|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Lower Franconia|
|Height :||177 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||87.63 km 2|
|Residents:||127,934 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1460 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0931|
|License plate :||WÜ|
|Community key :||09 6 63 000|
|LOCODE :||DE WUE|
|City structure:||13 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Christian Schuchardt ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Würzburg in Bavaria|
Würzburg ( Latinized Herbipolis ; until the 19th century also Wirz Castle ) is a county-level city in Bavaria ( district Lower Franconia ). The city is the seat of the government of Lower Franconia and the District Office of Würzburg , an important school and university location and (since 742) the seat of the diocese of the same name and thus the spiritual center of Main Franconia .
With around 128,000 inhabitants, the city on the Main is the seventh largest city in Bavaria , after Munich , Nuremberg , Augsburg , Regensburg , Ingolstadt and Fürth . In 2000, Würzburg was still in fourth place, but in contrast to most of the larger cities in Bavaria, the number of inhabitants in the Lower Franconian metropolis no longer increased. Würzburg has been one of the three newly created regional centers of the Free State of Bavaria since 2018 .
In the year 704 Würzburg was first mentioned as a fortification "Virteburh" ("in castello Virteburh"). Already in the Middle Ages the city was an important economic, spiritual and sovereign center. The supra-regional importance remained high until the Industrial Revolution . The result was an impressive cityscape , comparable to outstanding central European old towns such as Krakow . This was badly damaged in World War II, in particular by the bombing raid on March 16, 1945 . When rebuilding significant were individual monuments like most churches of the old town external reconstructed , but only a few community center - ensembles and tradition Islands. Which also partly heavily damaged in the war and then restored Wurzburg Residence with Hofgarten and Residenzplatz in 1981 in the UNESCO - World Heritage added. After Aachen Cathedral and together with Speyer Cathedral, it was the third German building on the list. With the Julius Maximilians University , which is in the tradition of the High School in Würzburg founded in 1402 and is therefore the oldest university in Bavaria, the city is one of the classic German university cities . The Würzburg-Schweinfurt University of Applied Sciences and the Würzburg University of Music, founded in 1797, are further academic institutions. 35,600 students (as of winter semester 2017/18) and other university members shape urban life.
Würzburg is surrounded by Spessart, Rhön and Steigerwald in the so-called Main Triangle in a basin in the middle Main Valley. The Main , the most important river in the region, flows through the western part of the city . Its hillside location , the climatic conditions and other location factors make Würzburg a renowned wine-growing region . Three of the fifteen largest German wineries are located in Würzburg. Due to its convenient location, Würzburg is a popular meeting place for many events. Ideally, you can get to Berlin by train in around four hours and Frankfurt am Main is 120 kilometers away.
One of the famous landmarks of Würzburg, the Marienberg Fortress , stands on the hill of a shell limestone slab , the Marienberg . Würzburg's highest point is on the neighboring Nikolausberg , near the Frankenwarte , at 360 m above sea level . The lowest points in Würzburg are at 166 m at the old crane and at the new port .
(December 31, 2017)
|Würzburg as a whole||129,089|
The urban area is divided into 13 boroughs . Until the fortress status for Würzburg on the right Main Main was abolished on September 26, 1856 and 1867 on the left Main Main, the inhabited Würzburg urban area consisted essentially only of the area within the Ringpark and the Main District on the left Main . Then the land adjacent to the city wall was allowed to be settled. Later larger expansions of the urban area were the incorporations of Heidingsfeld (1930), Rottenbauer (1974), Oberdürrbach (1976), Unterdürrbach (1976), Lengfeld and Versbach . The current division is based on the reorganization of the urban area as part of the district reform of 1978.
Twelve cities and municipalities in the Würzburg district border the city of Würzburg. Starting in the north and following clockwise these are:
Veitshöchheim , Güntersleben , Rimpar , Estenfeld , Rottendorf , Gerbrunn , Randersacker , Winterhausen , Reichenberg , Höchberg and Zell am Main . A proposal submitted to the government of Lower Franconia in February 1971 by the city of Würzburg, Randersacker, Reichenberg, Veitshöchheim and Zell as part of the regional reform was not implemented.
Würzburg is the main center of the Würzburg planning region , which includes the independent city of Würzburg and the districts of Kitzingen , Main-Spessart and Würzburg . The following medium-sized centers are assigned to the Würzburg regional center : Gemünden am Main , Kitzingen , Karlstadt , Lohr am Main , Marktheidenfeld , Ochsenfurt and Volkach .
Würzburg belongs to Main Franconia , which lies in the western part of the Franconian layer level country . The layer level land consists of rocks from the Triassic ( Keuper , Muschelkalk , Buntsandstein ).
In addition to the Main, which is classified as a flowing water of the 1st order and federal waterway , and the Pleichach (2nd order), the Dürrbach , the Fuchsstädter Bach (also called Heuchelbach), the Kürnach , the Reichenberger Bach , the Kühbach , the Steinbach and the Zwischengemäuerbach as flowing waters III. Order.
Extreme flood levels from the 14th to 19th centuries are marked on the right door post of the entrance to Grafeneckart , the building that has served as the town hall since 1316: the millennium flood on Magdalenentag on July 21, 1342 (by Prince-Bishop Otto von Wolfskeel as a divine punishment for "evil" Eide considered games for money forbidden by him in 1343), others on February 29, 1784, January 27, 1682 and March 30, 1845.
Flood levels in the 20th century, on February 7, 1909, January 16, 1920 and February 25, 1970 (water level 670 cm) are documented on the wall of the old crane.
In a frequent temperature inversions conditional and accumulation of pollutants (sulfur dioxide, ozone, soot, benzene and nitrogen dioxide) favoring valley town located Wuerzburg is located in the temperate zone and the west wind zone . The relatively dry Würzburg climate, which is warmer than the surrounding area, is particularly suitable for viticulture. The mean temperature in January is −0.6 ° C , in July 18.4 ° C. The mean temperature over the entire year is 9.2 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded was 39.4 ° C on August 7, 2015, and the lowest recorded temperature -24.0 ° C on February 10, 1956.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Würzburg
Even if Würzburg was probably first mentioned around the year 700 (written by the geographer of Ravenna Uburzis , spoken Wurcis ), and its first documented mention only in 704 as in castello Virteburh (which then became Wirzaburg , among other things ), finds suggest a much longer history Würzburg close. Already for the time around 1000 BC A Celtic refuge is proven on the Marienberg . . Was since the year 604 n. Chr Würzburg Franconian ducal seat , 685-689 evangelized there the Franconian apostles Kilian , Kolonat and Totnan . Certainly due to its location on many traffic routes, for example the Main , Bonifatius made Würzburg a bishopric in 741 . With the canonization of the Apostles from Franconia in 752, the pilgrimages to the first martyrs' grave on the right of the Rhine began . Ludwig the Pious granted the Würzburg bishops a tariff privilege around 820 ( market and coinage rights did not follow until 1030). The market square, which was visited by long-distance traders and wholesalers in the 10th century, was located in today's Domstrasse. In the 11th century, a silver coin from Würzburg reached the Faroe Islands , as the coin find from Sandur shows. The first knight tournament on German soil was held in the city in 1127. The construction of the stone Main Bridge around 1130 is considered a technical masterpiece of its time .
On June 17, 1156, Friedrich I Barbarossa married the very young Beatrix of Burgundy , daughter of Count Rainald III, in Würzburg . and heiress of the Free County of Burgundy (now Franche-Comté ). At the Reichstag in Würzburg in 1168, Friedrich I. Barbarossa enfeoffed the then Bishop Herold with the ducal dignity. The city's bishops could henceforth call themselves prince-bishops and use the title “Duke in Franconia”.
In 1188, Hohenstaufen farms and property in the city and the diocese of Würzburg (curtes et allodia, que habemus tam in civitate Herbipolensi quam in episcopatu) were mentioned in a treaty between Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa and King Alfonso VIII of Castile . The contract regulated the marriage between Friedrich's son Konrad and Alfons daughter Berengaria . The property in Würzburg was part of the bride's morning gift along with 29 other Staufer goods . However, this marriage was never put into practice.
Early modern age
The Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn was important for the history of Würzburg . He founded the Juliusspital , re-established the university and expanded the fortress on the Marienberg as a renaissance castle . He was known far beyond Würzburg as a counter-reformer and witch hunter . At the beginning of the 17th century, more than 260 people were executed on charges of witchcraft or sorcery.
From 1631 to 1634 Würzburg was occupied by the Swedes. After the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the baroque expansion of the fortifications of Würzburg took place, among other things through the creation of new fortress and city gates.
From 1802 to 1814 the people of Würzburg changed their nationality four times. First they were citizens of the Würzburg Monastery, then from November 22, 1802 they were citizens of the Electorate Palatinate Bavaria , 1806 of the Kingdom of Bavaria , from September 1806 of the Grand Duchy of Würzburg and from June 1814 again of the Kingdom of Bavaria and since then Bavarian.
The Würzburg gauge was put into operation in 1823 and is the oldest in operation on the Main.
In Würzburg, which has been associated with music since the Middle Ages, the first all-German singing festival took place in August 1845.
After the fortress status for the right Main Main Würzburg was abolished in 1857, the townscape, which had remained largely the same since the end of the 17th century, changed.
In 1900, eight years after the tram line opened as a horse-drawn tram, Würzburg received its first electric tram .
On November 9, 1918, a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed in Würzburg . In April 1919 there was a three-day rule of council communism , the so-called Würzburg council republic . On December 6, 1922, a local branch of the NSDAP was established in Würzburg and, after being re-admitted in 1925, was appointed to the city council with four seats in December 1929.
In 1930, Würzburg's first high-rise building was completed at Augustinerstraße 9 according to plans by Franz Kleinsteuber . Around 1935 it housed rooms for the NSDAP district leadership on the fourth floor. In 1934 Würzburg had become a major city .
After the ban on activities of the SPD (Würzburg and Germany's oldest democratic political party) and the dissolution of the Bavarian People's Party, the city council members were sworn in to Adolf Hitler on September 4, 1934 .
On November 27, 1941, Jewish citizens were deported to Würzburg for the first time, and for the last time on June 17, 1943.
Würzburg experienced the first bombing raids in World War II with the air raid on February 21, 1942. This mainly affected the Südbahnhof.
