lübisch, since the 19th century also Lübeckisch) , Latin Lubeca , is a city in northern Germany and in the southeast of Schleswig-Holstein on the Bay of Lübeck , a bay in the Baltic Sea . With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein after the state capital Kiel , with around 214 km² the largest city in Schleswig-Holstein and one of the four regional centers of the state. The nearest large cities are Hamburg around 65 kilometers southwest, Kiel around 78 kilometers northwest and Schwerin around 68 kilometers southeast. Lübeck is a member of the cooperation network for the Hamburg Metropolitan Region .) (
The Hanseatic city was founded in 1143 at its current location, received town charter in 1160 and is also known as the “City of Seven Towers ” and “Gateway to the North”. She is known as the “Queen” and “Mother of the Hanseatic League ”, a trade association that has ensured great prosperity in Lübeck and other member cities through free trade and peaceful cooperation since the 12th century until modern times . St. Marien zu Lübeck is considered to be one of the main works and the “mother church” of the brick Gothic , which was spread throughout Northern Europe by the Wendish Association of Cities . The preserved areas of Lübeck's old town with over a thousand cultural monuments have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage since 1987 . Lübeck had a tradition since 1226 as a Free Imperial City in the Holy Roman Empire and as a Free City or city-state ; it ended in 1937 with the Greater Hamburg Act .
The city is located in the North German Plain on the Lower Trave , a navigable river that flows into the Baltic Sea about 17 kilometers from the old town in the Travemünde district . The old town is on a nearly two-square-kilometer hill a Werder between the rivers Trave and Wakenitz forms. With the breakthrough of the "Canal Trave" in the north at the end of the 19th century, the old town became an island. The max. The altitude of the Altadthügel is 33 m. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal also runs through the urban area from Krummesse to the Trave. The city is mostly located in the Lübeck Basin , the surrounding landscape belongs to the Ostholsteiner hill country and is shaped by the Vistula Glaciation ( Pleistocene ). The geographical location on the Trave, which breaks through the Baltic ridge shortly before Travemünde , favored the development of the city as a Baltic Sea port and founded its rapid rise to the north European center of power in the Middle Ages.
The urban area of Lübeck has been officially divided into ten districts since the restructuring by the citizenship resolution of September 28, 1972 . These, in turn, are divided into a total of 35 city districts . The ten districts with their official numbers and the number of inhabitants:
- 01 city center (around 14,000 inhabitants)
- 02 St. Jürgen (about 45,500 inhabitants)
- 03 Moisling (about 11,000 inhabitants)
- 04 Buntekuh (about 11,000 inhabitants)
- 05 St. Lorenz-Süd (about 15,500 inhabitants)
- 06 St. Lorenz-Nord (about 43,500 inhabitants)
- 07 St. Gertrud (around 41,500 inhabitants)
- 08 Schlutup (about 6,000 inhabitants)
- 09 Kücknitz (about 18,500 inhabitants)
- 10 Travemünde (about 13,500 inhabitants)
Other names of districts such as university district , Ringstedtensiedlung, gemstone settlement or planetary settlement do not correspond to the administrative structure.
The Lübeck districts have each developed their own image over time.
01 : The city center is the tourist center of Lübeck, the oldest and smallest district in terms of area. The city center is mainly located on the old town island between Trave and Wakenitz, which extends roughly two kilometers from north to south and one kilometer from west to east. Some of the main buildings that are part of the inner city are located on surrounding smaller islands, such as the Holsten Gate , which lies at the foot of the so-called Wall Peninsula. To leave the city center, you have to cross a bridge in the old fortification belt around the city (ramparts). The new towns do not close immediately, as in most other cities in the medieval old town on. Only 7% of the population of Lübeck live in the old town.
02 : In the south of the old town and on the Wakenitz peninsula also encompassing the eastern outskirts of the old town lies the district of St. Jürgen, which is by far the largest in terms of area is shaped. In the south, St. Jürgen runs out into the Lauenburg landscape with a wide green belt full of fields and meadows . In the east, the district is bounded by the Wakenitz, where a rich nature reserve has arisen in the floodplains due to the former German-German border. The two largest universities in Lübeck, the University and the Technical University of Lübeck, are located in St. Jürgen . St. Jürgen was originally a suburb with market gardens and pastures. Today there are only four nurseries left, because most of the green areas have been built on. The most important new building projects are the university district , which was designed as a mixed residential and business district, and the Bornkamp development area .
The borderline in the village of Krummesse is unusual . Here the old farms with their hooves belong alternately to Lübeck and to the Duchy of Lauenburg, so that the territorial affiliation resembles a patchwork quilt. Krummesse (Lübeck and Lauenburg part) has the postcode 23628. The telephone code is 04508.
It is also strange that the Klein Grönau district (addresses: Hauptstrasse 65a – 65e and 70c – 70e), which consists of only a few houses, can only be reached by road via the Lauenburg community of Groß Grönau. The postal code 23627 and the telephone code 04509 have been taken over from Groß Grönau.
03/04 : Beyond the railroad tracks in St. Lorenz-Süd follow the two districts of Buntekuh and Moisling, which are characterized by apartment blocks from the 1960s. In Buntekuh also be located extensive commercial areas along the A 1 . In contrast to Buntekuh, Moisling can look back on centuries of history. As early as the 17th century there was a settlement here, which at that time still belonged to Denmark and was mainly inhabited by Jews . There is still a Jewish cemetery here today . The Buntekuh district owes its name to a rural estate that existed here until the end of the 1950s. The estate, in turn, was named after the Hanseatic cog " Bunte Kuh ", which led the attack on the pirate Klaus Störtebeker in 1401 .
05/06 : West of the Holsten Gate are the two suburbs of St. Lorenz-Nord and St. Lorenz-Süd, which are separated by the railway line. It is named after the St. Lorenz church on Steinrader Weg, which dates back to the chapel of a plague cemetery from the 16th century. A suburb for the lower and middle classes was built here in the middle to the end of the 19th century, and a developed working-class culture soon established itself there. Willy Brandt was born in 1913 on Meierstrasse in St. Lorenz-Süd . Karl Friedrich Stellbrink , one of the Lübeck martyrs during National Socialism, worked at the Luther Church in St. Lorenz-Süd . Apartment buildings and industrial operations ( Drägerwerk ) still dominate the two districts today . There are only a few green spaces.
07 : St. Gertrud, directly bordering the old town in the north, is characterized by classicist summer houses and Wilhelminian style villas around the city park and the Wakenitz, just like St. Jürgen right near the old town . Further to the east, more modern residential areas for all social classes follow. The fishing village of Gothmund , which is well worth seeing, is located on the Trave with some thatched fishermen's cottages. This is also where Lübeck's Lauerholz forest is located , in which the former border with the GDR can be traced further south .
08 : Beyond the Lauerholz municipal forest is the small district of Schlutup, which is characterized by its fishing port on the Trave. It is being transformed into a modern paper transshipment port. Before the fall of the Wall, the northernmost border crossing point between the Federal Republic and the GDR was in Schlutup: the transit route to Rostock and Sassnitz on the B 105 .
09 : North of the Trave is Kücknitz, the old industrial quarter of Lübeck. Up until the 1980s, pig iron, coke, cement and copper were produced here at the metalworks . The Museum of Workers' Culture in the Herrenwyk history workshop is a reminder of this . An important part of the port of Lübeck is located in Kücknitz, which includes a newly built container terminal. The Flenderwerft , the traditional shipyard in the district, filed for bankruptcy in 2002. Since 2006 there is a ferry terminal of the Lehmann Group on the former shipyard of the Seelandkai of the Lübeck port company .
10 : At the mouth of the Trave lies Travemünde, which was acquired by Lübeck in the 14th century and has been recognized as a seaside resort since 1801. A wide sandy beach attracts visitors here, both on the actual town center and on the Priwall peninsula , which before the fall of the Wall could only be reached by ferry because it was bordered by the GDR on the eastern edge. South of the Priwall, facing away from the Baltic Sea, lies the Pötenitzer Wiek , a large bay on the Trave that has been preserved as a species-rich area due to its proximity to the border. The Skandinavienkai , the largest Baltic Sea ferry port in Germany, is located in Travemünde . From there ferries go to many Baltic ports such as Trelleborg , Helsinki and Ventspils .
- District of Northwest Mecklenburg in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: City of Dassow (district Pötenitz ), Selmsdorf and Lüdersdorf (all of the office of Schönberger Land )
- District of the Duchy of Lauenburg : Groß Grönau and Groß Sarau (both Lauenburg Lakes Office ), Klempau , Krummesse , Rondeshagen and Bliestorf (all Berkenthin Office ) and Groß Schenkenberg ( Sandesneben Office )
- Stormarn district : Klein Wesenberg , Wesenberg , Hamberge , Badendorf , Heilshoop and Mönkhagen (all of Nordstormarn district )
- District of Ostholstein : Stockelsdorf (free municipality), Bad Schwartau (free city) as well as Ratekau and Timmendorfer Strand (both free municipalities)
The Hanseatic city of Lübeck and the neighboring districts belong to the European metropolitan region of Hamburg with over 5.3 million inhabitants. Lübeck, as a regional center in a metropolitan region, forms a structurally intertwined agglomeration with around 290,000 inhabitants with the directly adjacent towns and Scharbeutz mentioned . In the neighboring towns of Mecklenburg, too, a belt of bacon is slowly developing due to the funding gradient .
Until October 3, 1990, the border with the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was the eastern city limit, today the state border with Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The Zonenrandförderungsgesetz ran after the reunification of Germany also for Lübeck.
With the municipality of Krummesse there are unique, bizarre border conditions in Germany; As a result, the municipality of Krummesse has the longest municipal boundary in Germany, based on its area.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Lübeck
The lower-lying areas of Lübeck near the water are at risk of flooding due to the connection between Lübeck and the Baltic Sea via the Trave . A high water mark is attached to a building on the corner of Obertrave and Pagonnienstraße to commemorate the flood of November 13, 1872 .
Origin and history of the name
The name of Lübeck reflects the settlement history of the area. The earliest tradition of the name in the form Liubice can be found in the Hamburg Church History of Adam of Bremen from the 2nd half of the 11th century ( civitas Liubice (II / 19, schol. 12) as well as the spelling variant in leubice (III / 20) ). The origin and meaning of the name have long and controversially discussed in linguistics and historical research on place names. On the one hand, there was the question of the German or Slavic origin of the name "Lübeck", which today is unanimously answered to the effect that the name is of Slavic, namely Polabian , origin and has the root * l'ub- (lovely, dear ) and, on the other hand, whether the place name can be traced back directly to this meaning or via a detour via a personal name. While the first conception founded by Wilhelm Ohnesorge ( Liubice = "the lovely one") prevailed until the middle of the 20th century, the view that the name goes back to a patronymic of L'ub or L'ubomir ( Liubice = "(the settlement of the) descendants of L'ub / L'ubomir").
With the displacement and assimilation of the Western Slavs by the Saxons , Saxon , later Low German , became the predominant language in the region, and the name of the settlement Liubice was subject to the development of the Saxon language. With the transition to Middle Low German , the Old Saxon iu changed to a ü sound. So Liubice first became Lübice . When, in the early Middle Low German period, the Old Saxon palatalization of the k to sibilance (such as in Kiellu to Celle ) was reversed and many of the affected words were spoken with the old k again, this development also included the originally Slavic name of Lübeck, making it the common one in the Middle Ages Name was Lübeke .
In the 17th century, Mecklenburg , to whose dialect area Lübisch belonged, was covered by an apocopy of the e and the e at the end of many words was shortened or omitted. This is how today's name Lübek or Lübeek came about .
A conversion of the long e to a short one took place only to a limited extent, and like the name of Mecklenburg, Low German authors spelled the name with a simple k, as Lübek - or, to accommodate the pronunciation, with a tonal e as Lübeek or Lübęk . The spelling with ck is only due to the establishment of a common high German spelling. However, this is only a pile of letters . Today's common pronunciation with a short e is to be understood as a hypercorrection based on the spelling.