Under the National Socialist government , the city played an important role in the so-called Action T4 , in which more than 100,000 psychiatric patients and disabled people in Germany were systematically murdered by SS doctors and nurses. The central figure was Werner Heyde , professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Würzburg as well as head of the "medical department" of the "euthanasia" center and chief appraiser of the T4 campaign.
In the spring of 1943, Würzburg became the location of one of the 92 satellite camps of the Flossenbürg concentration camp. In May there were 28 prisoners in the Würzburg subcamp. This was used, among other things, to expand the psychiatric university clinic and an SS hospital. The number of those detained later rose to 50.
On March 16, 1945, from 9:15 p.m. to 9:42 p.m., the bombing raid on Würzburg and Heidingsfeld, which destroyed 80 percent of the core city, was the main Allied attack. At least 4,500 people died, around 5,000 in 1945 as a result of air raids, enemy actions and wounds in hospitals. About 5000 Würzburgers were also killed during the entire Second World War. On March 31, US troops reached the district of Würzburg, on April 2 the bank of the Main below the fortress and on April 4, the day the military government of Main Franconia was established, they marched into the city of Würzburg. On April 5th, Würzburg was finally captured by the 7th US Army. The reconstruction of the city, which began in 1946 and continued in the following years, based on a reconstruction plan for the old town from 1948 and a general transport plan from 1953, was declared complete by Mayor Zimmerer in a budget speech to the city council on December 16, 1963. At the beginning of the 1960s, the planning for a university center on Hubland and for the expansion of the city on Heuchelhof had begun.
On January 1, 1930, the previously independent community of Heidingsfeld was incorporated with the districts of Heidingsfeld, Heuchelhof, Vogelshof and Zwickerleinshof. Further incorporations took place in the context of the territorial reform initiated in January 1971 by the Bavarian Prime Minister Alfons Goppel : On January 1, 1974 the Rottenbauer community was added. Unterdürrbach and the municipality parts of Oberdürrbach, Schafhof and Ziegelhütte from the municipality of Oberdürrbach were incorporated on July 1, 1976. This was followed on January 1, 1978 by the community of Lengfeld with the community parts Holzmühle, Pilziggrund, Riedmühle and Rosenmühle and the community Versbach with the community parts Herrnmühle, Schäfermühle and Straubmühle. On May 1, 1978, 154 ha in the rear Steinbachtal were reallocated from the municipality of Höchberg to Würzburg.
In 1840 Würzburg had 26,814 inhabitants and in 1880 there were 50,000. After the German War , the city experienced a “building boom” in 1867 and 1896, which led to the construction of over 1,300 new houses. While 79,547 inhabitants were counted in 1903, the estimated number of inhabitants was then 80,000 in 1904. With 94,671 inhabitants, Würzburg was the fourth largest city in Bavaria on the right bank of the Rhine in 1918. From 1919 to 1939 the population rose from around 86,500 to 107,500 as a result of birth and migration surpluses. In 1932/33 the population had exceeded the limit of 100,000 for the first time, making Würzburg a major city . Due to the effects of the Second World War , the city lost around half (55,000) of its inhabitants between 1939 (108,000 inhabitants) and 1945 (53,000 inhabitants). After the city had exceeded the 100,000-inhabitant limit for the second time in 1955, the population reached the pre-war level again in 1957. At the end of December 2004, 133,539 people had their main residence in Würzburg, according to an update by the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing . That is the historical high. Since the correction by the 2011 census, the population has stagnated.
The extensive incorporations of the 1970s must be taken into account in the population development ( see incorporations ). Würzburg within the boundaries of 1939 (i.e. with Heidingsfeld ), but including the entire Steinbachtal district , had only 99,541 inhabitants on December 31, 2013 ( according to the city structure ). Whereby this is the population register-based number of inhabitants including second residence . The official population for this area is still slightly below this value.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1833 it is mostly an estimate, then census results ¹ or official updates from the respective statistical offices or city administration. From 1843, the information relates to the “local population” (excluding the military and students), from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the place where the main residence is located”. Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey methods.
- census result
- 2011 census
Proportion of foreigners
In 2010, Würzburg had 11,283 foreigners from various countries of origin, a proportion of 8.5%. The highest proportion of foreigners is recorded in the old town district with 16.8%, followed by Zellerau and Frauenland (both 13.6%) and Grombühl (12.0%). Most foreign citizens (as of 2013) come from Turkey (1237), Russia (840), Italy (756), Ukraine (678) and Romania (662).
According to the 2011 census, 27,609 (22.2%) residents were Protestant and 64,017 (51.5%) were Roman Catholic . 26.3% belonged to other denominations or religious communities or were non-denominational . The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then. Currently (as of December 31, 2019) Würzburg has 43.4% (44.4% in 2018) Catholics and 19.6% Protestants , while 37% of the population either have another religion or no religion at all.
Figures on other religious communities (in addition to the two official churches ) were last collected in the 2011 census. At that time, 1.7% of the population were Christian Orthodox , 0.8% were members of an evangelical free church , 0.3% were of the Jewish faith and another 2.8% belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Bavaria (such as the old Catholic Church or Jehovah's Witnesses ). The proportion of the Muslim population is not shown.
The Reformation was initially able to gain a foothold in the diocese. The Protestant movement was later strongly pushed back by the Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn and the Counter-Reformation from 1586. The followers of Lutheranism were banished from the city, most of them settled in the neighboring imperial city of Schweinfurt . During the Swedish occupation in the Thirty Years War, the Protestants were temporarily able to gain a foothold again from 1631 to 1634. In 1633 they were allowed to use the Würzburg Cathedral for one year. Until the beginning of the 19th century, Würzburg was a Catholic city, apart from Protestants without citizenship. It was not until the Bavarian edict of religion of 1803 that the two denominations were treated equally. In the same year, the Protestants received the chapel of the former Carthusian monastery in April and the church of the secularized St. Stephen's monastery in November. Later other churches were founded. All of them belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria from the beginning , which was fully established in Würzburg by 1811 (from 1808 with Pastor Paul Kanut Ebermayer), and are part of the Evangelical Dean's Office of Würzburg, which was established in 1827 within the church district of Ansbach-Würzburg .
Various free churches have founded parishes in Würzburg. This includes the Evangelical Free Church Community , which can trace its roots in Würzburg back to 1907. During the time of National Socialism, the Baptist and Brethren congregations merged ; as a result, this community sees itself as belonging to both traditions today.
Most of the free church congregations are represented in the Evangelical Alliance and have been working in Würzburg with the department of the Working Group of Christian Churches in Germany since 2003 .
The prince-bishopric of Würzburg, which was secularized in 1803, was rewritten in 1821 as an independent bishopric within the ecclesiastical province of Bamberg . In 1848 the first German bishops' conference took place in Würzburg .
Other Christian religious communities
Würzburg is the headquarters of the Universal Life Faith Movement . The Jehovah's Witnesses have a community center in the Rottenbauer district. In addition, there are communities of Old Catholics , since 1887 the Evangelical Methodist Church , the Mennonites who have lived in the Würzburg area since around 1800, and the Greek Orthodox Church , the Romanian Orthodox Church , the Russian Orthodox and the Syrian Orthodox Church . The community of Sant'Egidio also exists in Würzburg as a community recognized by the Roman Catholic Church . There is also the parish hall of the Seventh-day Adventist Community ( Würzburg Advent Community ) and other Christian religious communities as well as the " Mormons " ( Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ) at Martin-Luther-Strasse 2a .
Würzburg is the seat of an old Jewish community that was first mentioned in 1147. It had its heyday in the 12th and 13th centuries. During the rint meat pogrom in 1298, around 900 Jews were killed in Würzburg between July 18 and 23. Further pogroms took place in 1336/1337 during the so-called Armleder Survey . In 1349 there was persecution of the Jews at the time of the Black Death in the city and the surrounding area. From the 15th to the 17th centuries, Jews were repeatedly expelled from the city. In 1803, granted by the new Bavarian government (pragmatically for more financial reasons), after more than 150 years with Moses Hirsch and his sons Salomon and Jakob von Hirsch from Gaukönigshofen, a Jewish family could again settle in Würzburg. Only on September 12, 1808, was it officially permitted to resettle Jews in Würzburg again with an ordinance. The Bavarian Jews only received further rights with the edict that came into effect in 1816 , concerning the conditions of Jewish co-religionists in the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1813.
On August 2, 1819, Würzburg was the starting point of the Hep-Hep riots , which were directed against Jewish citizens. Around 1900 the Jewish community reached its highest level with almost 2500 members (in 1910 there were 2514 Jews in Würzburg, 3 percent of the population). In 1925 the number of Jews in Würzburg was then with 2261 2.5 percent of the total population (1814 it was with 172 0.9% and 1867 1099).
In 1933 there was a boycott of shops belonging to Jewish owners in Würzburg . At least four people died in Würzburg in the November pogroms in 1938 . Facilities of the Jewish religious community were destroyed by SA men , as a memorial plaque on a wall in Domerschulstrasse commemorates. The interior of the main synagogue , built from 1837 to summer 1841 , was destroyed in the presence of the university rector and SA leader Seifert, but the building was not burned down, presumably out of consideration for neighboring “Aryan” houses. A NSDAP party office was set up in the synagogue building, which was destroyed in the bombing in 1945. The deportation of the remaining Würzburg Jews to concentration camps began in November 1941 . The Jewish community ceased to exist in 1943. The Würzburg Jews had no inkling of their fate and voluntarily went to the collection point when asked by letter. 895 members of the community were murdered.
Just a few years after the end of the Second World War , a new Jewish community was founded in Würzburg, which was given a new synagogue at Valentin-Becker-Straße 11 in 1970, with a plaque in the anteroom commemorating the persecution and murder of Würzburg Jews. A documentation center for Jewish history and culture in Lower Franconia was built in 1987 on the first floor of the Jewish old people's home located there. There were seven synagogues in Würzburg up until the Holocaust . One of them, which was built on Sandbergerstrasse in 1929, now houses the David-Schuster-Realschule. Inside, a plaque commemorates the head of the former Israelite Teacher Training Institute (ILBA), the educator Jakob Stoll , who emigrated to the USA after being imprisoned in a concentration camp. A memorial column was erected in 1986 at the site of the former synagogue in Heidingsfeld on Zindelgasse and the corner of Dürrenberg.
On January 9, 1987, 1,455 Jewish gravestones were found in the Pleich district of Würzburg when a former commercial building was demolished . Karlheinz Müller and his colleagues Simon Schwarzfuchs, Rami Reiner and Edna Engel completed their scientific research in 2012 with the publication of the third volume. The worldwide unique collection is located in the Shalom Europa Museum in the Jewish Community Center.
On October 23, 2006, after a five-year construction period, the new Jewish community and cultural center with the name Shalom Europa was opened. The number of parishioners has risen to around 1,100 due to quota refugees . Since August 2001 there is again a rabbi in Würzburg. In April 2012, the city first invited former citizens who had survived the Nazi persecution of the Jews.
In Würzburg, where the Association of Islamic Cultural Centers e. V. had offered in the Erthalstraße 1 Friday worship for Muslim men, there are several mosques , including one of the 1,994-added Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs (DİTİB) in Outer Aumühlstraße 11, the mosque of the resulting 2003 Islamic Community Wuerzburg in Barbarastraße, two more of the Association of Islamic Cultural Centers in Erthalstraße and one of the Islamic Community of Bosniaks in Germany in Doktor-Maria-Probst-Straße (In 1994 members of the Bosnian-Islamic Association founded by refugees met at Wredestraße 32, where the Islamic Society Milli Gürüs formed around 2000).
The Bait-ul-Aleem mosque (translated: "House of the Scholar"), Würzburg's first mosque, is located on Edith-Stein-Straße. It was built by the Ahmadiyya movement in 2005 .
Monasteries and religious orders
In the city of Würzburg there were and are numerous monasteries and religious orders. There were also several houses of the beguines and begarians in the city area. Especially in the 13th century, young orders began to settle in the city. Examples:
- Dominicans , 13-19 century
- "Marxenkloster" (Dominican women ), 13. – 19. century
- Augustinian monastery in Würzburg (Augustinian hermits), since the 13th century
- Agnetenkloster Würzburg (Poor Clares), 13. – 16. century
- Engelgarten Monastery (Carthusian monastery), 14. – 19. century
- St. Ulrichs Monastery ( Benedictine nuns since 1295 ), named after Ulrich von Augsburg , 13th-16th centuries. Century. From a former Beguine community , first documented in 1256 and 1323 occupied Klause Ortisei (also called Ulrich Klause , in the 15th century, "Sanct Ulrich to the genaden porten") went under Rudolf von Scherenberg 1476, after confirmation of the Rule of St. Benedict in the Church of St. Ulrich and St. Bonifatius and conversion of the church into a monastery, the Benedictine priory of the Bursfeld Congregation ad portam gratiae or St. Scholastika to the Gnadenpforte (under the supervision of the Abbot of St. Stephen ) emerged. The monastery, which was impoverished as a result of the Reformation and the Peasants' War and abandoned around 1570, was located on the site of today's inner courtyard of the Old University , into which the empty Ulrich's monastery was structurally integrated in 1583 (the foundations of the Ulrich's monastery were exposed in 1955).
- Schottenkloster Würzburg
- St. Burkard (Würzburg)
- Franciscan monastery in Würzburg (Minorites), since the 13th century
- St. Stephan (Würzburg)
- Himmelspforten Monastery
- Magdalenerinnen (Reuerinnen), Cistercian and Augustinian , 13. – 16. century
- Carmelite Monastery Maria Magdalena (Würzburg) (Discalced Carmelites), since the 17th century
- Carmelite Monastery of St. Barbara (Würzburg) (Shoed Carmelites), 13. – 19. century
- German Order ( German Lords ), 13. – 19. century
- Johanniter (from 12th century)
- Monastery of the Annunciation (Würzburg)
The city of Würzburg has been administered by the council and the mayor since it was founded. The council has been attested since 1256. The mayor was at its head . Later there was an old council and a new council . The old council, known as the Oberrat, was the episcopal supervisory authority; the new council had hardly any powers. After the peasant wars , civil liberties were almost completely restricted. A memorial in the green area below the residence commemorates the peasant wars. From then on, the town councilor appointed by the bishop was at the head of the town. At the beginning of the 18th century, the internal and external councils were combined into a college. With an ordinance of May 17, 1818, however, the city was regained its self-government through the Bavarian municipal edict. From then on, the city was headed by the First Mayor, who from 1908 received the title of Lord Mayor introduced in Bavaria for large and medium-sized cities. The city council consists of 50 deputies.
The first (legally qualified) mayor and lord mayor of Würzburg since 1796:
- 1796–1820: Georg Ignaz Brock
- 1821–1832: Wilhelm Josef Behr
- 1835–1840: Sebastian Benkert
- 1840–1852: Matthäus Johann Bermuth
- 1852-1853: vacant
- 1853–1859: Josef Friedrich Treppner
- 1859–1862: Ludwig Weis
- 1862–1865: Jakob Hopfenstätter
- 1865–1884: Georg von Zürn , liberal
- 1884–1899: Johann Georg Ritter von Steidle
- 1900–1913: Philipp Ritter von Michel , liberal
- 1913–1917: Max Ringelmann , liberal
- 1918–1920: Andreas Grieser
- 1921–1933: Hans Löffler , German Democratic Party, later German State Party
- 1933–1945: Theo Memmel , NSDAP
- 1945–1946: Gustav Pinkenburg
- 1946: Michael Meisner
- 1946–1948: Hans Löffler , CSU
- 1948: Hermann Hagen (unable to work due to illness)
- 1948–1949: Karl Grünewald , BP
- 1949–1956: Franz Stadelmayer
- 1956–1968: Helmuth Zimmerer , FWG
- 1968–1989: Klaus Zeitler , SPD
- 1990–2002: Jürgen Weber , WL
- 2002–2008: Pia Beckmann , CSU
- 2008–2013: Georg Rosenthal , SPD (resigning from office when taking office in the state parliament)
- 2013–2014: Adolf Bauer , CSU (executive)
- since 2014: Christian Schuchardt , CDU
In the mayoral election in 2008 , the incumbent Pia Beckmann (41.3%) and her SPD challenger Georg Rosenthal (24.7%) came to the runoff election. Other candidates were Matthias Pilz (Greens, 16.3%), Benedikt Kuttenkeuler (Würzburg List, 14.6%) and Uwe Dolata ( ÖDP , 3.0%). In the runoff election, the SPD candidate surprisingly prevailed over incumbent Pia Beckmann with 52.5% against 47.5%. The turnout was only 41.0%.
In the mayoral elections on March 16, 2014, including the out as candidates Gerbrunn originating Mukhtar Al Ghusain (* July 22, 1963) for the SPD and Greens and Christian Schuchardt for CSU, FDP and Wurzburg list. Christian Schuchardt himself belongs to the CDU . Since no candidate achieved an absolute majority, a runoff election took place on March 30th. Christian Schuchardt won this with an absolute majority of 55.73% of the votes cast. He is thus the first CDU mayor in a major Bavarian city. Muchtar Al Ghusain received 44.27% of the vote. Only 40.47% of those eligible to vote came to the runoff election. In the 2020 mayor election, Schuchardt was re-elected in the first ballot on March 15 with 51.95% of the votes cast, with a total of five opposing candidates.
The city council consists of the city councilors and the mayor. The distribution of seats for the election periods since 2008 is as follows:
|Party / list||Seats 2008||Seats 2014||Seats 2020|
|CDU / CSU||18th||17 1.2||15 1|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||9||9||16|
|Würzburg List - The Free Voters||4th||4 2||2|
|Free voter community Würzburg||2||3||3|
|Citizens' Forum Würzburg||2||1||1|
|Future for Würzburg||0||2||1|
1 including the seat of the mayor
2 Willi Dürrnagel transferred from the CSU to the Würzburg list on September 18, 2019.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In black a slanting standard (the" little racing flag ") on a silver lance shaft, twice notched on both vertical sides and quartered in red and gold."|
Justification of the coat of arms: The little racing flag as the town's coat of arms has been documented since the second third of the 16th century. It is the flag of the diocese of Würzburg , but in a different color (instead of black and blue, golden and silver tinge), instead of the lance shaft a tournament lance can be seen. Furthermore, the diocese flag is not quartered. The name comes from the custom of naming the imperial fiefdom , in which the prince-bishop to be enfeoffed rode around the seat frame with the feudal lord (emperor) three times at full speed during the enfeoffment ceremony, first without a flag, then with the corresponding racing flag, and finally with the fiefdom flag with the Coat of arms of the feudal countries. The racing flag has also been used in the city's seals since 1570.
The city flag is red and yellow with an applied coat of arms.
City partnerships and sponsorships
The city of Würzburg has been twinning cities since 1962 . Streets in the Heuchelhof district of Würzburg are named after some of these partnerships . Würzburg has a partnership with the following cities:
Suhl (Germany / Thuringia), since November 15, 1988
The area of the core city, which is delimited by the Main, Juliuspromenade, Theaterstraße, Balthasar-Neumann-Promenade and Neubaustraße, is known as the “Bischofsmütze” because of its appearance on maps.
In the seventh century, Würzburg was the center of a duchy established by the Merovingians . The Merovingian rotunda of the Marienkirche of the fortress Marienberg is one of the oldest churches in Germany. An imposing Romanesque church is the St. Kilian Cathedral, begun under Bishop Bruno (1034–45) , next to Speyer and Mainz the largest German Romanesque cathedral. Important Romanesque buildings are also the Neumünster, later redesigned in baroque style, with its cloister ( Lusamgärtlein ) from the late 12th century and the St. Burkard Church . In the first half of the 13th century, the east side of the cathedral including the towers and the Neumünster were rebuilt. Many churches and monasteries were already founded at this time, but hardly anything of the Romanesque original buildings has survived. The Grafeneckart building was mentioned for the first time as a medieval tower in 1180.
The early Gothic Deutschhauskirche and the Schottenkirche Don Bosco are in the Mainviertel . The most important Gothic church is the Marienkapelle on the north side of the Lower Market, which despite its size is a chapel under canon law . The church of the Franciscan monastery and the monastery church of Maria Assumption in Heaven in Zellerau are also Gothic . St. Gertraud in the Innere Pleich district also shows late Gothic features . In 1316 the city acquired the court of the episcopal mayor, Count Eckhart. The town hall developed from the so-called Grafeneckart , in front of which the baroque four-tube fountain is located. The Citizens Hospital of the Holy Spirit with its church was also founded in the Gothic period. The cutting tower from the early 14th century is located on the Kranenkai near the Congress Center and was once part of the northwestern suburban fortifications. The round witch's tower in the southeast and the shepherd's tower with the remains of a wall in the southwest have also been preserved.