The settlement of Liubice (Alt-Lübeck), founded by Slavs before 819 , gave today's Lübeck its name. It was at the mouth of the Schwartau in the Trave. Since the 10th century, Liubice has been the most important Abodrite settlement alongside Oldenburg in Holstein . After its destruction in 1138, the city in its current location on the Buku hill was re-established in 1143 by Adolf II, Count von Schauenburg and Holstein, as the first German port city on the Baltic Sea. Already in 1134 Heinrich the Lion privileged Baltic Sea traders and promoted Liubice, which was in competition with Schleswig . Later, after being destroyed by the Holsten and reestablished by Count Adolf II, Liubice was raised to the rank of town and henceforth called Lubeke. Lübeck prospered right from the start and many people moved to the Travestadt. Lübeck also formed an important and commercial lucrative city connection with Hamburg by land, thus further reducing Schleswig's importance. Initially, Lübeck also competed directly with Bardowick and Lüneburg, but at the latest since the transfer of the diocese from Oldenburg to Lübeck in 1163 (1160 Bishop Gerold Heinrich the Lion asked for the diocese to be moved to Lübeck. In 1163, the first cathedral in Lübeck was consecrated). Lübeck's regional importance was outstanding.
Time of the Hanseatic League
In 1160 Lübeck received the Soest town charter . The Artlenburger privilege of 1161, in which Lübeck merchants were to be legally equated with the Gotland merchants who had previously dominated the Baltic Sea trade , was extremely important for the city . Shortly afterwards, in June 1226, Lübeck obtained imperial freedom from Emperor Friedrich II with the imperial freedom letter, which means that it became a direct imperial city.
“[…] Lübeck was born queen of the Hanseatic League: through location and history. From the beginning, Lübeck was the heart and mind of the cities [...]; his pulse flowed through them all, and his spirit shaped their thinking - in Lübeck the Hanseatic League was thought out most of all. "
Gustav Berg shows that Lübeck initially earned the position in the Hanseatic League and by no means had it from the beginning and also makes it clear that the Hanseatic League did not have a constitution that guaranteed Lübeck this position in writing. Lübeck's regional supremacy became clear for the first time around 1227: after Henry the Lion was overthrown, the Danish King Waldemar II appropriated the areas between Hamburg and the Oder, which were also granted to him by Emperor Friedrich II. However, Lübeck and other territories did not submit to Waldemar. With their victory in the Battle of Bornhöved on July 22, 1227 with the outstanding participation of Lübeck, they succeeded in evading his rule. For the first time, Lübeck emerged as the leading player in the region.
When Lübeck finally ousted the city of Schleswig as a serious competitor, the city of Visby , on the island of Gotland , gained in commercial importance due to its strategically favorable location in the middle of the Baltic Sea. Pagel sees Visby's initial position in the early Hanseatic era due to the increasing insignificance of Schleswig: "The German defensive position [was] relocated from Schleswig to Wisby [...]." This also led to bloody disputes between Gotlanders and Germans, which were initiated by Heinrich the Lion in 1161 ended with the Artlenburger privilege . The reason for the argument is not known. There are only assumptions made by various authors. Heinrich also called on people to “frequent the port of Lübeck more often.” In addition, the document referred primarily to the legal status of Gotland seafarers in Lübeck and expressed the wish that Lübeck merchants would also receive the same rights in Gotland.
In 1249 Lübeck attacked the up-and-coming city of Stralsund, which had become a serious competitor in the herring business, and thus asserted its position of power in the Baltic region for the first time. After the victory over Stralsund, the Wendish cities, consisting of Lübeck, Wismar and Rostock, joined forces in 1259 to form an alliance for safe action on land and water, which other cities followed. Among them was Visby, with whom a ten-year alliance was concluded in 1280. As early as 1241 Lübeck and Hamburg had signed a similar contract in which the friendship between the cities and mutual support were confirmed. Accordingly, the two cities undertook to "fight road robbers and other evildoers at common expense." In addition, these two cities agreed that justice should be exercised towards their citizens, also outside the city limits, and that the costs for this should be borne by both cities jointly .
Lübeck gained importance through trade with Novgorod. At the beginning it was the largest market on the eastern Baltic Sea. In the densely populated Volkhov region, there was one of the greatest demands for products in the West. Initially, the united Gotland drivers of the Roman Empire , i.e. Low German merchants , drove to Russia together with merchants from Gotland. Lübeck thus managed to establish itself in the Russian trade within a generation after receiving its town charter. At the beginning, the Gotlanders were very successful in trading valuable goods from the Orient in western Russia, but this trade ceased after the land route from the Orient to Novgorod through Russia was no longer possible in the course of the Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe. As a result, Visby's importance in Novgorod declined, with trade Lübeck-Novgorod prospering due to the high demand for salt on the eastern Baltic coast: The Lüneburg salt, which found its way to Novgorod via Lübeck, ensured the increased influence of the travesty city in the east.
With the help of salt and herring, Lübeck was able to meet the high demand and thereby gain in importance in the course of population growth in the 12th century and the Christian fish law on public holidays. As a result, Lübeck became the central trading center for land trade and trading in herring and salt for the east-west tangent. The trading of salt in Novgorod by Low German merchants led to these traders beginning to trade the fur goods that were so popular in Western Europe. The Low German merchants were more established in the West than the Gotlanders, which again led to Visby's decline in influence.
Until the end of the 13th century Visby was the upper court for the Novgorod drivers. Lübeck's interest at that time was the enforcement of the Lübeck law in the entire Baltic Sea region. In this dispute with Visby, which wanted to exercise its own rights on the merchants active in Gotland, Lübeck finally prevailed, and the Oberhof was transferred to the Travestadt in the years 1293 to 1295; Lübeck also had Visby's seal lifted for the joint merchants.
After Visby , the first capital of the Hanseatic League , was conquered by the Danish King Waldemar IV. Atterdag in 1361 , Lübeck became the new capital of the Hanseatic League (also called Queen of the Hanseatic League ) in the 13th century after the First and Second Waldemark Wars Städtehanse had changed. Lübeck subsequently developed into the most important trading city in Northern Europe at times . The association of Wendish cities was created under Lübeck's leadership. Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian granted Lübeck gold minting rights in 1340. In 1356 the first general Hanseatic day took place in Lübeck. With the Peace of Stralsund , Lübeck reached the height of its power in the Baltic Sea region. In the 14th century, Lübeck was one of the largest cities in the empire alongside Cologne and Magdeburg .
Lübeck's role as the leading trading power in the Baltic Sea was increasingly endangered in the first decades of the 16th century by Dutch merchants who, bypassing the Lübeck stacks, headed for the cities in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea. The war against the Kalmar Union was followed by another loss-making war against Denmark . After Denmark's King Friedrich I was unwilling to leave Lübeck the Sundschlösser as reward for his help in the capture of Christian II. In 1532 , Jürgen Wullenwever tried by military means to restore the old supremacy in the Baltic region and to influence the feud of the counts in favor of Lübeck. To finance his military adventures, he had the church treasury melted down, among other things. But it failed dramatically, had to leave the city in 1535, was captured by the Archbishop of Bremen and executed in 1537. With that, Lübeck's time as "Queen of the Hanseatic League" was finally over. And the importance of the Hanseatic League also dwindled.
During the Thirty Years' War Lübeck managed to remain neutral. In 1629 the Treaty of Lübeck was concluded between the imperial troops and King Christian IV of Denmark. In the course of the preparations for a comprehensive peace congress during the negotiations on the Hamburg preliminaries in 1641, the two cities of Hamburg and Lübeck were also discussed as congress locations. The Hanseatic cities were represented at the negotiations and the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia by the later mayor of Lübeck, David Gloxin . The last Hanseatic Congress took place in Lübeck in 1669. The three cities of Lübeck, Hamburg and Bremen were appointed as trustees for the Hanseatic League and its remaining assets.
The Seven Years' War ran thanks to the diplomatic relations of the Lübeck city commander Count Chasot without causing major damage to the city. With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803 Lübeck remained an imperial city, only to become a sovereign German state with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. As a result of the Battle of Lübeck , which was devastating for Blücher , the city was occupied by French troops from November 1806 to 1813 during the Lübeck French period . From 1811 to 1813 Lübeck belonged to the French Empire as part of the Département des Bouches de l'Elbe .
In 1815 Lübeck became a sovereign member of the German Confederation as a Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck at the Congress of Vienna . Legations and consulates were mostly maintained together with the two sister cities of Bremen and Hamburg in important capitals and ports. The Hanseatic resident ministers such as Vincent Rumpff in Paris or James Colquhoun in London , who were also the last Hanseatic stewardship , negotiated international agreements with the most important trading partners. The postal service operating every city in itself. The city became an important symbol of the Vormärz through its renewal movement Jung-Lübeck and the Germanist Day of 1847, but survived the revolutionary year of 1848 without major unrest due to the well advanced preparation of a new constitution .
The German Imperium
Lübeck joined the North German Confederation in 1866 and the Zollverein in 1868 and became a member state of the German Empire in 1871 ; This ended Lübeck's sovereignty under international law , which had existed since 1806 . Industrialization began at the end of the 19th century . The population grew rapidly and the suburbs expanded with the lifting of the gates in 1864. In 1895 the German-Nordic Trade and Industry Exhibition was held in Lübeck, for the citizens of the small city-state "their world exhibition".
In 1897 the city got its infantry regiment "Lübeck" (3rd Hanseatic) No. 162 . In the First World War it was u. a. used in the Battle of the Somme , the Siegfried Line and the spring offensive of 1918 .
The collapse of the German Empire in 1918 led to a sailors' uprising in Lübeck as the next city after Kiel , but in Lübeck, as the only state in the German Empire, it did not lead to revolutionary upheavals due to the November Revolution . Mayor Emil Ferdinand Fehling and all the senators remained in office, but in the same year there was a new, contemporary electoral law for the state and in May 1920 a new, first democratic constitution in the modern sense.
The citizenship member Johannes Stelling represented the Free State at the constituent national assembly , which took place from February 6, 1919 in Weimar . With the right to vote for women , the Weimar constitution passed there already contained much of what the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Basic Law , which had come into force in 1949 , was supposed to contain.
time of the nationalsocialism
As early as 1932, the NSDAP had the second largest parliamentary group in the Lübeck Senate after the SPD . A speech planned by Adolf Hitler in Lübeck in 1932 could not take place, however, as no suitable place could be found for it.
In March 1933, the NSDAP in Lübeck enforced the " Gleichschaltung", combined with the resignation of the SPD mayor Paul Löwigt and the other social democratic senators, and overruled the democratic constitutional principles; Friedrich Hildebrandt , the Reich governor for Mecklenburg and Lübeck, appointed his deputy, Otto-Heinrich Drechsler , as mayor on May 30th . The dispute between the National Socialists and the democratic parties led to the arrest of Julius Leber on February 1, 1933. Willy Brandt (at that time still under his maiden name Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm) could only escape persecution by fleeing to Scandinavia. As a result of the Greater Hamburg Law in 1937, Lübeck lost its 711-year-old territorial independence and became part of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein .
As part of the recently issued British Area Bombing Directive , on 28/29. March 1942 - Palm Sunday night - the Royal Air Force launched an air raid on Lübeck , targeting the densely built medieval old town. In this first area bombing of a large city, a total of 320 people were killed and 1,044 buildings destroyed or damaged, among them the Marienkirche , the Petrikirche and the cathedral .
On May 2, 1945, troops of the British Army occupied the city, the further destruction of which was avoided by the German Major General Kurt Lottner by removing the explosives already attached to the bridges and quay walls. One day later, the Cap Arcona , on which concentration camp prisoners had been abducted, was erroneously sunk in the Bay of Lübeck by Allied airmen . On May 4, 1945, Hans-Georg von Friedeburg finally signed the surrender of all German troops in northwest Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark in Lüneburg on behalf of the last Reich President Karl Dönitz , who had fled to Flensburg - Mürwik .
Lübeck in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
After the end of the war, Lübeck's population rose from around 155,000 before the beginning of the Second World War to around 250,000 at the end of 1945 , mainly due to the influx of refugees from the eastern German territories . In addition, 11,580 " Displaced Persons " from Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania were accepted into Lübeck . who had fled the Red Army .
Lübeck became part of the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, which was formed by the Allies , but enjoyed an exceptional status of municipal authority in the field of cultural policy and monument preservation . Statehood was denied in the 1956 Lübeck judgment . The division of Germany separated Lübeck from the Mecklenburg part of its hinterland, but gave its ferry port Travemünde a privileged position in ferry traffic between Western Europe and the Baltic Sea countries of Sweden and Finland . Since German reunification , Lübeck has again been the regional center for western Mecklenburg .
On January 18, 1996, ten people died in an arson attack on asylum seekers' accommodation in Hafenstrasse , 30 were seriously injured and 20 were slightly injured. The crime could not be resolved to this day.