The Marienberg Fortress (also called Marienfeste) was expanded in the Gothic period and then in the Renaissance and is the most famous landmark of the city. It can be reached by city bus from the residence, on foot from the Alter Mainbrücke via the Tellsteige or from the Friedensbrücke via the site of the former State Garden Show or by car. After passing several gates of the imposing fortification, you reach the Mainfränkisches Museum , then a pond made of red sandstone, a 100 m deep well and the prince's garden, which can hardly be identified because of its dimensions. A walk around the fortress gives a first impression. The true extent of the fortifications is revealed on the way back through the vineyards to St. Burkard and the banks of the Main. The fortress was chosen as the seat of the prince-bishops, later abandoned in favor of the newly built, more representative residence. The Old Main Bridge itself was built from 1476 as a connection to the city on the opposite side of the Main and was later adorned with numerous baroque sculptures. By 1500 the late Gothic sculpture with Tilman Riemenschneider reached European rank.
Under Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1573–1617), Würzburg became a center of the Renaissance . In 1583 the new church (university church ) was built as one of the most important church buildings of this time. The building complex of the old university with the new church was completed in 1591, nine years after the re-establishment of the university by the prince-bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Visually dominant with the tallest tower in the city and architecturally outstanding is the university church, which is now used by the university as an auditorium. It was redesigned by Antonio Petrini at the end of the 17th century and completed by Joseph Greising . The restoration work after the destruction of the Second World War lasted until 1985. The spacious Juliusspital was also built during the Renaissance. Its Rococo pharmacy has also been preserved.
The Episcopal Palace ( Hof Conti ) with its magnificent bay was built from 1588 for the canon Julius Ludwig Echter von Mespelbrunn, it is located at Kardinal-Döpfner-Platz 5. The Vordere Gressenhof (today Castell-Bank ) on the market is also a Renaissance building, he has a magnificent bay from 1591.
Baroque and Rococo
The baroque period became a golden age of the arts in Würzburg , especially under the prince-bishops of the Schönborn family . The Hof Heideck is an early Baroque building at the Domerschulstraße of 1625-26. The western extension of the town hall was built in 1659 with a house facade made of red sandstone ( red building ). The stately Petersbau in Münzstraße 1 is a three-wing complex with a baroque structure, created in 1689 by Antonio Petrini . The fortress was also expanded in the Baroque period, it was decorated with magnificent gates and then expanded to include the New Armory and the Maschikuliturm. In the high baroque era, the Adelspalais on Residenzplatz (former Rosenbachhof, built by Joseph Greising in 1701), the red building of the Greiffenclau-Palais on Theaterstraße by Andreas Müller 1706–1708 and the Rückermainhof , on Karmelitenstraße 20 (Rückermaing building), built by Joseph Greising as a high judicial court from 1716–19. The Huttenschlösschen , built around 1720 by the then cathedral dean and later Prince-Bishop Christoph Franz von Hutten as a private summer palace, has been the corps house of the Corps Rhenania Würzburg since 1884 . From 1680 Veitshöchheim Castle was built near the city , which later expanded and became famous for its courtyard garden. In 1719 the Talavera-Schlösschen was built in the Zellerau, and from 1720 the Carmelite monastery, which is now the northern wing of the town hall.
In the episcopal city there are numerous churches that were built in the baroque era or were redesigned during this period. These include the "Reurerkirche" (St. Joseph and St. Maria Magdalena) by Petrini, the Ursuline Church , St. Peter and Paul von Greising, the Augustinian Church by Balthasar Neumann and St. Michael , whose new building was carried out by Johann Philipp Geigel and Johann Michael Fischer originated. The largest baroque church is Haug von Petrini Monastery, another large domed building after the Neumünster Church , but the most prominent is the Käppele on the Nikolausberg opposite the fortress. The Käppele was also built by Balthasar Neumann. It can be seen from afar as a silhouette. This pilgrimage chapel can be reached via a steep processional staircase. The view from above extends to the Main, the elongated fortress and the city of Würzburg with its many church towers. The interior is in a baroque style. Concerts are often performed. From the transept there is an access to the rear rooms, in which the gifts of thanks of the pilgrims for the healing of illness and suffering are displayed. The Schönborn chapel at the cathedral and the rococo of the court church of the Most Holy Trinity in the residence, both by Balthasar Neumann, are particularly magnificent .
The Würzburg Residence was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. It was built in the Baroque style from 1720–1744 on behalf of Prince-Bishop Johann Philipp Franz von Schönborn (1719–24) and his successors according to plans by Balthasar Neumann. The stairwell is spanned by a 600 m² cantilever vault, which was painted by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo using a fresco technique. The entrance hall (vestibule) was constructed in such a way that up to six-horse carriages could drive up. The university's institutes and museums are located in the residence. The court church is integrated in the south-west of the residential building. The wine cellars of the State Court Cellar are located under the north and south wings. The courtyard garden with the wrought iron gates by Johann Georg Oegg and a monument by Julius Bausenwein an Oegg am Rennweg is located behind the residence.
The Hof zum Rebstock near the new church dates from the Middle Ages, but the facade was built in the Baroque period from 1737, as were the houses opposite. The department store on the market , built by Balthasar Neumann, dates from 1740. The Marmelstein court , also built as a canon court by Balthasar Neumann (1747), on Domerschulstraße is now the episcopal ordinariate. The Falken House has probably the most beautiful rococo facade in town . The building on the upper market dates from the 18th century. In 1751 the facade was decorated with rich Rococo stucco decorations. The former ambassador's building on Residenzplatz dates from 1767 and the former Hauger Stiftshof Murrelini by Franz Ignaz Michael Neumann at Bahnhofstrasse 11 is designated as 1775. Further courtyards and town houses are located in the Unterer Markt and Gressengasse area. In the Gressengasse is the Gasthof Zum Stachel , which is now a wine bar and was a meeting place for the rebels during the peasant wars. The Fichtel'sche Hof is located at Bronnbachergasse 8 , the entrance of which is adorned by the Fichtel coat of arms, a stylized green spruce in a red field. The stone railing in the stairwell is remarkable. The Alte Kranen am Main is a late baroque harbor crane from 1773.
Classicism and Historicism
The classicism include the construction of St. Stephen and the facade of the former Hofspitalkirche to the Mainviertel, both of Geigel . The latter has served as an exhibition space since the end of the war. In 1806 the Grand Duchy of Würzburg was established. An important building of this time is the former women's penitentiary , a work of early classicism by Peter Speeth below the fortress, next to St. Burkard, from 1809. A classicist dome building started in 1814 by Peter Speeth with a column portal and rustique structure, the former Zeller gatehouse in the Zeller 45 Street, is now the Church of the Russian Orthodox Community.
When Würzburg finally became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria after the Congress of Vienna, the city's importance for art history declined noticeably. The most important buildings of this time were not rebuilt after the Second World War, such as the classicistic Harmoniesaal from 1823. King Ludwig I had the new main synagogue built in the “Egyptian style” by his court architect Friedrich von Gärtner from 1837 to 1841 , thus foiling the planned one Construction of the building by the Würzburg master builder Anton Eckert. It was demolished in 1938 and destroyed in 1945. The Maxschule , the main example of the Maximilian style in Würzburg , had the same fate .
The monumental main building of the New University dates from 1896. The Palace of Justice is also a representative building of historicism . The main customs office was then built in a baroque Art Nouveau style . A particularly monumental historicist church is the neo-Romanesque building of St. Adalbero . Large neo-Gothic churches are St. Joseph the Bridegroom in Grombühl , the second largest church in Würzburg in terms of area after the cathedral, and the St. Johannis Church , which was rebuilt in a modern way after being destroyed in the war, the old tower was preserved as a memorial.
Already in the middle of the 13th century there was a castle on the Würzburger Steinberg for a short time. The stone castle , which was simply restored after the World War , was only erected in 1897/98 as a restaurant with a view over the city. Today the Schlosshotel Steinburg is located in the castle. The dominant feature of the cityscape is the fireplace in the laundry at the Grombühl University Hospital (height: 66 meters, built in 1917)
The high-rise Augustinerstraße (office high-rise, officially: Hans-Löffler-Haus ) was built in 1930 by Franz Kleinsteuber in the New Objectivity style as the first high-rise in Franconia at Augustinerstraße 9 and used as a municipal office building. It survived the war, but demolition and new construction were approved in 2018. New objectivity monuments can also be found in the Keesburg district in particular .
During the Second World War, almost all buildings in the city center were destroyed or damaged, numerous aristocratic and town houses disappeared forever, while the most important landmarks and churches were rebuilt or reconstructed. The Würzburg City Theater was built after 1945 as a replacement for the destroyed pre-war building, the same applies to the new building for the main train station .
Of the modern churches, the pyramid of St. Andreas in Sanderau is particularly characteristic of the cityscape. The square system made of exposed concrete with a sloping pyramid roof was built in 1967 and is a prime example of brutalism . In the course of the conversion from coal to natural gas, the external appearance of the combined heat and power plant at the old harbor was thoroughly revised. In 2007 , the architectural firm Brückner & Brückner was awarded the gold “best architects 08” award for the facade design . The basin of the old port was included in the redesign, in particular through the construction of a large flight of stairs at the site of the former coal bunker. The culture store is also of interest. In the meantime, other modern high-rise buildings such as the GHOTEL Würzburg opened in 2012 .
- The Old Main Bridge was the only river crossing until 1886. It was built and rebuilt from 1476 to 1703 and is characterized by statues of saints that were added from 1725.
- The Bridge of German Unity (also called Talavera Bridge, after the large festival and parking lot on the left side of the Main) is the youngest bridge and was inaugurated on October 3, 1992. The cable-stayed bridge crosses the Main and a harbor basin.
- The Friedensbrücke was completed in 1888 as the Luitpold Bridge and renamed after the Second World War.
- The Konrad-Adenauer-Brücke is the southernmost of the four road bridges. The prestressed concrete bridge was built from 1965 to 1967.
- The Ludwigsbrücke was built in 1895 and is known to the population as a lion bridge because of the four lion statues on the two driveways to the bridge.
- The Laurentius Bridge, known as the Zeller Bridge, connects Würzburg's new port with Zell am Main.
- The Sebastian-Kneipp-Steg was inaugurated on July 22, 1978 and is a pure pedestrian bridge.
- Frankonia fountain in front of the residence
- Vierströmbrunnen (also known as “Griffin Fountain” or “Auverabrunnen”) in the park of the Juliusspital. Built 1706–1708 by Jakob van der Auvera (1672–1760).
- Four-tube fountain at Grafeneckart, which was designed by Balthasar Neumann in 1727 and executed jointly by Jacob von der Auvera and Johann Peter Wagner . On the obelisk of the fountain is Frankonia with the ducal sword and flag. The four virtues of bravery, wisdom, temperance and justice are depicted above the fountain bowl. Balthasar Neumann established the fresh water supply for Würzburg for the first time with a canal system to this well.
- Kiliansbrunnen at the train station, unveiled at the Kiliansfest in 1895 by Prince Regent Luitpold.
- Fountain at Sternplatz (created in 1987 by the sculptor Lothar Forster, who died in 1990)
Models of structures for the blind
Scannable models stand in front of individual striking structures. They are profiled, made of metal and make it easier for the blind to get an idea of the proportions, courtyards, roof slopes, towers and battlements. Locations of the tactile models:
- Town hall: south entrance at Grafeneckart
- Cathedral: Kiliansplatz, between the cathedral and the cathedral museum
- Residence: Between the entrance of the Hofkirche and the gate to the Hofgarten
- Old Main Bridge: Left Main (fortress side) at the bridge entrance
- St. Adalbero Church in the Sanderau district
There are similar models in Graz .
- Frankenwarte lookout tower , tower on Nikolausberg built in 1894 by the Würzburg Beautification Association founded in 1874 ( suspected as a place of witch sabbaths at the time of the witch trials in Würzburg )
- Bismarck Tower , 15 m high observation tower built in 1905 in the Bismarckswäldchen above the Weinberg am Stein (nearby is the Würzburg-Stadt transmitter )
- The Würzburg public observatory is located in the Keesburg district
- Schenkenturm, the keep of the former Schenkenburg built in 1275 in the Unterdürrbach district (independent from 1575 to June 30, 1976) on the southern edge of the Schenkenturm airfield of the same name. Rebuilt into an observation tower at the end of the 19th century
Green areas and nature conservation
Publicly accessible Würzburg gardens and parks
The Ringpark , which instead of the former fortification, runs in a semicircle around the old town from Mainufer (Friedensbrücke) to Mainufer (Ludwigsbrücke) is immediately eye-catching for every visitor . It is 3.3 km long and up to 240 m wide. It is interrupted by the main train station and Berliner Platz, borders the main cemetery and is separated from the residence by a high wall. Striking and exotic trees in the park are specified with German and Latin names.
The Hofgarten is located behind the residence and in front of the former city bastion (now the Ringpark). It offers beeches, arcades, fountains and flowers and rises over three terraces. In the “south garden” the water basin is the focal point. In the garden part to the east of the residence, the slope to the former city bastion can be climbed by stairs. Arbor-like corridors lead arches around the area.
The Lusamgärtchen on the remaining cloister wing of the Neumünsterstift is a very small oasis of calm in the middle of the city. This is where visitors to Walther von der Vogelweide are remembered, who, according to Michael de Leone (the editor of the first cookbook in German), is supposed to be buried “at the Nuwemunster in the grasehove”.
The garden behind the Juliusspital is used to relax patients and is open to the public. The Botanical Garden was located here from 1696 to 1854 , and parts of the tree population still testify to this.
The former State Garden Show from 1990, where the State Garden Show with the most visitors at the time took place from April 27 to October 21, 1990 , consists of two parts: the lower part with the striking pyramid, the Sieboldgarten and the eco house, from Dreikronenstraße to Nautiland, as well as the upper part, which extends from the Zeller Tor, under the Zellerstraße, up the fortress mountain and over the allotment garden to the Marienberg fortress. In the upper part there is, among other things, a water playground and sub-areas that were created by Würzburg's twin cities.
The Leonhard-Frank-Promenade (on the left bank of the Main River Main between the Alter Mainbrücke and Talavera) is a refreshing place to stay on hot summer evenings.
The Prince Garden of the Marienberg Fortress was built on an earlier gun platform of the fortress and therefore offers a special view of the city. It was modeled on the Italian "giardini secreti".
The Botanical Garden of the University of Dallenberg includes cottage gardens , exotic crops and different tree species.
- List of nature reserves in the city of Würzburg
- List of FFH areas in the city of Würzburg
- List of geotopes in Würzburg
The nature reserves together cover an area of 110 hectares. The larger nature reserve is the Waldkugel nature reserve, established in 2002 .
Every spring, two established running events each attract several thousand runners to the city. The Würzburg Residence Run takes place regularly in April and leads over ten kilometers in four laps around the Residence. The Würzburg Marathon takes place in May . The marathon distance leads through the city in two different rounds.
The Würzburg section of the German Alpine Club is the largest sports club in Würzburg with around 9,600 members. It maintains several climbing opportunities (DAV climbing center Würzburg) and three alpine huts . The second DAV section of Würzburg, the Bergbund Würzburg , has a refuge in the Rhön.
Würzburg is the birthplace of Dirk Nowitzki , the most successful basketball player in German history. In addition to Nowitzki, the German national team players Maximilian Kleber , Robert Garrett , Demond Greene and Marvin Willoughby also became “big”. The first division team at that time played successfully for seven years in the BBL and one year in the ULEB Eurocup . In the 2004/2005 season, however, the team had to file for bankruptcy both athletically and economically. The subsequent attempt by the USC Mainfranken Basket to gain a foothold in the second basketball division failed that same season. After a year break in high-class basketball, the SCH Würzburg Baskets , a project led by two passionate managers in cooperation with the local club SC Heuchelhof, have been in the starting blocks on the way back to professional basketball since the 2007/2008 season . In the 2008/2009 season, the Würzburg Baskets finished undefeated as champions of the Regionalliga Südost and were promoted to the 2nd Bundesliga, Pro B. There was the march through by the Pro B and the following year by the Pro A, from which the team rose to the 1st basketball league on April 23, 2011 . After two years, after a chaotic season with point deductions and a change of owner, the team was relegated to the Pro A, from which the team rose again the following year.
Basketball was introduced in Würzburg in 1950. The women of the TG 48 Würzburg achieved their first national successes in the 1960s. For the men, after the TG 48 Würzburg, the DJK Würzburg played on a national level and in the basketball Bundesliga (BBL) and held its own in the 1st Bundesliga from 1998 to 2005.
Würzburg is home to the swimming club SV Würzburg 05 . Its water polo team is five-time German champions and plays in the German water polo league DWL (2006/2007 season). With the twelve-time world and five-time European champion Thomas Lurz , SVW 05 is an exceptional athlete on the German swimming scene. The two-time European champion Annika Liebs also went on the hunt for the title for the SVW .
Würzburg has several rowing clubs. The first Würzburg rowing club, the WRVB, received the Würzburg city badge (silver on base) in 1933 after the German championship in eighth. In 1934 the Würzburg rowing club received the golden city plaque from 1875 for the European championship in the four-man without a helmsman. In 1936 the Golden City Plaque went to Willi Menne, Martin Karl, Toni Rom and Rudolf Eckstein from the WRVB on the occasion of the Olympic victory in the four without a helmsman. They were received triumphantly in the city on August 18th. The Academic Rowing Club Würzburg , Bavaria's largest rowing club, was founded in 1905. In recent years, the ARCW has been represented by athletes at the World Rowing Championships and the Olympic Games, most recently in 2017 by Joachim Agne . From 2015 there was a third rowing club in Würzburg, the rowing community Olympos Würzburg (ROW). Due to the lack of future prospects, it dissolved on December 31, 2019.
Football has a long tradition in Würzburg (the first football club in Würzburg was founded in 1895 at the Realgymnasium, today's Siebold-Gymnasium ), albeit in the amateur field for most of the time after the Second World War. A city selection won 4-0 over FC Schalke 04 on June 7, 1946, with 10,000 spectators watching the game.
The Würzburger Kickers , a football club that played in the 2nd Bundesliga for the second time after 1977/78 in the 2016/17 season , made it to League Two after only one year in the third division . After relegation to the 3rd division in 2017, the "Kickers" made it to the 2nd Bundesliga again in the 2019/20 season. The club, founded in 1907, plays its home games in the Dallenberg Stadium, today the Flyeralarm Arena . By winning the Bavarian State Cup final in 2014, the Kickers qualified for the DFB Cup main round. In the first round of the cup, the second division Fortuna Düsseldorf was beaten 3-2 after extra time in front of over 10,000 spectators and the second round was reached against Eintracht Braunschweig . The victory meant that after 31 years a team from Würzburg was able to qualify for the second main round (most recently SV Heidingsfeld , DFB Cup 1983/84 ). FV 04 Würzburg also played in the 2nd Bundesliga from 1976 to 1980. The city of Würzburg is one of the few cities that had two football Bundesliga clubs in the men's division ( 1977/78 season ). The association founded in 1904 filed for bankruptcy in the 1980s and was re-established as Würzburger FV. For the 2006 World Cup in Germany, Würzburg hosted the Ghana national team , which used the Würzburg Kickers' stadium as a training ground. The women's football department of ETSV Würzburg competes in the regional league.
The ESV Würzburg - created in 1986 from the merger of the EHC 82 Würzburg and the EC Würzburg - has been participating in the BEV's games since 1986 , where it plays its home games in the ice rink on Nigglweg. His greatest successes were the quadruple championship of the Bavarian State League North and the "Bavarian State League Vice Championship 1993. Since the ice rink could not be used for repair work at the start of the season, the ESV only had its 1st team out of play for the 2017/18 season the BBzL . unsubscribe the ESV played from 2018 again in the Bavarian district league . source: rodi-db.de
Ju-Jutsu is practiced successfully in and around Würzburg . Competitions are contested in Heidingsfeld, the Ju-Jutsu department of the Oberdürrbach sports club has even produced two world champions and one runner-up.
The cycling is funded by the cycling community Würzburg. In addition to a regular bike tour , the Mainfrankentour , the Kiliani bike tour is organized annually , which is primarily intended to appeal to occasional cyclists . Otherwise, the club is characterized by regular public training meetings for racing bikes and mountain bikes . The gym wheel department of the Würzburg gymnastics community was able to assert itself internationally in addition to numerous successes in state and national class competitions. Claudia Renz became world champion in straight gymnastics with music in 1997. Isabell Gramß managed to get 3rd in the youth class in the 2005 World Gymnastics Championships .