In 1911, the city's population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city . By 1945 this number had doubled to 219,000. In 1968 the city's population reached its all-time high of 243,121. At the end of 2019, the city had 216,530 residents according to the statistical office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein
As of March 31, 2019, 88,795 people from Lübeck (40.3% of the population) were Protestant, 8.2% Roman Catholic. The remaining 51.6% of the population were without religion or members of any other religion. Three months earlier (as of December 31, 2018), 89,539 people from Lübeck (40.6% of the population) were Protestant, 8.2% Roman Catholic. The remaining 51.2% of the population were without religion or members of other religions.
In 2005, the majority of the Lübeck population (52.0%) was Protestant. The proportion of Catholic residents was 9% in the same year.
With the reconstruction of the city, Heinrich the Lion moved the bishop's seat from Oldenburg (Holstein) here in 1160 and donated the cathedral as a bishop's church. The personal residence of the bishop remained in Eutin , which later became the center of the Principality of Lübeck .
Reformation and Lutherans
From 1524 the Reformation entered the city (first Protestant sermon), and in 1530/31 the city council introduced a new church order by Johannes Bugenhagen . After that, Lübeck was a Protestant city for many years, which in 1577 actively supported Orthodox Lutherism when the concord formula was drawn up , published in the Concord Book in 1580 , which led to a demarcation from the surrounding areas of Holstein and had a major influence on the further development of intellectual life in the city should have. As a Free Imperial City, the Senate in Lübeck held the sovereign church regiment and was able to regulate church affairs itself. The administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Lübeck was carried out by the consistory , which was more of an ecclesiastical court than an authority, as well as by the clerical ministry , which was headed by a superintendent until 1796 , then a senior .
In 1921 the regional church received a new constitution. In 1933 church elections took place in Lübeck, which resulted in a majority for the National Socialist German Christians . An opposition with the approach of a church struggle only formed in the course of 1934. These supporters of the Confessing Church around Axel Werner Kühl did not recognize the newly elected Bishop Erwin Balzer . In 1937 a compromise was reached between the two conflicting confessions that allowed each side to coexist until the end of the war. In 1948 the Lübeck church became a founding member of the EKD . In 1977 she joined the North Elbe Evangelical Lutheran Church and became the seat of the diocese Holstein-Lübeck this new national church . In 1958, Lübeck received Elisabeth Haseloff , Germany's first female pastor; Bärbel Wartenberg-Potter became the third bishop in Germany in 2001. Today the Evangelical Lutheran parishes of the city belong to the parish of Lübeck-Lauenburg within the district of Hamburg and Lübeck (which covers both Hamburg, Lübeck and southeastern Holstein) within the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Northern Germany .
Evangelical Free Churches
As early as 1532, Anabaptists settled in Lübeck , who formed a Mennonite congregation (Vereenigte vlaamse Doopsgesinde Gemejnte tot Lübeck) in the 16th and 17th centuries . At the beginning, the community consisted mainly of Dutch religious refugees . Even Menno Simons had with the Mennokate found a final place of activity near the city. The Mennonite congregation could not appear openly, however, as it was not tolerated by the city council. In addition, she was forbidden to be buried in Lübeck, so she buried her dead on the south side of the cemetery in Hamberge outside the Hanseatic city . After the Second World War there were Mennonites again in Lübeck, who joined together in 1950 to form a new community. Today the congregation is affiliated with the working group of Mennonite congregations in Germany .
From around 1849 Baptists can be found in Lübeck , but they did not found their own congregation until 1921. There are now four parishes with a total of 500 members. The congregations are affiliated to the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches . The street in front of the Baptist Church of Peace was renamed Täuferstrasse in 1992 in memory of the first Lübeck Mennonites or Anabaptists, although the Mennonite congregation is on a different street. The Methodists began the mission in Lübeck in 1929 and with the Christ Church they also have their own church building in the city area. A second Methodist church was sold in 2010.
There are now a number of other Protestant free churches such as the Free Evangelical Congregation , the Salvation Army , the Seventh-day Adventists , a joint congregation of Mennonite Brothers and Evangelical Christian -Baptists and Pentecostal congregations such as the Agape, Arche, Ecclesia and Salem -Local community. These are affiliated to the Bund Freikirchlicher Pfingstgemeinden (Agape and Ecclesia), the Mülheim Association (Arche) or the Church of God (Salem).
In 1666 a Reformed community was established in Lübeck ; in 1689 there was also a French Reformed community, which was recruited from immigrant Huguenots . Both communities united in 1781 to form the "Evangelical Reformed Church Community Lübeck", which in 1926 joined the Evangelical Reformed Church of the Province of Hanover . The important neo-classical building of the Reformed Church on Königstraße was put into service in 1826.
Catholics after the Reformation
In the 19th century, Catholics returned to the city. In 1849 they received their first legal system and in 1888 the first Catholic church in Lübeck, the Herz-Jesu-Kirche - today the Provost Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus - was built. More Catholic parishes were founded in the 20th century. They initially belonged to the " Apostolic Vicariate of the Nordic Missions " and from 1930 due to the Prussian Concordat of 1929 to the Diocese of Osnabrück . The new Archdiocese of Hamburg was created in 1993 from the northern areas of this diocese , to which the city of Lübeck now belongs. The Archdiocese of Hamburg was not officially established until January 7, 1995. The parishes of the city of Lübeck belong to the Lübeck deanery within the Archdiocese of Hamburg.
Jews in Moisling and Lübeck
The first Jewish families to settle in the village of Moisling - outside the Lübeck Landwehr - had fled the pogroms of the Ukrainian Cossack uprising (1648–1657) under Hetman Bohdan Khmelnyzkyj from the multinational empire Poland-Lithuania . The owner of the village and estate Moisling, the Lübeck mayor Gotthard von Höveln (1603–1671), who settled the Ashkenazi Jews for economic reasons, met with strong resistance from the council and the citizens, who had previously settled Jews in the Lübeck city center. as well as land area.
After the dispute escalated, von Höveln placed his village under royal Danish territorial sovereignty in 1667. The heir, his son-in-law von Wickede, obtained the right of settlement for Jews in Moisling and their unrestricted freedom of trade and movement in the entire Danish state on the basis of royal concessions in 1686 and 1697 . But the Holstein country Jews needed the Lübeck market for their trading activities in order to earn their daily living. But that remained largely closed to them until 1852.
Between 1702 and 1762 the village belonged to Gottorfish and Danish owners. The Altona chief rabbi was entitled to the autonomous Jewish civil and ceremonial jurisdiction of the Moisling lower rabbinate . In 1762 the village became private property in Lübeck, so that the city was able to continuously implement its anti-Jewish policy. By state treaty between Denmark and Lübeck in 1806 the sovereignty over Moisling came to the imperial city, whereby the now 300 rural Jews without rights became citizens of Lübeck; their unregulated legal status remained unchanged until 1848.
The civil equality imposed on Jews during the Napoleonic phase (1811–1813) meant that half of the Moislinger Jewish community moved to Lübeck, where in 1812 a synagogue was inaugurated for the first time. In 1814, after the fall of Napoleon and the withdrawal of French troops, the Senate revoked equality. After years of legal disputes, the Jews were expelled from the city in 1824 and returned to Moisling.
In the remote Moislinger forced ghetto , the continuously impoverished Jews lived mainly from peddling in neighboring territories. The traditionally law-abiding Moislinger community employed a pious Polish rabbi for life in 1825 , was able to consecrate a new synagogue in 1827 and set up an elementary school in 1837 . In the internal debate about reforming Judaism, the traditionalists prevailed. The right to settle again in Lübeck was granted to the Jews in 1848 during the March Revolution . The economic-social emancipation finally and irrevocably affirmed a law promulgated in 1852, as well as the admissibility of an interdenominational marriage (mixed marriage). After a synagogue was opened in 1850, another, newly built synagogue was completed in Lübeck's St.-Annen-Straße in 1880 during the rabbinate of Salomon Carlebach (1845–1919) . Carlebach founded the Carlebach rabbi dynasty, which is represented in Germany, Great Britain, the USA and Israel.
The Jewish population in Lübeck rose from 522 in 1857 to 700 in 1913 and fell to 250 after the Nazi seizure of power by 1937. The last 85 Jews were deported to the Riga Ghetto in 1941/42 . After the Second World War, a new congregation was founded at short notice, the number of members in 1948 being 250, but decreasing again to 30 by 1952. Since the 1990s, numerous Jewish quota refugees from the former Soviet Union have arrived.
Other religious communities
- Islam : Islam is represented with numerous parishes and prayer houses in many faiths , especially because of the numerous Turkish citizens. The Bait-ul-Afiyat Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat with minaret and dome has existed since 2011 .
- Jehovah's Witnesses : The religious community of Jehovah's Witnesses is represented in Lübeck with five congregations.
- New Apostolic Church : The New Apostolic Church has been based in Lübeck since 1901.
- Orthodox churches : There is a Russian Orthodox and a Greek Orthodox congregation, both of which used the Katharinenkirche for their services for many years . A side chapel of the church is dedicated to Saint Prokop of Lübeck .
- Mormons : Since the 1980s, there has been a small congregation of the North American Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on Rabenstrasse in the St. Gertrud district .
The memory of the Lübeck martyrs is of particular importance for the ecumenical movement in Lübeck . The three Catholic priests Johannes Prassek , Hermann Lange and Eduard Müller as well as the Protestant pastor Karl Friedrich Stellbrink were arrested in 1942, sentenced to death by the National Socialist People's Court in 1943 for " broadcast crimes, treasonous favoring the enemy and the decomposition of the military " and sentenced to death on November 10, 1943 in Hamburg Executed beheading.
For centuries, the Lübeck government was at the forefront of the self-complementary council with the mayor or mayors. Since the citizens' recession of 1669, the elected citizens had a share in the government. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the council was called the Senate . This had 16 senators and four mayors, with the two oldest replacing each other in the chair every year. From 1848 there were only two mayors. You were only the chairman of the Senate, but not the “head of state” of the Free Hanseatic City of Lübeck. In addition to the Senate as a government, there was the “citizenship” as a parliament. In 1933 the citizenship was dissolved and the Senate downsized. From then on, the chairman was the "Lord Mayor".
On April 1, 1937, Lübeck was incorporated into the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein as part of the Greater Hamburg Act , thus losing its state independence, i.e. its territorial sovereignty . In 1956, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected a complaint from the Lübeck Father City Association, which wanted to reach a referendum on regaining sovereignty, in the Lübeck judgment .
After the Second World War , Schleswig-Holstein became part of the British zone of occupation . The military government introduced a two-pronged administration in 1946. After that there was first a mayor as chairman of the city council and next to that there was an upper town director as head of administration. The official title of “Lord Mayor”, which has only been used since 1933, for the chairman of the city council was dispensed with because the title of “Mayor” has a long tradition in Lübeck. The Schleswig-Holstein municipal code of 1950 transferred the title of "mayor" to the head of administration and, as in all larger cities in Schleswig-Holstein, introduced the new designation of city president for the chairman of the city council .
On May 1, 2018 Jan Lindenau , also SPD, took over the office of mayor. On May 5, 2017, he had won the runoff election against the non-party Kathrin Weiher with 50.9% of the vote, after she had been ahead in the first round.
The citizen of the party DIE PARTTEI became a member of the group of the Greens. In March 2019, two elected officials left the party and local parliamentary group of the SPD, retained their mandates and became members of the parliamentary group of the Greens. So the distribution of seats has changed. The SPD and CDU currently have twelve seats each, the Greens eleven. Since April 2019 there has been a cooperation agreement between the CDU, SPD and the non-attached member of the BfL, which has a majority of one vote.
The Lübeck city council bears the traditional name of citizenship . Since 1937 it has had the rank of municipal council . The citizenship decides in eight to ten meetings a year on economic and political questions that are of interest to Lübeck. The citizenship elects the four Lübeck senators who are department heads for the areas of city administration. The mayor of Lübeck, who also acts as the Senator for Finance, is elected directly, not by the citizens. The citizens decide on the composition every five years. The last election took place on May 6, 2018.
coat of arms
Blazon : “In gold, a red armed black double-headed eagle with a breastplate divided by silver and red. In the great coat of arms, two golden lions hold the shield; on this a helmet with a one-headed black eagle as ornament and silver-red blankets. "
The coat of arms of Lübeck dates from 1450, making it the oldest city coat of arms in Schleswig-Holstein. The double-headed eagle is the " imperial eagle " as a symbol of the former imperial freedom of the city of Lübeck, which the city enjoyed until 1937 when it was incorporated into the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein by the Greater Hamburg Act .
Blazon: “Divided by white and red. In the white field directly next to the pole, a black, red-armored double-headed eagle with a white-red divided heart sign on the chest. "
As with all Hanseatic flags, the city colors are white and red.
- Kotka (Finland), since 1969
- Wismar (Germany, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), since 1987
- La Rochelle (France), since 1988, friendship treaty since 1980
- Klaipėda / Memel (Lithuania), since 1990
- Visby (Sweden), since 1999
Friendship and cooperation agreements exist with:
- Venice (Italy), since 1979
- Kawasaki (Japan), since 1992
- Bergen (Norway), since 1996
- Shaoxing (China), since 2003
In addition, Lübeck maintains friendly relationships with more than 100 other European cities that regularly take part in the Hanseatic Days of Modern Times . In 2014 Lübeck hosted the 34th Modern Hanseatic Day . It was the second event of its kind after 1983.
Culture and sights
On December 14, 1987, the preserved parts of the medieval town center on the old town island were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO . This was the first time in Northern Europe that an entire old town was recognized as a World Heritage Site ( area monument ). The decisive factors here were the exemplary character of the old town for the medieval urban development in the Baltic Sea region, the striking city silhouette with the seven towers of the five main churches and the pre-industrial structure that has been preserved. Another special feature worth protecting was the subsoil, which was extraordinarily rich for archaeological research into medieval towns.
The area protected by UNESCO includes the most important buildings in Lübeck: the building complex of the town hall, the castle monastery, the Koberg - a completely preserved quarter from the late 13th century - with the Jakobikirche , Heiligen-Geist-Hospital and the building blocks between Glockengießer- and Aegidienstraße , the quarter of the patrician houses of the 15th and 16th centuries between Petrikirche and cathedral , the Holsten Gate , the Kaisertor on the ramparts on the Elbe-Lübeck Canal and the salt storage on the left bank of the Trave.
The Lübeck founding district between St. Marien and the Trave is a central area of around 10,000 square meters in Lübeck's old town. It is one of the oldest development areas in the city; Archaeological investigations from 2009 to 2014 showed that the first building was built before 1180. The district, which was characterized by its splendid merchants' houses, was almost completely destroyed in the air raid on Lübeck on March 29, 1942 , and a vocational school center was built on after the war. After its demolition, the previous division of the parcel was restored and in 2017 a new building with individual residential buildings was started, based on the traditional cityscape.
The world cultural heritage on the old town island consists of well over a thousand buildings that are registered as monuments in the list of monuments. In this respect, only a few of the most important can be mentioned here. However, the World Heritage Site is the entirety of the preserved part of the medieval city.
The seven towers
Church tower of the St. Jakobi Church in the north
Marienkirche , south-west view (2004)
Petrikirche seen from Obertrave (1998)
Lübeck Cathedral in the south (2019)
The image of the old town is shaped by the seven church towers (hence the name "city of seven towers"), which can be assigned to the five large old town churches. In the western city skyline , which is used as a logo for various advertisements, these are the towers in north-south order (i.e. from left to right) of:
- Jakobikirche in the north of the old town
- Marienkirche with two west towers in the center at the back of the town hall
- Petrikirche within sight of the Holsten Gate near the west entrance to the old town
- Cathedral with two west towers in the southern end of the old town
The Romanesque cathedral is only the second largest medieval church in Lübeck, but is 130 meters long. It is located rather secluded at the southern end of the old town island in a quiet environment that still gives an idea of the old freedom of the cathedral . The relationship between the two churches reflects the conflict between the Lübeck citizenship and the Lübeck bishop, which led to the Lübeck bishops moving their residence to Eutin . In contrast to St. Mary's Church, the cathedral has been designed in sober white inside since the restoration. Here you can, for example, admire the triumphal cross of the famous wood carver Bernt Notke . In addition to the Schwerin Cathedral , the Lübeck Cathedral is now the sermon church of the regional bishop of the North Church . Close by, in the parade, is the Provost Church of the Sacred Heart , which was built in 1891.
The 100 meter long Gothic St. Mary's Church was the main parish church of the council and the citizenry. It stands in a prominent location near the market directly behind the town hall . The Marienkirche is now considered the third largest church in Germany and is the mother church of Northern European brick Gothic . It impresses not only with its external, but also with its internal size. Even if essential art treasures were destroyed inside during the Second World War , it is particularly impressive today thanks to the almost 40 meter high central nave with rich ceiling paintings. The two towers are 125 m high.
Like the cathedral and St. Mary's Church, the Petrikirche was also considerably destroyed in the Second World War and was the last to be rebuilt. Also located within sight of the market, it used to be the ancestral church of fishermen and inland waterwaymen . Today it no longer has its own community and is used as an exhibition and event space. Among other things, it has been a university church since 2004 and is used by the Lübeck universities for celebrations. There is a viewing platform on its tower, from which you can see all the way to Travemünde and deep into Mecklenburg when the weather is nice . The Jakobikirche is located on the other large square in Lübeck, the Koberg . The church was the main church of the seamen and is located opposite the famous Schiffergesellschaft , the guild house of the captains and now Lübeck's most famous restaurant with many ship models on the ceiling. Your tower impresses with the four spherical ornaments on the base of the tower helmet. The Jakobikirche was not destroyed in the war and therefore still offers the appearance that has grown over the centuries. In a side chapel there is a lifeboat from the sailing training ship Pamir, which sank in 1957 .
The Aegidienkirche is the smallest of the five large old town churches and the only one in the eastern part of the old town, the residential area of craftsmen and ordinary people. It was not destroyed in the war either. Your interior could therefore retain its appearance.
Other sacred buildings
The Katharinenkirche is a former Franciscan monastery church of the Katharinenkloster . It does not have a tower and therefore does not contribute to the classic city panorama. The interior is still well worth seeing and is considered a highlight of brick Gothic architecture. It connects directly to the Katharineum high school and is now used as an exhibition room. In its west facade there are niche figures by the sculptors Ernst Barlach and Gerhard Marcks .
Further sacred buildings from the Middle Ages are the castle monastery and the St. Anne's monastery. The castle monastery, a former Dominican monastery, was founded in gratitude for the victory against Denmark in the Battle of Bornhöved (1227) . But only a few remains of its medieval construction have been preserved, which have been supplemented by a neo-Gothic building from the late 19th century. This building complex has had different tasks over the years, for example it was a courthouse at the time of National Socialism and thus the scene of several trials against opponents of the regime. Today there is, among other things, an archaeological museum.
The St. Anne's monastery near the Aegidienkirche is now home to an extensive museum with different topics. There are important sacred works of art such as one of the largest collections of medieval winged altars and statues , then an overview of Lübeck and Hanseatic living culture from the Middle Ages to the early 20th century, and finally in the new extension, the Lübeck Kunsthalle St. Annen, a collection of contemporary art.
The Holy Spirit Hospital is located opposite the Jakobikirche on Koberg . This building is a fine example of the forms of charity in medieval society. In order to provide a place for the poor, the sick and the elderly, wealthy citizens had this building built and donated regularly for their maintenance. Until the 1970s, the large hall with the small cabins that can still be viewed today and were built in the 19th century, each with around 3 square meters of living space, was used as a retirement home . One of the most famous Christmas markets in Northern Germany takes place here around Christmas time. Not far from the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital is the towerless Reformed Church designed in the classicism style .
Right next to the Marienkirche has always been the heart of the city, the market with the town hall. In contrast to other important town halls, the town hall is not built in one style, but you can still see clearly that it has been supplemented again and again since the 12th century. Here you can find architectural styles from the Gothic to the Renaissance to the modern of the 1950s. The town hall closes along Broad Street from the brick Renaissance overmolded office building , whose arcades were renovated in 2005 and opened to the pedestrian area of Broad Street more attractive by businesses on this page. The rest of the Lübeck market was destroyed in World War II. The design of the market has been the subject of lively discussions since then until recently. The Kaak , the medieval pillory, the basement of which contained butter stalls, was demolished in 1952 and rebuilt in 1986/1987 using Gothic components.
City wall and city gates
Lübeck's city gates were part of a mighty, star-shaped fortification wall that replaced the old Lübeck fortifications in the 17th century and was preserved until the 19th century. The building systems of the city of Lübeck from the 17th century are shown in the model of the city in the Holstentor Museum.
The Holsten Gate is the most famous landmark in the city. It has only been bypassed by traffic for a long time and stands in a park-like square. Inside is the Holstentor museum about the city's history.
The other preserved city gate, the castle gate , is integrated into the remains of the fortifications on the northern outskirts and merges into the building complex of the castle monastery . It is still used from the north as a route to the old town.
The Kaisertor in the southern ramparts was only opened in its current form in 1899 on the occasion of the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II for the inauguration of the Elbe-Lübeck Canal . The original gate tower of the medieval city fortifications had already been walled up at the beginning of the 16th century.
Museums and town houses
Some significant town houses in the city center are now used as museums. The classical ensemble of Behnhaus and Drägerhaus in the upper Königstrasse now offers space for an art museum. In Buddenbrooks House now houses the Henry - and Thomas Mann Center . The Günter Grass Center has finally been located in Glockengießerstraße for several years .
The merchants of Lübeck own two of the most beautiful and significant carved interiors of the Renaissance in the House of Merchants . She also owns the Schabbelhaus in Mengstrasse, which is accessible as a restaurant.
In addition to very well-preserved, mostly classical buildings, the assembly house of the Schiffergesellschaft , built in 1535, is located on Koberg , the interior of which has been preserved in its original form and which now houses a restaurant.
Corridors and courtyards
The corridors and courtyards , for which Lübeck is known, are more of the residential quarters that arose from a lack of space in the backyards of the residential buildings, which were formerly built for the poorest city dwellers, but are now sought-after living space. The largest and most beautiful courtyards are certainly the Füchtingshof and the Glandorpshof in Glockengießerstrasse . There are over 100 such corridors in Lübeck's old town.
Beyond the idyllic ramparts , in St. Gertrud and St. Jürgen there are attractive villa districts with classicist villas dating from the Wilhelminian era. The Eschenburg Villa in St. Gertrud on Travemünder Allee and the Lindesche Villa by the Danish architect Lillie in St. Jürgen on Ratzeburger Allee , which is now used as a registry office, are particularly striking . Only a few meters from the Linde Villa is the St. Jürgen Chapel from the 17th century as a sign that people outside of Lübeck's city walls were already settled before industrialization. The Lübeck water art with the neo-Gothic water tower is also located on the Wakenitz in St. Jürgen . In St. Gertrud there is also the fishing village of Gothmund on the banks of the Trave, also a popular excursion destination, which impresses with its closed ensemble of thatched-roof houses .
The Baltic seaside resort of Travemünde is 20 kilometers from the city center . The city of Travemünde has belonged to the Lübeck state territory since 1329 and has been a district of Lübeck since 1913, since 1802 an official seaside resort on the Baltic Sea. The distinctive structures include the captains' houses in the front row, the 19th and 20th century spa architecture ( Casino Travemünde , Kurhaus) and the Maritim Hotel that was built in the 1970s .
The Lübeck old town churches with their variety of baroque and modern organs are well suited for concerts. Since the North German Organ School , they have significantly established the reputation as a city of music. The evening music has been legendary since the time of Dieterich Buxtehude . Nowadays, among other things, the Lübeck Organ Summer and the traditional Christmas singing of the Lübeck Knabenkantorei are among the most famous annual events in the region that take place in the churches of the old town. In summer, the Lübeck-based Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival also turns village churches, manor houses and barns into concert halls throughout Schleswig-Holstein. Other concert halls and event rooms are the modern music and congress hall Lübeck , called MuK for short , the Coliseum of the Society for the Promotion of Charitable Activities , the driftsand and the VeB , in the alternative Lübeck , called "Walli" for short, the Rider's Café in Buntekuh, the Werkhof and Sheds 6 and 9. The concert halls of the Lübeck University of Music are located on the Obertrave . At Schleswig-Holstein's only university for music, up to four concerts take place daily during the semester, including those of the Brahms Festival in early May. The annual competition Jugend musiziert in Lübeck and the numerous events of the Lübeck Music and Art School and the Lübeck Music School of the Charitable Enrich the city's musical life.