The city is characterized by its universities, the Julius-Maximilians-Universität , the Musikhochschule and the Fachhochschule Würzburg-Schweinfurt , which employ over 5,500 scientific and technical employees and civil servants as well as supply and administrative staff (status: 2003). Around 4,100 of these are employed at the university alone. The largest employer with around 5,000 employees is the Würzburg city administration.
In 2016, Würzburg achieved, within the city limits, a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 7.452 billion, making it 50th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 59,404 (Bavaria: € 44,215 / Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. In 2017 there were around 56,800 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 3.1% in November 2019.
Würzburg is one of the most successful business locations in Germany. In the Future Atlas 2019 , the city of Würzburg was ranked 24th out of 401 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects".
Employees subject to social security contributions (June 2013)
|Agriculture, forestry, fishing||162|
|Manufacturing industry excluding manufacturing and construction||1679|
|Commerce, transport and hospitality||18,038|
|Provision of business services||16,777|
|Provision of private and public services||33,251|
Industry and commerce
Brose Fahrzeugteile SE & Co. KG is the largest industrial employer . The printing machine manufacturer Koenig & Bauer and the printing company flyeralarm are further employers in the manufacturing sector who are also well known beyond the region. Würzburg is also the production and administration location of NKM Noell Special Cranes , one of the leading German bridge crane manufacturers. Furthermore, the company Mero , known for the space framework and steel-glass constructions, has its headquarters in Würzburg. With the sparkling wine producer J. Oppmann AG, there is another joint stock company. The listing of the Würzburger Hofbräu was discontinued after the takeover by the Kulmbacher Brauerei AG and the conversion into a GmbH . The Duttenhofer Group should be mentioned as a larger trading company . The Vogel Medien Group has its headquarters in Würzburg. The Fürstlich Castell'sche Bank , a small private bank for the region, is also based in Würzburg.
Industry and commerce are mostly small and medium-sized businesses in the industrial areas of Hafen, Aumühle and Würzburg-Ost.
Unlike in the neighboring Schweinfurt area , where large-scale industry and mechanical engineering have settled down, Würzburg is the service center of the region. The unemployment rate was 3.5 percent in September 2019.
Has emerged from a 1876 founded by Josef Neubert carpentry after the Second World War in Heidingsfeld the furniture store Neubert built. Branches of Möbel-Hess (formerly "Germany's largest furniture and equipment store ") as well as Wöhrl and the fashion retail chain "Der modische Arendt" were established in the 1960s. In 1980 the Hertie department store was completed on the site of the former Hotel Schwan . The "Wöhrlhaus", a large Wöhrl branch, has been located there (at the Vierröhrenbrunnen) since 2000. In 1997 Rainer Schaller opened the first fitness studio of the Europe-wide McFit fitness chain in Würzburg .
In Würzburg, Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR) has maintained the Mainfranken regional studio of Studio Franken since 1977 and a transmitter for VHF, medium wave, DAB + and DVB-T with a 125 meter high steel lattice mast ("small Eiffel Tower") at the Frankenwarte . The regional studio houses two radio and one television studio and is located on the second and ninth floors of the Post Tower on the Würzburg station forecourt. From Monday to Friday the regional program “Mittags in Mainfranken” is produced for Lower Franconia and the “Regionalnachrichten at half-way” for Bayern 1 from Monday to Saturday . On Tuesdays and Thursdays the “regional time” comes from Würzburg for the “north chain” Franconia of Bavaria 2 . Additional reports from the region are delivered as required from Würzburg to Nuremberg, Munich or other ARD studios for other radio programs. In addition, the main Franconian TV studio of the BR provides pictures for the ARD .
Until 1999, the transmission frequency 520 kHz was used for the medium wave transmitter. This frequency is not in the official medium wave band, and so the only 200 watt Würzburg transmitter, which was operated in single-frequency mode together with the equally powerful transmitter in Hof , could be used to test the propagation conditions in the medium wave range. Since many modern radios could no longer receive the frequency 520 kHz, the frequency was changed to 729 kHz in 1999.
There is also the private Funkhaus-Würzburg-Studiobetriebs-GmbH (Funkhaus Würzburg), which organizes the two radio programs 106.9 Radio Gong and Radio Charivari Würzburg with Radio Opera . They provide the Main Franconia region with regional information.
Until 1992 there was a third local station in Würzburg called Radio W1 . It started on May 8, 1987 and shared the FM frequency with Main-Radio (today: Charivari.fm ) and Radio Mainland (today: 106.9 Radio Gong ). A popular column was the weekly scene report “Kai was there”. This transmitter was later assigned the independent frequency 95.8 MHz. The broadcasting operation was stopped on October 1, 1992, among other things for financial reasons. Initially, the 24-hour folk music program Radio Melodie could be heard on this frequency until March 31, 2008 . The youth radio egoFM from Munich started on November 21, 2008 and delivers program content partly tailored to Würzburg. The station is aimed at young people and students.
The Frankenwarte transmitter on Nikolausberg supplies the city and the surrounding area of Würzburg with 12 analogue VHF programs. There are also over 30 digital programs (including regional windows ) in the DAB standard, including all of the BR, Deutschlandradios and many national and national private broadcasters.
There are also numerous internet radios. The students at the University of Würzburg broadcast their own program for their fellow students, the university radio UR Würzburg . The former third local broadcaster in Würzburg, Radio W1 , continues to exist on the Internet. The radio stations Radio Gong In The Mix and Stars on Radio Gong come from the Funkhaus Würzburg .
As a radio broadcaster for the American armed forces, AFN (American Forces Network) also broadcast in Würzburg from a small, braced steel lattice mast isolated from earth on the area of the US armed forces on medium wave 1143 kHz and VHF 104.9 MHz.
In addition to the studio of the public television broadcaster Bayerischer Rundfunk , there has been a local television station called TV touring since 1987 , which can be received in the regional cable network and via Franken-Sat . In the early years there was still Radio Television Unterfranken (RTU), whose partner was the Main-Post newspaper group .
The online media magazinequotemeter.de has existed since 2002 with its editorial office in Würzburg. It specializes in audience ratings, cinema and television reviews, and breaking news.
Publishers, magazines and newspapers
The daily newspapers are the Main-Post (successor to the Würzburg General-Anzeiger , founded by the Würzburg brothers Carl and August Richter in May 1883 , which was printed by the Richter printing company with the first rotary press set up in Würzburg) and the Volksblatt (which only had one edition of about 12,000), distributed by the Main-Post-Verlagsgruppe (since May 1, 2011, part of the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung based in Würzburg-Heuchelhof). From this company, the first local weekly newspaper in Europe appeared in tabloid format on January 29, 2004 , Boulevard Würzburg , which was renamed nine7 on March 1, 2007 . The Main-Post-Verlagsgruppe publishes markt , the weekly newspaper with the most distribution locations in Lower Franconia. The Wednesday circulation is 362,550 and the weekend circulation 226,600 newspapers, which are distributed free of charge to all accessible households in Main Franconia. The new Tiepolo magazine was launched on March 31, 2011 and appears quarterly and can be taken away at certain display points.
The oldest and best-known weekly newspaper in Würzburg is WOB - the weekly newspaper with 87% awareness. The closest competitor is around 64% awareness. This appears in the middle of the week (WED / THU) with a circulation of 96,500 copies (identical to markt in the same distribution area) - also in all accessible households in Würzburg and most of the district (around 20 km radius). With a circulation of 96,500 copies, WOB reaches 135,000 readers.
At the weekend the weekend newspaper primaSonntag Würzburg (distribution since 2015: FR / SA) appears in the city of Würzburg, with a circulation of 66,000 newspapers.
The only national Catholic daily newspaper in the German-speaking area is produced in Würzburg: The daily post bears the subtitle "Catholic newspaper for politics, society and culture", was formerly known as the German daily post and is published three times a week by Johann Wilhelm Naumann.
The publisher Vogel Business Media publishes print and online media of various departments. The specialist media include the first German computer magazine Chip , MM MaschinenMarkt , kfz -betrieb , IT-Business , Elektronikpraxis , Process , bike and business as well as the information services of the IWW Institute for Economic Journalism , which belongs to the group. With the aim of multimedia communication of specialist information, Vogel Business Media turned increasingly to digitization from 2005 onwards. The Vogel Future Group, founded for this purpose, was commissioned to develop a digital business model. In 2005, the company parted with its stake in Motorpresse Stuttgart (now Gruner + Jahr ) and the printing business (now arvato ). The Vogel Convention Center (VCC), a conference and convention center, was built in 2006 in the former production facilities of the publishing company that were now available.
The Leporello magazine provides monthly information about cultural events in the Mainfranken area . There is also FRIZZ Das Magazin (since 2003, formerly called Trend and Fritz ), which appears monthly with an IVW-checked circulation of 22,000. It is free for the reader and is available at around 550 display points in and around the city. It is a member of the motion detector network, provides information on all events in the areas of lifestyle, culture, music, stage, film, etc. and contains, among other things, the official canteen plans for the university canteens. In addition, the Xity magazine appears , which has been appearing with a free TV program since January 25, 2007. It informs readers about events, news and offers about the city.
Blick , the journal of the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg, which provides information on research topics, among other things, is published four times a year (January, April, July and October) . Until July 2006, the university newspaper Julius was distributed free of charge, which was also published by the university. However, after two years of protest from the students, Julius was discontinued for financial reasons. Therefore, in December 2006, the student representatives initiated the student successor to this university newspaper, the seasoned! which called itself the "First Würzburg Student Newspaper". Due to internal disagreement, most of the flavored came off! -Editorial after about two years from its publisher, the student representatives, and founded the unofficial successor magazine Max & Julius in January 2008 together with the Junge Presse Würzburg association (regional group of the umbrella association Junge Presse Bayern ) . Like her predecessor, she regularly informs the Würzburg students about university events, politics, culture and other important topics in the city. For its part, the student representatives founded the newspaper Sprachrohr , which, however, focuses more on university politics. The mouthpiece appears for all universities in Würzburg. The university magazine UnimaxX was also published until 2008 . Today there is only the UnimaxX Guide , which is distributed once per semester at all universities.