The Lübeck Theater is housed in an Art Nouveau building in the Beckergrube and was renovated in the mid-1990s. Mainly opera performances take place in the large house , supported by the Philharmonic Orchestra of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck . This is where Hermann Abendroth , Wilhelm Furtwängler and Christoph von Dohnányi laid the starting point of their careers. Dramas and comedies of all styles are presented in the Kammerspiele. In the field of children's opera, the theater cooperates with the Lübeck Pocket Opera . In addition, there is a number of independent theaters that are remarkable for the size of the city, including the Lübeck Marionetten-Theater Fritz Fey , the theater combinale, the theater partout, the Volks- und Komödientheater Geisler, the THEATER Haus Lübeck, the Theaterschiff Lübeck, the Lübeck underwater puppet theater and the ULKNUDEL e. V. and the Lübeck summer operetta in the Lübeck open-air stage are to be highlighted as an annual open-air event series.
Lübeck is the headquarters of the Cinestar cinemas, which in 1949 laid the foundation of their group with the Lichtspiele Hope project on Hüxtertorallee . This traditional cinema was considered the most beautiful in Lübeck at the time. After a small fire at the end of December 2004, it was closed and later converted into an event hall that opened in September 2009. In the mid-1990s, a cinema palace with seven halls was set up in the city hall based on the model of the multiplex cinemas , after Cinestar had already had such cinemas built in some East German cities. Mainstream cinema films are shown here today . In 2005 and 2007 the town hall was renovated and, among other things, new seats. There is only one other commercial cinema that also belongs to the Cinestar group: the Filmhaus . After a renovation, it now mainly shows more sophisticated films, and there are occasional readings, music events, etc.
The communal cinema on Mengstraße, a small screening room with a small, selected range of films that also covers seldom shown and has already received several awards, is the only cinema that does not belong to the Cinestar group. Since summer 2007 the Förderkreis Kommunales Kino Lübeck e. V. the business of the former municipal cinema.
Every autumn, Lübeck is dedicated to the Nordic Film Days . Films from Scandinavia , the Baltic States and Schleswig-Holstein will be shown over five days at this film festival. The main venue is the town hall , while the mainstream cinema is running in the film house on these days .
Since January 1, 2006, the Hanseatic City of Lübeck Cultural Foundation has been responsible for managing the city museums .
The history of the city of Lübeck is presented in the Holstentor Museum .
The European Hanseatic Museum can be found in a new building at the castle monastery as well as in the castle monastery, which shows the history of the Hanseatic League combined with part of the history of Lübeck and the history of Lübeck law .
In the Museum Haus Hansestadt Gdansk in the Engelsgrube, cultural and economic goods of the Gdansk region are on display until the end of the Second World War . Three bells from Wotzlaff and Danzig are on loan in the courtyard of the museum and were saved from the Hamburg bell cemetery. These bells were requisitioned in 1942 to be melted down for armaments production.
The Willy Brandt House Lübeck is a memorial for the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Willy Brandt, who was born in Lübeck, and was opened in 2007. It shows the life stages from the flight to Norway, Mayor of Berlin and Federal Chancellor with the representation of the respective circumstances.
The Lübeck-Schlutup border documentation center is located in a former customs house at the northernmost border crossing to the GDR in the Schlutup district until 1989 . It recalls the history of the city during the division of Germany. Another exhibition about the former inner-German border is in the Federal Police Academy .
The St. Annen Museum is located in the St. Annen Museum Quarter, with an extensive collection on Lübeck's art and cultural history, including medieval sacred art and the St. Annen Art Hall. The Behnhaus Drägerhaus museum shows art from the 19th century and classical modernism in the ambience of one of Lübeck's best-preserved town houses.
The Museum for Nature and Environment is adjacent to the cathedral's churchyard.
Lübeck sees a clear focus of cultural life in dealing with the literature created there by the brothers Thomas Mann and Heinrich Mann , which has found the Buddenbrookhaus as its center in Mengstraße next to Lübeck's Marienkirche. It is named after Thomas Mann's novel Buddenbrooks , which is set in Lübeck. This society novel deals with the decline of a wealthy merchant family; Thomas Mann received the Nobel Prize in Literature for this book . The Hanseatic city, together with the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts , awards the Thomas Mann Prize , which is presented every year in Lübeck and Munich. The novels Professor Unrat and Eugènie or Die Bürgerzeit by Heinrich Mann are also set in the Hanseatic city. Other authors from Lübeck are Emanuel Geibel , Gustav Falke , Otto Anthes and Erich Mühsam . Günter Grass , also a Nobel laureate in literature, lived in Lübeck for a long time. Until his death in 2015 he lived in Behlendorf, a former Lübeck village. The Günter Grass House is located in Lübeck itself, with the majority of his original literary and artistic works. Lübeck is the seat of the Erich Mühsam Society , which awards the Erich Mühsam Prize . The writers Theodor Storm and Werner Bergengruen were students of the Katharineum .
Ludwig Ewers ' extensive Lübeck novel Die Großvaterstadt , published in 1926, was once widely read. Its protagonists live in the same time as the Buddenbrooks, but on a different social level. In part, the same events are described, such as the event on Königsstrasse - Senator Buddenbrook in the house, businessman Normann outside. The third Lübeck novel at the time is the completely fictional novel Ida Boy-Ed's A Royal Merchant . Before that, Lübeck had become the site of a novel through the work Ein Ruf von der Trave by Emanuel Geibel, who was living in Munich at the time.
Monuments and sculptures in public spaces
Lübeck has a large number of important monuments and sculptures in public spaces. These include the lions by Christian Daniel Rauch in front of the Holsten Gate , lions by Fritz Behn on the Burgtorbrücke on the edge of the Burgfeld and the replica of the Braunschweig lion at the cathedral.
A number of other works by Behn in the city area include the antelope in front of the Holsten Gate and the panther in the school garden on the Wakenitz. The community gardens are a small sculpture garden in the old town between the Holy Spirit Hospital and the Behnhaus.
On the facade of St. Catherine's Church is the communion of saints by Ernst Barlach and Gerhard Marcks attached. A group of allegories by Dietrich Jürgen Boy stands on the dolls bridge in front of the Holsten Gate. The Geibel monument by Hermann Volz is located on the Koberg between the Holy Spirit Hospital and the Jakobikirche . Jan Jastram's group of six open steles made of oak dates from the 1990s and was placed in front of the court house on loan from the Possehl Foundation .
The group of clay sculptures Strangers by the sculptor Thomas Schütte became known as exhibits at documenta 9 in Kassel . Some of these sculptures are now located as the Possehl Foundation on the roof of the music and congress hall.
In the green area on Lindenplatz, Kaiser Wilhelm I is depicted on horseback based on a model by the sculptor Louis Tuaillon . It was the last equestrian statue that was erected for the emperor in Germany. Opposite it is the statue of the former Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Emil Hundrieser .
On the edge of Burgfeld there is a replica of Karl Geiser's group of girls, donated by Lübeck's honorary citizen Rodolfo Groth , on a green area . It was originally intended for the market in the center.
Outside the old town, at the new Kaufhof, 13 life-size bronze figures of Sven Schöning from Lübeck have been on view since December 6, 2012. The group of figures was commissioned by the Neue Lübecker Norddeutsche Baugenossenschaft eG. The campaign is under the cooperative motto "Together".
Lübeck foundation culture
Donation has been a tradition in Lübeck since the Middle Ages. Originally wealthy merchants wanted to secure their souls in this way. The Heiligen-Geist-Hospital is probably the oldest existing foundation in Lübeck today. Many of Lübeck's corridors and courtyards are based on Lübeck merchants' foundations. Without the commitment of the large and small foundations based in Lübeck, the rich cultural life of the city would be inconceivable and the preservation of the cultural heritage would not be possible. The Kulturstiftung Hansestadt Lübeck looks after the Lübeck museum landscape. Lübeck's oldest citizens' initiative, the Society for the Promotion of Charitable Activities, is also the trustee for a large number of smaller foundations.
There are other non-profit foundations in Lübeck:
Lübeck is still the city with the greatest density of “foundations” in Schleswig-Holstein.
There are eleven cemeteries in Lübeck. These include five urban, three Evangelical Lutheran and two Jewish cemeteries.
- Vorwerker Friedhof , 1906, 53 ha, by Erwin Barth
- Burgtorfriedhof , 1834, 7.6 ha
- Waldhusen cemetery , in the Kücknitz district, 1909, 22 ha, by Erwin Barth
- St. Jürgen Cemetery, built in 1645 together with the St. Jürgen Chapel , approx. 0.2 ha
- Ehrenfriedhof , 1914, about 5 ha, by Harry Maasz . War cemetery.
Evangelical Lutheran cemeteries
- Ev.-Luth. St. Andreas cemetery (Schlutup), 1896, 2 ha,
- Ev.-Luth. St. Lorenz Cemetery, near Lübeck Central Station , laid out in 1597
- Ev.-Luth. St. Lorenz Cemetery (Travemünde), in the Travemünde district, laid out in 1836, 3.2 ha,
- Jewish cemetery in the Vorwerker Friedhof , entrance 4
- Jewish cemetery (Lübeck-Moisling) , laid out in the 17th century and expanded in 1861, <1 ha - closed
- St. George's Cemetery (Genin)
Tourism, leisure and recreation
In particular for Lübeck's old town with its World Heritage status and the seaside resort of Travemünde, tourism is a core industry, which in 2011 contributed 7.7% to the primary income in Lübeck with a turnover of around 675 million euros. The positive development of this sector with continuously increasing number of overnight stays (from 950,000 overnight stays in 2005 to 2 million overnight stays for the first time in 2019) benefits from the possibility of combining city tourism and beach holidays, and is supported by the city of Lübeck on the basis of a tourism development concept through marketing measures such as the campaign “ Christmas City of the North ”or the foreign campaign“ LÜBECK. International 2020plus ”and the expansion of the tourist infrastructure (e.g. renovation of the Travemünde beach promenade in 2012, Priwall Waterfront project). Approx. 80% of the overnight guests come from Germany, the foreign visitors mainly from the Scandinavian countries. By far the largest tourism market segment in Lübeck is day tourism; around 80–90% of all Lübeck visitors are day tourists.
Leisure and recreation in the urban area
Water, green spaces and extensive forests determine the urban area of Lübeck, which is one of the largest municipal forest owners in Germany. The waters of the Trave , Wakenitz and Elbe-Lübeck Canal are accessible on the land side by hiking trails and are mostly connected to the spacious and extensive parks. They are also popular with canoeists. With the outdoor pool at the Falkenwiese from 1899 on the west bank of the Wakenitz, the city of Lübeck has a listed river swimming pool . The publicly accessible Lübeck school garden is located just north of the outdoor pool . Excursion boats operate on the Trave between Lübeck and Travemünde and on the Wakenitz to Rothenhusen with a connection via the Ratzeburg Lake to Ratzeburg in the Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park (east of the lake: Schaalsee Biosphere Reserve ). The city forests such as the Lauerholz and the nature reserves on Wakenitz and Trave ( lagoon in Schellbruch , Dummersdorfer Ufer with the ground monument of the medieval castle on the Stülper Huk ) in the immediate vicinity of the city, as well as the juxtaposition of the seaside resort and medieval world cultural heritage in the common spirit of Hanseatic tradition make one thing important part of the quality of life and the recreational value of the city. The Travelauf with the adjacent nature reserves was reported to the European Union as an FFH area . The city has also designated seven nature experience areas especially for children and young people .
The Lübeck zoo , which opened in 1950, was closed in 2010.
In the forests of Lübeck, in particular, there are barrows from the Stone Age , including in the urban area in the forests of Blankensee and Waldhusen . The archaeological and natural history hiking trail leads through the forest of Waldhusen as a circular route. At Pöppendorf one of the largest and best preserved castle walls from the time of the Wagrier can be visited, the Pöppendorfer ring wall . This ring castle is a Slavic refuge and has a diameter of around 100 meters with an outer rampart height of eight to twelve meters.
Leisure and recreation in the vicinity of the city
The vicinity of the city also offers a multitude of leisure and recreational opportunities: in addition to the seaside resorts on the Bay of Lübeck, the lakes and forests of Holstein Switzerland around the residential city of Eutin (with the Carl Maria von Weber Festival on the open-air stage in the castle park directly on the Eutiner See ), the Klützer Winkel and the Hanseatic city of Wismar on the Mecklenburg side of the Lübeck Bay, the Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park with the island town of Ratzeburg and the town of Mölln on the Old Salt Road , and last but not least the Sachsenwald .
As part of the federal model program " Regions Active - Land Shapes Future ", the Environment Department of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck and the "Regional Partnership Lübecker Bucht e. V. ”the recreation guide“ Lübeck Of course! Relaxation close to nature in the Lübeck region ”. Due to the success of the first edition in 2004/2005, a second edition in 2006/2007 with new topics and excursion destinations has now been issued.
From the platform of the tower of the Petrikirche (Lübeck) at a height of 50.45 meters, a good panoramic view of the old town is possible, u. a. on the cathedral, the Holsten Gate and the Marienkirche.
- January: Kringelhöge
- February: HanseBike
- April: Rocktower Festival
- April / May: Brahms Festival Lübeck
- May: Lübeck rowing regatta on the Wakenitz
- May: Model United Nations of Lübeck (MUNOL)
- June: Lübeck Long Night of Laboratories (every 2 years)
- July: Dragon boat races on the canal
- July: Lübeck folk and remembrance festival
- July: Travemuende Week
- July: Summer festival on Hüxstraße (changing country focus) in cooperation with the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival
- July / August: Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival
- July – September: Sand World (2003–2007)
- August: Duckstein Festival, formerly Traveuferfest
- August: Christopher Street Day
- August: Lübeck Museum Night , annually
- September: Intercultural weeks, nationwide event, annually
- September: Lübeck Theater Night , annually
- September: every two years old town festival
- September: Open Monument Day , nationwide event, annually
- September: Season day
- November: Nordic Film Days Lübeck
- November: nordica Lübeck - the adventure fair for the whole family
- End of November / beginning of December (eleven days in Advent) Christmas market in the Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Lübeck)
- December: Ice World (2003-2006)
- December: Lübeck Christmas market
- December: Medieval market
- December: Ice Ass Regatta
- May: On the night of May 1st, around midnight, the annual May Singing takes place under the arcades of the town hall. Young and old singers welcome the new month with the song May has come by the Lübeck poet Emanuel Geibel , which was set to music by Justus Wilhelm Lyra . The event is not organized and is not exploited commercially. It is more a - perhaps also locally patriotic - gathering of Lübeck families. After the First World War, the initiator was Otto Anthes with his “owl” table.
Lübeck's marzipan , which has been produced in Lübeck since the late Middle Ages, is almost worldwide famous . Well-known regional manufacturers are Niederegger , the “Lübecker Marzipan-Speicher” and Erasmi & Carstens . An equally sweet treat is the plettenpudding mentioned in Buddenbrooks : a dessert consisting of several layers. The “Lübeck National”, a hearty vegetable stew with asparagus, carrots and beef, is seen as an example of the fact that Lübeck's cuisine, with its northern German character, is more like a frugal variant of Hamburgers than Schleswig-Holstein cuisine .
The Lübeck Rotspon is red wine that used to be carried on journeys to Bordeaux as ballast on the way back, until you noticed that the wine was given a special note due to its storage in the sea. Analogous to this there is also the Wittspon today , which is made from white wine . The oldest still existing wine trading companies in Lübeck are Carl Tesdorpf and von Melle .
Economy and Transport
In 2016, Lübeck achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 8.243 billion, making it 43rd in the list of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 38,078 (Schleswig-Holstein: € 31,294, Germany € 38,180) and thus slightly above the regional but slightly below the national average. In 2016 there were around 126,300 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 7.3% in December 2018.
The port of Lübeck is one of the largest German Baltic ports. It connects Lübeck with Scandinavia , Russia and the Baltic States . Numerous ferry lines connect the Lübeck ports with the entire Baltic Sea region. In 2007, 32.6 million t of goods were handled and over 350,000 passengers were handled. After the crisis year 2009, 26.74 million tons were handled in 2010, almost 2% more goods than in the previous year. Lübecker Hafen-Gesellschaft (LHG) , the largest port operator in Lübeck, had a share of 24.48 million t in this.
In 2018, a total of around 25 million tonnes (2017: 25 million t; 2016: 24 million t; 2015: 25.1 million t; 2014: 26.3 million t; 2013: 26.1 million t) were transported .t) goods handled, of which around 22.1 million t (2017: 21.8 million t; 2016: 21 million t; 2015: 22 million t; 2014: 23.3 million t; 2013: 23 , 1 million t) via the LHG. In 2016, the inland shipping volume of goods in Lübeck was only 368,000 t (- 12.3% compared to the previous year).
An containers LHG 2013 hit about 102,000 TEU (: 2010 116 000 TEU: 2012 126 000 TEU), the number of trucks and trailers was 2013, around 697,000 units (2012 about 710,000 units). Around 76,000 cars (2012: 86,648, 2010: 92,000) were handled in import / export.
The number of passengers on ferry and cruise ships at LHG in 2016 was around 424,000 (2013: 401,318, 2012: 399,380). In 2013, 20 cruise ship calls took place in the port of Lübeck-Travemünde, and 15 calls were planned for 2014.
Quayside facilities in and near Lübeck-Travemünde
Cruise ships and tall ships dock at the Ostpreußenkai in front of the Travemünder Hafenpromenade "Vorderzeile" .
The Skandinavienkai in the Travemünde district is the largest ferry port in Germany with around 100 regular departures per week: Passengers and freight are transported from here to Sweden, Finland and the Baltic States. The Skandinavienkai has nine berths , four of which are double-decker. The facilities at Skandinavienkai are separated from the center of Travemünde by a security fence. The access leads directly from the B 75.
Other quayside facilities
The Nordlandkai is a transshipment port for paper, trailers, containers and new vehicles. The shipping companies Finnlines and Transfennica are represented at Nordlandkai. The Translumi-Line maintains connections to Kemi and Oulu (Finland) and mainly transports SECU boxes that enable unloading and loading of paper products regardless of the weather . Occasionally, larger ocean-going vessels anchor at the ATR grain silo to load grain for the Far East or Southeast Asia .
The Konstinkai was the “house quay” of the Transfennica shipping company, which transported rolling cargo and paper from / to Finnish ports. After a restructuring, the terminal close to the city is now used again for paper and timber handling. There are also departures to Russia.
The Seelandkai operated by the municipal Lübeck port company (LHG) is the Transfennica shipping company's new "house quay". It was put into operation in 2006 and has, among other things, two container cranes . Containers, trailers, cars, heavy cargo and general cargo are handled.
Schlutupkai has been in operation since 1994 , where mainly paper and cellulose from Sweden are landed and trailers, containers and general cargo are handled.
Immediately south of Konstinkai is Burgtorkai , which used to be a cruise terminal. Due to the new crossing of the northern bypass with the Eric Warburg Bridge , large ships can no longer call at Burgtorkai.
Lehmannkai s 1–3 are privately owned by the Lübeck company Hans Lehmann KG , which bought the site of the former Flender shipyard at the beginning of 2004 in order to build three or four ro-ro jetties. Together with its partner DFDS, it wants to acquire further ferry lines in the Russian and Baltic regions . Forest products and pulp are handled at Lehmannkai 1, Lehmannkai 2 is used for RoRo traffic and paper handling, Lehmannkai 3 is used for bulk and bulk goods.
Between Seelandkai and Lehmannkai 1, Hamburger Hafen und Logistik AG (HHLA) operated the modern Container Terminal -Lübeck (CTL) with container cranes for rail loading towards the container terminals in the Port of Hamburg through its subsidiary Combisped until the summer of 2009 . On May 1, 2010, the site was also taken over by Hans Lehmann KG , which now operates the terminal as CTL Cargo Terminal Lehmann . The container cranes were then dismantled because Lehmann had not taken over.
Quayside facilities close to the city
The ports near the city of Hansekai and Roddenkoppelkai are hardly used for commercial shipping these days. At Roddenkoppelkai in Wallhafen, a timber transporter moored several times a month, the Hansekai only serves as a berth for inland vessels or short-term trailers.
Industrial and warehouse areas on the Wakenitz were converted into parking areas for individual traffic in the course of the traffic calming of the old town in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Museum Harbor of Lübeck is located directly in front of Lübeck's old town in the actual Hansahafen on the Untertrave . Many old cargo sailors from the Baltic Sea have their berths here and are organized in the Museum Harbor in Lübeck eV . Since many ships are still seaworthy and regularly sail, the port is better filled in winter than in summer. The port of Lübeck also houses other traditional ships such as the lightship Fehmarnbelt , the Kraweel Lisa von Lübeck and the gaff schooner Krik Vig .
The Elbe-Lübeck Canal is only of minor importance for Lübeck's port industry because it has not been modernized for decades, so that it is still attractive for leisure traffic, but no longer for today's freight traffic.
Heavy industry that used to be based in Lübeck has almost disappeared. From 1905 to 1981 there was a large steelworks in Lübeck, the Lübeck blast furnace . The once important shipbuilding industry ( Flender-Werke , Orenstein & Koppel ) also fell victim to structural change. The company Nordischer Maschinenbau Rud. Baader is known as a manufacturer of fish processing machines.
In Lübeck, some industries have a special tradition, such as medical technology , also benefiting from the University of Lübeck . The largest employer based in Lübeck is Drägerwerk AG & Co. KGaA , a technology group founded in 1889 with more than 11,000 employees today. Another important medical technology company is Euroimmun , a manufacturer of laboratory kits for antibody diagnostics.
Another important industry is the food industry , e.g. B. Niederegger , the best-known manufacturer of Lübeck marzipan , also the soup manufacturer Continental Foods , which has taken over the Erasco Group, and the largest German canned fish manufacturer Hawesta . The cereal manufacturer H. & J. Brüggen has set up shop in the area of the harbor .
Lübeck beer has been exported mainly to the Baltic Sea region since the 15th century. The largest brewery was the Lück brewery , which was closed in 1988.
Other companies based in the city are the Bockholdt Group with more than 4,300 employees (system service provider in the building and industrial service sectors), the Possehl group of companies , the Lübecker Hafengesellschaft (LHG) and the Schöning-Verlag as the market leader for postcards in Germany. Schmidt-Römhild (Germany's oldest publishing house , since 1579) and Carl Tesdorpf (Germany's oldest wine trading company, since 1678) are both located in Mengstrasse .
The economic development is also partly directed privately municipal and state level. This dualism is advantageous for start-ups who have several incubators at their disposal. Technology centers exist in Herrenwyk , the Media Docks , in the Haus der Kaufmannschaft and in the new “university district”. Against the background of the excellent infrastructure, the immediate vicinity of Lübeck in Mecklenburg in the funding area offers the further competitive possibility of interesting combinations of quality of life and funding . The disparity in assistance , however, between the municipalities in the region leads to politically one way or another discord. The first cross-border support program Region Aktiv Lübeck Bay is trend-setting .
The city center , where the majority of Lübeck retailers have settled, is of supraregional importance .
The pedestrian zone mainly stretches across Breite Straße between Pfaffenstraße and Markt with a few rib streets crossing it. The shopping area for pedestrians is extended by the adjacent market . The Haerder-Center is also expanding the pedestrian shopping area at the transition from Breite Straße to Sandstraße.
In addition to the Breiten Straße, most of the retailers are located in the parallel Königstraße and in the extension of the Breiten Straße, the Sandstraße . Department stores and larger fashion stores can also be found here . On the site of the former Haerder department store , which was demolished in 2007, the Haerder-Center shopping center was built and opened in October 2008.
Other shopping streets in the city center are Holstenstrasse , Wahmstrasse , Mühlenstrasse , Große Burgstrasse and Untertrave . Particularly noteworthy are the extensions of the pedestrian zone in Fleischhauerstrasse and even more so in Hüxstrasse . In these side streets there is a unique ensemble of small shops, restaurants and galleries , mainly in medieval gabled houses. A commercial area close to the city center is located on Kanalstrasse .
Lübeck currently has several shopping centers . The Citti-Park in Buntekuh is the largest of these in the immediate vicinity of the A1 . The Mönkhof Karree in the university district , the LindenArcaden right next to the main train station and the Haerder Center in the center have all been created . The LUV Center opened in spring 2014 on the former Villeroy & Boch company premises at the Lübeck- Dänischburg motorway junction with a total of 75,000 m² of retail space.
There are also classic business parks in Buntekuh / St. Lorenz near the A 1 (Herrenholz, Grapengießerstraße, Roggenhorst industrial areas), in St. Jürgen near the A 20 (Geniner Straße industrial areas) and in St. Gertrud (Gleisdreieck industrial areas, Glashüttenweg / An der Hülshorst).
In 2017 the turnover of the entire Lübeck retail trade amounted to 1.57 billion euros on 575,000 m² of retail space.