Historically, Würzburg is an important traffic hub. This central traffic location, originally caused by the Main , is now realized by the autobahns (after studies in the 1920s and drafts at the beginning of the 1930s for integrating Würzburg into the autobahn network from 1937, initially for military purposes and expanded between 1960 and 1980) Network the city received connection in the 1960s, and determined as a railway junction and one of the most important transfer stations by the Deutsche Bahn . From 1971, with the introduction of the intercity regular traffic, Würzburg belonged to one of the five line linking stations. The nearest larger cities are Frankfurt am Main , around 100 kilometers northwest, Bamberg 90 kilometers east, Nuremberg 90 kilometers southeast, Stuttgart 120 kilometers southwest, Mannheim 110 kilometers west southwest and Heilbronn 90 kilometers southwest.
|Border Netherlands - Ruhr area - Frankfurt am Main - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Regensburg - Passau - border Austria|
|Border Denmark - Hamburg - Hanover - Kassel - Fulda - Würzburg - Ulm - Füssen - border Austria|
|Würzburg - Heilbronn - Stuttgart - Singen (Hohentwiel)|
|Border Netherlands - Ruhr area - Frankfurt am Main - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Regensburg - border Austria|
|Würzburg - Ansbach - Eichstätt - Ingolstadt - Unterschleißheim - Munich - Bad Tölz - Sylvenstein reservoir|
|Eisenach - Meiningen - Werneck - Würzburg - Ulm - Oberstdorf - Austrian border|
|Würzburg (Mainfrankenpark) - Bamberg - Bayreuth - Weiden in the Upper Palatinate - Cham|
|Blankenburg - Göttingen - Fulda - Würzburg - Ludwigsburg - Stuttgart - Tübingen - Villingen-Schwenningen - Swiss border|
Some larger projects are on the waiting list, for example the planned B 26n from the A 3, junction Helmstadt via Karlstadt , Arnstein to the A 7, Autobahn junction Schweinfurt / Werneck . As a result, there are frequent traffic obstructions within Würzburg, especially on federal highway 19.
The urban area of Würzburg, like the district, is incorporated into the Mainfranken transport association . Within this tariff association, all local public transport lines can be used at uniform prices. On February 1, 2009 the tariff association was expanded to include the Kitzingen district. An expansion to other neighboring districts is intended, but not yet specified. There is a transitional arrangement with the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (VRN).
The backbone of local public transport in Würzburg are five tram lines that serve a route network of 19.7 kilometers in length. Most recently, a new line was opened to the Heuchelhof district in 1989 and its continuation to the Rottenbauer district in 1996. An improved tram connection to the university clinic is to take place in the foreseeable future by means of another new line. The connection of further city districts and surrounding communities is also being considered; There are concrete plans for line six to Hubland. The operator of the tram network is the Würzburger Versorgungs- und Verkehrs-GmbH .
Furthermore, numerous city and regional bus routes operate in Würzburg , which are supplied by the Omnibus-Betriebsgesellschaft (NVG), a subsidiary of Würzburger Straßenbahn GmbH (WSB), Omnibusverkehr Franken GmbH and a number of other private bus companies. The bus station at the main train station is the main hub for bus transport.
The Würzburg main station is a supraregional hub in the long - distance passenger transport of Deutsche Bahn. A north-south connection from Hamburg / Bremen, Hanover, Göttingen and Kassel meets in Würzburg, which has been connected to the railway network since October 1854 and has become an important railway node with the establishment of the line to Ansbach in 1864 and that to Nuremberg in 1865 to Nuremberg and Munich with the north-west to south-east route from the Ruhr area , the Rhineland and Frankfurt am Main to Regensburg , Passau , Vienna and on to Budapest . There are at least hourly connections. At the main station there are two clock nodes per hour with connections in all directions. The connection with Heilbronn-Stuttgart or Erfurt is only offered with regional trains.
The station building of the main train station dates from the 1950s. As a result, modernization had become necessary and had been planned by the city since the 1990s. The station building was considered extremely ugly. In the meantime, the renovation work has started.
In addition to the main train station, there are also the Süd and Zell stations in Würzburg, but these are of subordinate importance and are only served in regional traffic. In the past, the Heidingsfeld district also had a connection to rail traffic. In freight train traffic , Würzburg completely lost its former function as a junction with the closure of its marshalling yard in February 2005 and has also ceded its former importance as a train formation station in InterCargo traffic to Nuremberg.
Business jets can fly to the Giebelstadt airfield in the Würzburg district, around 16 kilometers to the south . This airfield was used by the US armed forces until 2006. The airfield with its almost two-kilometer runway is operated by an operating company in which, in addition to the local authorities, the Knauf company is particularly involved. After the takeover by the US Army and the evacuation of numerous duds from the Second World War, investments were made in the technical facilities and the airfield modernized. Sports pilots take off and land at the Würzburg-Schenkenturm airfield located 3.5 kilometers northwest of the city center or the Hettstadt special airfield, which is 5 km away and operated by Fluggruppe Hermann Köhl e. V. is operated.
see also: main article Main
In 1841 the Main-Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft was founded in Würzburg under the direction of Stephan Gätschenberger and in 1842 steam shipping was introduced on the Main. This meant easier access to the seaports. From 1846 to 1875, low and medium water levels were corrected by increasing the depth of the fairway and creating partial habitats in the groyne areas .
From 1898 on, Würzburg was also involved in chain shipping on the Main . A ship of the Mainkettenschifffahrt was also called the "Meekuh" at the time.
In 1883 it was decided to canalize the Main, but it was not until 1940 that the Main was developed as a major shipping route Rhine-Main-Danube in Würzburg, where in the same year the “ New Port ”, the new Main Port of Würzburg-Zell, was established as (until 1954 ) Head port was opened. The first ship to sail through the newly built lock at the Old Main Bridge in July 1954 was the Mainz as a ship of the federal government.
Between April and October, passenger ships operate several times a day to Veitshöchheim . The journey between the landing stages in Veitshöchheim and the Alten Kranen in Würzburg is around 45 minutes.
- Franconian Marienweg : 930 km long circular route that starts and ends in Würzburg.
- Jakobsweg : One of the routes from the Jakobsweg network leads to Santiago de Compostela , coming from Veitshöchheim and Margetshöchheim, via the Don Bosco church to the Old Main Bridge, where it changes from left Main to Right and runs along the banks of the Main towards Randersacker. It is part of the Franconian Way, which goes from Fulda via Würzburg, Ochsenfurt , Uffenheim to Ulm.
- The Main-Danube-Bodensee-Weg is the main hiking trail 4 (HW 4) of the Swabian Alb Association . With a total length of 420 kilometers, it leads from Würzburg via Ulm to Friedrichshafen on Lake Constance and crosses the Taubergrund , the Hohenlohe Plain , the Swabian Alb and Upper Swabia .
- The Main Cycle Path along the Main from the source to the mouth in Mainz-Kastel leads via Würzburg.
- The Main-Tauber-Fränkische Rad-Achter also runs through the city.
Education and Research
Universities and related institutions
- Julius Maximilians University , first founded in 1402, re-founded in 1582, one of the oldest and most traditional universities in Germany, Bavarian university since 1802. With over 30 student associations, Würzburg is one of the “liaison strongholds” in this area. The German Student Union was founded in Würzburg at the first German Student Day in July 1919 .
- University of Music Würzburg , founded in 1804 as a public music institution at the university, is the oldest music training facility in Germany. In 1821 it became the Royal Music Institute, 1875 the Royal Music School, 1912 the Royal Conservatory of Music, 1921 the Bavarian State Conservatory and then the Bavarian Academy of Music. In 1973 it was named the Hochschule für Musik. In 2001 the Fachakademie für Musik Würzburg was incorporated.
- University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt ; founded in 1971 from a polytechnic with departments in Würzburg and Schweinfurt. From 1995 the Aschaffenburg department was affiliated, but became independent again on October 1, 2000.
- Würzburg interpreting school ; private, state-recognized school for foreign language professions ( specialist academy and vocational school for interpreters , translators and foreign language correspondents as well as a vocational school for European secretaries )
- Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research (ISC)
- Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e. V. (ZAE Bavaria)
- Würzburg Innovation and Start-up Center (IGZ Würzburg)
- Study Outpatient Würzburg Hematological / Oncological Study Outpatient of the University Hospital Würzburg
- Deutschhaus high school
- Free Waldorf School Würzburg (grammar school)
- Matthias Grünewald High School
- Evangelisches Dag Hammarskjöld Gymnasium Würzburg (since August 1, 2011, previously the high schools merged to form the Mozart and Schönborn Gymnasium 2001/2002)
- Riemenschneider-Gymnasium (opened in 1886 as the Royal New Gymnasium and second humanistic Gymnasium in Würzburg, named after Riemenschneider in 1960).
- Röntgen-Gymnasium (1820 Kreisrealschule, since 1910 as Oberrealschule at today's location, 1960 named after Röntgen)
- Siebold-Gymnasium (founded in 1864 as a secondary school, with a focus on modern languages and natural sciences, at today's location since 1907, named after Siebold in 1961).
- St. Ursula School (grammar school)
- Wirsberg-Gymnasium (first humanistic high school in Würzburg, founded in 1561 as a “paedagogium”, 1829 in Augustinerstraße, since 1960 at the current location).
- Free Waldorf School Würzburg (secondary school)
- Maria Ward School
- St. Ursula School (Realschule)
- Wolffskeel Secondary School
- Goethe Middle School
- Middle School Würzburg-Zellerau (Adelgundenweg 4)
- Gustav Walle School
Since the late 1990s, it came in the education sector to major changes, first by social change (declining number of pupils at basic - and middle schools ), the other by the gradual retreat of the Würzburg as school boards due to high financial burden of school operations.
Other educational institutions
- Vocational school center for business and data processing in Würzburg
- Singing and music school
- Adult Education Center (since November 25, 1918)
- Würzburg interpreting school
- Vocational school for pharmaceutical technical assistants
US armed forces
From 1945 to September 2008, Würzburg was a garrison town for the US armed forces . There were four barracks, the Emery Barracks (until 1990), the Hindenburg barracks (until 1990), the Faulenberg barracks (until 2006) and the Leighton Barracks, which was equipped with the largest US Army shopping center in Europe in 1998 (until 2008) , in which around 6,000 soldiers with 3,000 family members were settled by 2006. The total number of members of the US Army around 1985, which also includes members of the Würzburg Military Community living outside the city limits , was estimated to be 11,000, of which 4,800 were military and 6,200 civilians. The Leighton Barracks were from 1945 to 1955 and from 1996 to 2006, the seat of the headquarters of the 1st Infantry Division , the "Big Red One", an armored United Association in strength of four brigades , of which the last three in Franconia and the Upper Palatinate ( Schweinfurt , Kitzingen , Vilseck ) and the 4th Brigade were stationed at Fort Riley , Kansas . Before that, parts of the 3rd US Infantry Division were stationed from 1958 to 1996 in Würzburg, Schweinfurt, Kitzingen and other former US armed forces locations in Germany.