The federal motorway A 1 Fehmarn - Hamburg runs through the western part of the city , which as the so-called " Vogelfluglinie " and E 47 continues over the Fehmarnbelt (ferry) to Copenhagen and over the Öresund connection to Malmö in Sweden , thus a link between the metropolitan region of Hamburg and the Oresund region . The Lübeck-Moisling and Lübeck-Zentrum exits are located on this motorway. In the north of the city, at the Bad Schwartau triangle, the A 226 city motorway branches off towards Lübeck-Travemünde and the Skandinavienkai ferry port .
Since 2001, the south of Lübeck has been connected to the A 20 Baltic Sea motorway via the Lübeck-Genin junction . The new junction Lubeck-south for the airport Lübeck -Blankensee was with the new B 207 creates and shortened the journey from the east. The new motorway south bypass in the course of the A 20 has significantly eased the burden on Lübeck city center and on the B 75 / B 104 federal road . After completion of the construction work at the Lübeck motorway junction in the direction of Bad Segeberg , the 15.7 km long section of the A 20 between Lübeck and Geschendorf was put into operation on July 28, 2009. In the further course, the A 20 should lead north and west far around Hamburg and be connected to the A 28 ( Leer (Ostfriesland) - Oldenburg ) at Westerstede . The A 20 will then cross the A 21 to Kiel near Bad Segeberg , so that the two largest cities in the country will also be connected by a motorway. Other important measures in the area of transport infrastructure are the toll road Herrentunnel (opened on August 26, 2005 as a replacement for the demolished Herrenbrücke ) and the new trave crossing of the Eric-Warburg-Brücke as part of the northern tangent as well as the district road K 13 between Lübeck and Stockelsdorf.
After the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft was founded on February 27, 1850, the railway line from Lübeck via Ratzeburg and Mölln to Büchen was built. The former train station on the Wall Peninsula near the Holsten Gate had only one platform and one track. The station and line went into operation on October 15, 1851.
In Lübeck, Deutsche Bahn currently operates the following train stations and train stops for passenger traffic:
- Lübeck Central Station (built on May 1st, 1908)
- Lübeck-St. Jürgen - breakpoint
- Lübeck-Kücknitz - stop
- Lübeck-Travemünde Skandinavienkai - stopping point
- Lübeck-Travemünde harbor - stopping point
- Lübeck-Travemünde beach - train station
- Lübeck airport - stop
- Lübeck university district - stopping point
- Lübeck-Dänischburg IKEA - stop
- Lübeck-Moisling (building decision January 2014) - stop
Lübeck main station has been connected to the electrical network of Deutsche Bahn since October 1st, 2008 ; the electrification project that had existed for years was only completed after several investment stops. The official opening of electrification took place on December 14, 2008.
Long-distance train connections exist on the Vogelfluglinie in the direction of Copenhagen through Danske Statsbaner (DSB). Since the timetable change on December 9, 2007, Lübeck has been connected to the German ICE network: special diesel ICE trains connect Lübeck via Hamburg to Berlin , in the other direction they travel on the Vogelfluglinie to Copenhagen. This connection will replace the Eurocity in the long term. In addition, there is a continuous intercity train to Passau via Cologne and Frankfurt am Main on Friday mornings , and on other days during the summer months as well, in the afternoon there is also an intercity train to Frankfurt am Main, although this only runs daily in the summer months. Further long-distance connections after completion of the electrification work have already been promised by the DB management. Since December 2008, one or two ICE pairs have been running daily between Lübeck and Munich via Hanover , Kassel and Würzburg .
Regional trains of DB Regio go to Hamburg, Lueneburg , bath small , Kiel, Neustadt in Holstein , Puttgarden and Travemuende beach. For trips to the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, you have to change trains in Hamburg or Kiel, which is usually associated with longer waiting times. The Hamburg – Lübeck route is the route with the highest frequency in Schleswig-Holstein; the public tender was put on hold by the electrification that has now been decided. The fastest and continuous connection between Hamburg and Travemünde existed before the Second World War through the Lübeck-Büchener Railway (LBE) and later the Reichsbahn .
Several Deutsche Bahn routes in the Lübeck city area are only used for freight traffic and to connect the port railways.
As a railway infrastructure company (EIU), the Lübeck Port Authority (LPA) maintains the Lübeck port railway at various port locations. With around 60 km of tracks and 260 points, it connects the port terminals and individual private siding with the Deutsche Bahn lines. Parts of the network are electrified so that the port tracks can be driven on without changing locomotives. It is planning to expand the Lübeck industrial area Skandinavienkai Nord station (construction decision October 2011) .
The Lübeck tram was shut down in 1959. A reactivation as a light rail is always in discussion. The Greens in particular advocate this, since the bus system can no longer be expanded due to the very high level of utilization. In the city budget for 2010, 120,000 euros were planned for a feasibility study for the introduction of a light rail system.
In Lübeck and the surrounding communities in Schleswig-Holstein, the Schleswig-Holstein tariff (Nah.SH) has been in effect since August 1, 2011 . Up until this point in time there was the Lübeck collective bargaining association (TGL), which was closed in 1992 by Stadtwerke Lübeck Verkehrsbetrieb (SL), DB and Lübeck-Travemünder Verkehrsgesellschaft (LVG, now a subsidiary of SL). It was also possible to use DB local trains within Lübeck (to Travemünde).
In Travemünde there are two ferry connections - outside the tariff community - that connect the city with the Priwall peninsula via the Untertrave. To the north, near the mouth of the Trave, the Norder ferry offers pedestrians and cyclists an opportunity to cross from mid-May to the end of October. For motor vehicle traffic there is the Priwall car ferry about a kilometer further south, which translates every 10 to 15 minutes all year round.
Regional bus transport
Regional bus connections exist u. a. to Timmendorfer Strand, Pansdorf, Dassow, Grevesmühlen, Schönberg, Ratzeburg, Mölln, Trittau, Reinfeld, Pöhls, Bad Segeberg, Gnissau and Ahrensbök. These lines are u. a. operated by the transport companies Autokraft, Dahmetal and Grevesmühlener Busbetriebe GmbH, in the Segeberg and Duchy of Lauenburg districts within the Hamburg Transport Association (HVV).
Long-distance bus transport
Lübeck is connected to the long-distance bus network by several companies. Long-distance bus stops in the city are at the ZOB and for the BerlinLinienbus from Autokraft at the university . Long-distance buses run to Berlin, Bonn , Aachen , Rostock , Zinnowitz on Usedom and Oldenburg as well as to Paris, Copenhagen and Poland (as of May 2015).
Lübeck is connected to several long-distance cycle routes , e.g. Take the Iron Curtain Trail , for example , which leads from Norway to the Black Sea along the former Iron Curtain . In 2013, the share of cycling in total traffic was 17% and increased to 20% in 2018. The city's self-declared goal is 25% by 2020. 74.9% of the students in Lübeck use bicycles to get to their university (survey as of 2018, multiple answers were possible).
Lübeck has the Lübeck-Blankensee regional airport in the south of the city . The airport was flown to from 2000 to July 2014 by the Irish airline Ryanair as “Hamburg-Lübeck” airport. After the relocation of Ryanair's activities to Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel , the Eastern European low-cost airline Wizz Air , which has been based in 2006, was the only active airline in Blankensee with flights to Eastern Europe until it ceased operations in Lübeck in April 2016 and relocated to Hamburg.
Lübeck Airport and Sylt Airport are the only commercial airports in Schleswig-Holstein. With the coalition agreement of 2012, the state stopped funding these airports ("The commercial airport for Schleswig-Holstein is Hamburg. [...] The state will not participate in the operation of airports, funding commitments already made will be kept.").
After several bankruptcies, the entrepreneur Winfried Stöcker took over the airport in June 2016 and received an EASA license . Scheduled air traffic with the Lübeck Air airline founded by Stöcker is to be resumed in August 2020 . It is a virtual airline that works with aircraft from the Danish company Air Alsie and Alsie Express .
The local energy supply with electricity, but also the gas supply in the city is in the hands of Stadtwerke Lübeck GmbH . The Siems power plant was actually supposed to be rebuilt by E.ON after the demolition, but E.ON did not keep these promises and commitments.
Drinking water supply
Stadtwerke Lübeck GmbH is also responsible for the drinking water supply . Up to a third of the demand is supplied by the waterworks of the Hanseatic City of Hamburg. In the event of sudden supply bottlenecks, an emergency plan comes into effect and a crisis team works out problem solutions.
The partially privatized Stadtwerke Lübeck GmbH offers not only Trave DSL in some areas but also VDSL , FTTB and FTTH- based internet access with up to 200 Mbit / s. DSL is currently not available in a few areas in Lübeck (as of 2014).
Kabel Deutschland offers internet connection via cable connection. With a few exceptions, Telekom's VDSL network covers the entire city area. (As of 2016).
The W-LAN is being expanded rapidly in Lübeck. a. Telekom offers free 30-minute surfing at Lübeck's main train station and other locations , Kabel Deutschland is also expanding its hotspots, and subscription owners can surf the web in over 35 buses in Lübeck's city traffic. The Lübeck initiative Luebeck.freifunk.net is setting up a free, area-wide W-LAN, free of charge, in which every citizen can participate with his line by releasing part of his line.
The Lübecker Nachrichten appears as a daily newspaper in print and online as well as the online daily newspaper HL-live.de . Ostsee-Verlag, a subsidiary of Lübecker Nachrichten GmbH , publishes the weekly newspaper Wochenspiegel . The Lübeck city newspaper was published once a week and was distributed free of charge to households until the end of 2017. The publisher was the Hanseatic City of Lübeck. The city's official notices appeared in the city newspaper. The Lübeckische Blätter are the magazine of the society for the promotion of charitable activities . They have been published biweekly from September to June since 1950. The magazine was founded in 1835.
An important newspaper in Lübeck until 1933 was the social-democratic Lübecker Volksbote , founded in 1894 , of which Julius Leber was editor-in-chief from 1921 to 1933 . Willy Brandt wrote for the newspaper as a schoolboy. The NSDAP newspaper Lübecker Zeitung appeared between 1942 and 1945 . The Lübecker Post, founded by the British occupation government after the end of the Second World War, as well as the social democratic daily newspaper Lübecker Freie Presse and its successor Lübecker Morgen ceased publication. The Nordwoche published in Lübeck , a weekly newspaper for Schleswig-Holstein, no longer exists.
The city is the seat of a regional studio of the NDR , which produces contributions for radio waves and television programs.
In addition to the programs of the NDR and the open channel, Deutschlandfunk and Deutschlandfunk Kultur as well as the private broadcasters R.SH , delta radio , Radio NORA and Klassik Radio , as well as all state-wide stations from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Hamburg and Lower Saxony can be received.
The following authorities or corporations have their headquarters in Lübeck:
- Chamber of Crafts Lübeck
- Lübeck Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- Waterways and Shipping Office Lübeck
- German Pension Insurance North
- BKK Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- District Court Lübeck in the court house
- Lübeck District Court
- Lübeck Social Court
- Labor Court Lübeck
- Tax office
- Office for Rural Areas
- a branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank , formerly the state central bank
- State office for social services , formerly pension office
- Lübeck customs office with the port clearance point
In the Hanseatic city of Lübeck,
- 29 elementary schools
- 11 elementary and community schools
- 3 community schools
- 7 high schools
- 5 support centers (+ 2 speech therapy classes)
taught a total of around 20,000 students.
In Lübeck there are three community schools with an upper level: the elementary and community school St. Jürgen, Geschwister-Prenski-Schule am Burgtor and the Baltic comprehensive school in Lübeck-Buntekuh. Several of Lübeck's high schools are located directly in the city center. The Katharineum zu Lübeck with a focus on the ancient language area and the Johanneum zu Lübeck as a high school with a musical branch are located in two former monasteries ; The Ernestine School and the Oberschule zum Dom , which were designed as a pure girls 'and boys' school until the early 1980s, are also located in the old town . The Hanse School for Business and Administration is a vocational training center in the city center. Other grammar schools not located in the city center are the Friedrich List School (a technical grammar school with an economic branch), the Thomas Mann School , a modern language grammar school and European school , the Carl Jacob Burckhardt grammar school , the Trave grammar school im District Kücknitz and the technical high school (technical branch) in the trade school III. In addition to the technical high school , the Dorothea Schlözer School also includes training courses for care workers and housekeeping. In addition, there are some technical schools, vocational schools (which were merged in 2005 as the Emil Possehl School), vocational schools, vocational preparation schools, a free Waldorf school and a free village school. The Academy for Hearing Aid Acoustics is also located next to the Lübeck University of Applied Sciences . The Johannes-Prassek-Schule , a Catholic primary school sponsored by the Bernostiftung , was the only Catholic school in Schleswig-Holstein to open in 2011 after a Catholic school founded in 1850 was closed by the National Socialists in 1938.
There are four state universities in Lübeck with a total of over 11,400 students (2020). The University of Lübeck (UzL), then still Medical University of Lübeck, was founded in 1973 as the successor to the 2nd Medical Faculty, which had been a faculty of the University of Kiel since 1964 . The pre-clinical center was opened in the early 1980s, and since then a full medical degree has been possible in Lübeck. The computer science course was set up in 1993 , meanwhile there are also the bachelor / master courses in molecular life science , mathematics in medicine and life sciences (formerly computational life science) , since the winter semester 2007 medical engineering and since the winter semester 2011 the bachelor’s course in medical informatics and the in Cooperation with the International School of New Media offered Master’s degree in Digital Media . The Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences was founded in 2007 as part of the German government's excellence initiative . This graduate school trains doctoral students in the field of computer science in medicine and in the life sciences. The state government of Schleswig-Holstein wanted to discontinue the medical course on October 1, 2011. The project met with opposition from politics, science and organizations. After several MPs had already let the one-vote majority of the state government in Kiel dwindle with public commitments to the University of Lübeck, Federal Research Minister Schavan finally announced that the medical course would be retained. The planned from land total savings in the amount of 25 million euros to by a conversion of the Kiel Leibniz - Institute of Oceanography in an institute of the Association Helmholtz be compensated.
The Lübeck University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1969 as the State University of Applied Sciences for Technology and Maritime Studies through the merger of several predecessor institutions. Nowadays, courses mainly from the fields of technology, engineering and applied natural sciences are offered here. Medical technicians , for example, are also trained here in cooperation with the university . On September 1, 2018, was Fachhochschule in Technische Hochschule Lübeck renamed.
The Lübeck University of Music was founded in 1973 from a private conservatory founded in 1911 . As the only one of Lübeck's universities, it is located in the downtown area in 22 merchant houses between the Große Petersgrube, Depenau and An der Obertrave. The music school enjoys an excellent reputation worldwide, so that students from over forty nations study here. With the Brahms Institute at the Lübeck University of Music, the university has a research institute with an extensive collection on the life and work of the composer Johannes Brahms and his time.
As a private university, the International School of New Media (ISNM) is housed in the Media Docks at the end of the Wall Peninsula. In addition to accommodating the ISNM, these former quays were also restored for the establishment of companies in the Neuer Markt . They offer an excellent view of the old town.
Other educational institutions
In Lübeck, the Association for Continuing Education in Lübeck has existed since 1999, in which institutions for vocational, general and political education have come together on a voluntary basis. With over seventy facilities, it is the largest regional training network in Schleswig-Holstein. Moderated by the neutral business development agency LÜBECK GmbH, the association informs citizens and companies neutrally and objectively about further training opportunities in the region. In addition to the theaters and museums mentioned below, there is also the Lübeck Adult Education Center. The adult education center has two locations of its own, one in the city center and one in Sankt-Lorenz-Nord and also uses rooms in other public schools for the numerous courses. The Lübeck observatory offers public sky observations and astronomical lectures. The city library is both a public library and an academic library . It offers a wide range of specialist books and trivial literature in its rooms on Hundestrasse as well as in some branch offices and also has some treasures in its archives. The archives of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck keep the city's document collections since the Middle Ages and many documents from the Hanseatic era .
At the Lübeck Music and Art School and the Lübeck Music School of the Charitable, a total of 4,000 students are taught musical education for young people.
- VfB Lübeck , founded in 1919, is the most famous sports club in the city. His first men's soccer team is currently in the 3rd division . His home stadium is the Lohmühle . The greatest success was the two-time entry into the 2nd Bundesliga in 1996 and 2003, as well as reaching the semi-finals in the DFB Cup in the 2003/04 season.
- The first soccer team of the LBV (now 1. FC) Phönix played in the top division in the late 1950s and currently in the Regionalliga Nord .
- The largest and oldest sports club is the Lübeck gymnastics club from 1854 , whose volleyball women play in the third division north .
- TSV Siems is one of the larger sports clubs .
- The Budokan-Lübeck e. V. in Herrendamm, which is represented in the second division of judo women and men. Other martial arts, such as kickboxing and Tae-Kwon-Do, are also trained here in one of the largest dōjōs in the city.
- The Lübeck chess club from 1873 was German champion from 2001 to 2003 and German cup winner in 2001 and 2002.
- In addition to the forest youth, there are also several scout groups .
- With the Lübeck Cougars , the Hanseatic city is represented in the German Football League 2 , the second Bundesliga in American football .
- The Lübeck Yacht Club , founded in 1898, organizes the Travemünder Woche and the Eisarsch Regatta .
- The " Hansevolk zu Lübeck " has existed since 2000 .
- Heinrich Christian Zietz : Views of the free Hanseatic city of Lübeck and its surroundings . Friedrich Wilmans , Frankfurt am Main 1822, Weiland, Lübeck 1978 (repr.)
- Otto Grautoff : Lübeck . Places of culture. Vol. 9. Klinkhardt & Biermann, Leipzig 1908
- Fritz Endres (Hrsg.): History of the free and Hanseatic city of Lübeck . Otto Quitzow, Lübeck 1926, Weidlich, Frankfurt am Main 1981 (repr.), ISBN 3-8035-1120-8 .
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): German city book. Urban History Handbook . Vol. 1. Northeast Germany. On behalf of the Conference of the Regional History Commissions of Germany with the support of the German Municipal Association. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1939.
- Abram B. Enns : Art and the bourgeoisie - The controversial twenties in Lübeck . Christians - Weiland, Hamburg / Lübeck 1978, ISBN 3-7672-0571-8 .
- Lübeck 1226 - Imperial freedom and early city . Scheffler, Lübeck 1976
- Gerhard Schneider : Endangering and Loss of Statehood of the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck and its Consequences . Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 1986, ISBN 3-7950-0452-7 .
- Gregor Gumpert and Ewald Tucai (eds.): Lübeck. A literary portrait . Wachholtz, Neumünster 2010, ISBN 3-529-06117-4 .
- Antjekathrin Graßmann (Ed.): Lübeckische Geschichte . 4. verb. and additional ed., Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2008, ISBN 978-3-7950-1280-9 .
- Ernst Deecke : Lübische stories and legends . Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 1973.
- Peter Guttkuhn: Short German-Jewish history in Lübeck. From the beginning to the present . Lübeck 2004, ISBN 978-3-7950-7005-2 .
- Heinz Stoob : City folder Lübeck . in: German city atlas . Vol. 3, Volume 6. Acta Collegii Historiae Urbanae Societatis Historicorum Internationalis, Series C. On behalf of the Board of Trustees for Comparative Urban History e. V. and with the support of the German Research Foundation, ed. by Heinz Stoob, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Jürgen Lafrenz and Peter Johannek, Dortmund / Altenbeken 1984, ISBN 3-89115-006-7 .
- Lübeck Lexicon. The Hanse City A to Z . Edited by Antjekathrin Graßmann. Schmidt-Römhild, Lübeck 2006, ISBN 3-7950-7777-X .
- Manfred Finke: UNESCO World Heritage Site Old Town of Lübeck. City monument of the Hanseatic era . Wachholtz-Verlag, Neumünster 2006, ISBN 978-3-529-01335-5 .
- Stefanie Rüther: Prestige and rule. To represent the Lübeck councilors in the Middle Ages and early modern times . (Norm and structure 16). Böhlau, Cologne (among others) 2003
- Hemold von Bosau: Slavic Chronicle . Vol. XIX, retransmitted by Heinz Stoob, in: Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, ed. Rudolf Buchner. Darmstadt 1980.
- Rat zu Lübeck: untitled, in: Hansisches Urkundenbuch, ed. v. Association for Hanseatic History, Vol. I, Halle 1876
- Gustav Berg: Lübeck's position in the Hanseatic League until the middle of the 14th century . phil. Diss. Rostock 1889
- Friedrich Ebel: Hanseatic Cities of Magdeburg Law , in: Hansisches und Hansestädtisches Recht, Hansische Studien XVII, 2008
- Rolf Hammel-Kiesow : The Hanseatic League , Munich 2008 (4)
- Michael North: History of the Baltic Sea. Trade and Cultures, Munich 2011
- Karl Pagel: The Hanse , Oldenburg iO 1942
- Stephan Selzer: The medieval Hanseatic League , in: history compact, ed. v. Kai Brodersen et al., Darmstadt 2010
- City of Artlenburg: Artlenburger privilege. The Hanseatic League was born! , Artlenburg 2011. online , accessed April 17, 2014
- Second German television: Heinrich the Lion. Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, o. O. 2008. online , accessed on April 17, 2014
- Alken Bruns (ed.): Lübeck résumés from nine centuries. On behalf of the Society for Lübeck History and Archeology. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1993. Reprint 2009, ISBN 978-3-529-02729-1
- Manfred Sack , photos: Wilfried Bauer and Timm Rautert : Lübeck: Where 15,000 live in the memorial. In: Geo-Magazin. Hamburg 1980,2, pp. 112-136. Informative experience report.
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- Literature from and about Lübeck in the catalog of the German National Library
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- The name is of Slavic origin and has been reinterpreted and reshaped over the centuries (see in detail Wolfgang Laur : Historisches Ortsnamelexikon von Schleswig-Holstein , 2nd edition, Neumünster 1992, p. 437). The regional pronunciation with a long closed e goes back to medieval forms of name , thus [ ˈlyːbeːk ], cf. Elongation-c ; The stage German pronunciation [ ˈlyːbɛk ] is of more recent origin .
- Statistical Yearbook of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck 2018 p. 27 Inhabitants and area on December 31, 2018 by district.
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- Agathe Lasch: Middle Low German Grammar . Max Niemeyer, Halle a. P. 1914
- Rolf Hammel-Kiesow: The Hanseatic League . 4. revised Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-44731-0 , p. 27 .
- Cf. von Bosau, Hemold: Slawenchronik. Vol. XIX, retransmitted by Heinz Stoob, in: Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, ed. Rudolf Buchner. 1980. Darmstadt. P. 305.
- See Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf: Die Hanse, Munich 20084, p. 30
- Cf. von Bosau, Hemold: Slawenchronik. Vol. XIX, retransmitted by Heinz Stoob, in: Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, ed. Rudolf Buchner, Darmstadt 1980, p. 315
- See Karl Pagel: The Hanseatic League. Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 47 f.
- Karl Pagel: The Hanse, Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 131
- See Berg, Gustav: Lübeck's position in the Hanseatic League up to the middle of the 14th century. phil. Diss. Rostock 1889, p. 5 f.
- See Karl Pagel: The Hanseatic League. Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 52 f.
- Karl Pagel: The Hanseatic League. Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 54
- cf. Duke Heinrich von Baiern und Sachsen: untitled, in: Selected sources on German history in the Middle Ages, Freiherr von Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, vol. XXXVI, ed. v. Rolf Sprandel, Darmstadt 1982, pp. 172-175
- Duke Heinrich von Baiern und Sachsen: untitled, in: Selected sources on German history of the Middle Ages, Freiherr von Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe, Vol. XXXVI, ed. v. Rolf Sprandel, Darmstadt 1982, p. 175
- See Karl Pagel: The Hanseatic League. Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 132
- Cf. Rat zu Lübeck: untitled, in: Hansisches Urkundenbuch, ed. v. Association for Hanseatic History, Vol. I, Halle 1876, p. 299
- Cf. Rat zu Lübeck: untitled, in: Hansisches Urkundenbuch, ed. v. Association for Hanseatic History, Vol. I, Halle 1876, p. 100
- See Pagel, Karl: Die Hanse, Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 56
- See Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf: Die Hanse, Munich 2008, p. 30 f.
- See Pagel, Karl: Die Hanse, Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 55 f.
- See Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf: Die Hanse, Munich 20084, p. 28 f.
- See Karl Pagel: The Hanseatic League. Oldenburg i. O. 1942, p. 57.
- See Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf: Die Hanse, Munich 20084, p. 55 f.
- Lübeckisches Adressbuch, Verlag Max Schmidt.
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- 1945: How Lübeck escaped the final battle . In: Lübecker Nachrichten of May 8, 2010, p. 3
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