Other associations and departments that were last stationed in the two barracks in Würzburg:
- 98th Area Support Group (Faulenberg Kaserne)
- 417th Base Support Battalion (Leighton Barracks)
- these two have merged into the US Garrison Franconia
- 101st Military Intelligence Battalion (Leighton Barracks)
- 1st Military Police Company
- 69th Signal Battalion (Leighton Barracks)
As part of the reorganization of the American land forces, which are also important for the local and regional economy, with plans to abandon locations announced from 1990, there were profound changes in Würzburg, where the withdrawal began in 1995. The restructuring mainly affected the 1st US Infantry Division, a large part of which was moved back home to Fort Riley in the US state of Kansas. As a result, the Faulenberg barracks (Nürnberger Strasse) was closed, and at the end of 2006 the property was returned to Germany, represented by the Federal Agency for Real Estate Tasks . The withdrawal officially took place on July 6, 2006 with an appeal . The armed forces of the US Army withdrew completely from Würzburg by September 2008. The farewell took place on May 13, 2008 when the American flag was lowered. The handover of the last keys took place in a ceremony on January 14, 2009. The site has been owned by the Federal Agency for Real Estate Tasks since October 2007.
In Würzburg, concrete considerations were made for a meaningful conversion of the properties (commercial, residential, start-up companies, university, etc.). A new district was created called Hubland. Therefore, an ideas competition was held for the further use of the area the size of the old town (135 ha). After a failed application for the State Horticultural Show 2016, the city was awarded the contract for the State Horticultural Show 2018, at which this area is to be used. The former American residential area has been used by the university since the summer semester 2011.
Until October 2007 there was a US Army hospital, the Würzburg Hospital , which was one of the three hospitals in the area of responsibility of the US Army European Command . The building is just a ten minute walk from the Leighton Barracks. The result is a residential complex, the so-called Mönchberg Park .
Since the soldiers and their families were an important economic factor and the military functioned as a not insignificant employer, the closure was viewed with great concern by the city, especially with regard to medium-sized companies.
Since 1994 there has been a cultural advisory council in Würzburg with the task of "advising the city council, the cultural committee and the city administration on artistic and cultural issues and promoting cooperation between the city and cultural organizations and institutions".
Theaters and stages
As a three-part house, the Mainfranken Theater has a theater, a music theater and a ballet ensemble. With the “Big House” and the “Kammerspiele”, two venues are available to them, both of which are located in the Mainfrankentheater building in Würzburg's old town.
In the Kulturspeicher , a former port building on the edge of the old town, you can find a museum, the “ Bockshorn ” and the “tanzSpeicher”. The former is primarily dedicated to the areas of cabaret , chanson and music , with most of the artists performing here having already made a name for themselves through television appearances or various awards. The tanzSpeicher serves as an event location for external dance performances as well as for performances by one's own ensemble.
The Chambinzky Theater is located in Frauenland and, as a boulevard theater , mainly presents comedies , sometimes folk plays , crime novels and musicals , in its own productions. A large and a small stage are available for this purpose. In addition, the "Chambinzky" has been a music bar since it was founded in 1983.
The theater workshop , founded in 1981, shows literary-political and contemporary theater as well as modern classical productions. Between 1985 and 2013 the theater was known under the name “Werkstattbühne”. In its time as a workshop stage, the stage was strongly politically oriented and wanted to “stand up to the corrupt zeitgeist”.
Both the Theater am Neunerplatz and the Theater Ensemble Würzburg have dedicated themselves to experimental theater , although both also offer several other branches: The Theater am Neunerplatz , located in Zellerau , also presents political and satirical plays as well as children's theater. The “theater ensemble” is also located in the Zellerau and is also dedicated to absurd theater , dramas and comedies and also offers theater courses for everyone.
Würzburg has a large number of other theaters that deal with the most diverse branches of theater. Specifically, these are the children's and youth theater “Spielberg”, the “Werkstattbühne”, the “Plastische Theater Hobbit”, the “Würzburger Kasperhaus”, the dance theater “blackboX”, the theater “Moment” of the Mainfränkische Werkstätten and the “Kunstkeller Würzburg” ".
In addition, Würzburg has a large number of improvisational theater groups, including the Würzburg bag boxers, one of the oldest groups in Germany (since 1990), and “Der Kaktus” (formerly “Die Kaktussen”), which organizes the annual Würzburg improvised theater festival, among other things.
Würzburg's first film screenings took place in October 1896 by the "Edison Salon", a mobile cinematograph that was set up in Ebracher Gasse in the former Kalb canon court. The first permanent cinema in Würzburg opened in 1913 and was called Luitpold-Lichtspiele .
Museums and galleries
- The Museum am Dom exhibits around 300 pictures and sculptures from a millennium. Christian themes that were presented by modern and contemporary artists ( Ernst Barlach , Joseph Beuys , Willi Dirx , Otto Dix , Dina Draeger, Lars Käker, Käthe Kollwitz , Wolfgang Mattheuer , Werner Tübke , Andy Warhol ) are directly treated by the old masters juxtaposed (among others Tilman Riemenschneider , Georg Anton Urlaub , Johann Peter Wagner , Johann Zick )
- Würzburg Cathedral Treasure - Museum of the Diocese of Würzburg (grave goods, goldsmith work and liturgical vestments)
- Railway museum in Veitshöchheimer Straße 107 b
- Fürstenbaumuseum - Prince -Bishop's living quarters, treasury and department of the city history of Würzburg
- Historical hall of the fishing guild
- Hofspitalkirche “Spitäle” - in the late Gothic chapel of the former court hospital, which was rebuilt in 1789, there is the Spitäle Gallery with changing exhibitions of contemporary artists
- The museum opened in 2002 in the Kulturspeicher am Alten Hafen has 3,500 m² of exhibition space for art from the 19th century to the present day. It presents the municipal collection (formerly Städtische Galerie) under one roof, including works by Stephan Balkenhol , Carl Grossberg , Magdalena Jetelová , Camill Leberer , Wilhelm Leibl , Hans Purrmann , Emy Roeder and Max Slevogt and the Peter C. Ruppert collection , Concrete art in Europe after 1945, including works by Josef Albers , Hans Arp , Max Bill , Anthony Caro , Günter Fruhtrunk , Auguste Herbin , Richard Paul Lohse , Bridget Riley and Victor Vasarely . The municipal collection on the second floor contains pictures of Würzburg before the bombing, including Erich Heckel 's view of the Marienberg fortress . A continuous program of special exhibitions accompanies both collections in the museum in the Kulturspeicher , which received the Bavarian Museum Prize of the Bavarian Insurance Chamber in 2005 .
- Art ship “ Arte Noah ” - changing exhibitions of contemporary artists
- The Museum für Franken (formerly Mainfränkisches Museum, emerged in 1939 from the Luitpoldmuseum, established in 1913 in Maxstrasse) on the Marienberg Fortress houses a collection of Franconian works of art in 45 rooms , including the largest collection of sculptures and works by sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider , from his workshop and from his students. Among them are the sandstone figures of the Lady Chapel. There are also paintings by Lucas Cranach and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , grave monuments, faience, a prehistoric collection with stone pillars, armor, evidence of Roman times, evidence of Franconian wine culture and collections of folklore.
- The university's Martin von Wagner Museum is located in the south wing of the residence and includes the antiquities department, the picture gallery and the graphic collection. The antiquities department houses a large and important collection of Greek and Etruscan vases, cork models of Italian ancient buildings and mummy sarcophagi.
- Mineralogical Museum Würzburg - Museum of the University - precious stones, minerals, rocks, ores and meteorites
- Röntgen Memorial Site - shows the original laboratory where Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered the X-rays named after him
- Collection of the Pathological Institute of the University
- Collection of historical staplers from the university (from surgery)
- Siebold Museum - permanent collection and temporary exhibitions, including items from the estate of the Würzburg Japanese researcher Philipp Franz von Siebold
- Shalom Europa - Jewish Museum of the Jewish Community of Würzburg
- State Gallery of Würzburg - Bavarian State Painting Collections
- The Adolf Würth Center for the History of Psychology with experiments on sensory perceptions, stimuli and reactions.
Well-known choirs are the Bach Choir Würzburg , the Monteverdichor Würzburg (1st prize winner at the Bavarian and German Choir Competitions ), the Oratorio Choir Würzburg and the choir of the Academic-Musical Association Würzburg . The choirs of the Würzburg Cathedral Music include the Würzburger Domsingknaben , the chamber choir, the youth choir and the girls choir at Würzburg Cathedral. The Würzburg Cathedral Choir is one of the oldest and most traditional choirs in Würzburg. Its roots go back to 1821. In the series of church choirs, the Cappella Herbipolensis - the choir of the court church of the Residenz - should be mentioned. The chamber choir cappella vocale würzburg has existed since 1997. The New Future choir was founded in 1993 with mostly young singers. Founded in May 2017, the Würzburg Pub Choir is the youngest choir in Würzburg.
Alternative rock music scenes
With the music initiatives FreakShow Würzburg and Psychedelic Network , Würzburg has two alternative rock music scenes that can be counted among the most important events in Germany within the genres they present - progressive rock at FreakShow, psychedelic / space rock at Psychedelic Network. This is underpinned in particular by the festivals of the two music initiatives, whose widespread importance is characterized by an often international selection of artists and a strong national mix of visitors. Würzburg is also known nationwide as a metal city. Festivals like the Hammer of Doom or the Metal Assault take place regularly in the Posthalle.
The Franconian or Lower Franconian dialect is spoken and mostly understood in Würzburg. In the foolish wine tasting , which takes place in January at the beginning of the carnival season in the State Court Cellar under the Würzburg Residence, critical contributions to the annual events are made in all Franconian dialects. This meeting in dialect will be broadcast in the third program of Bavarian TV .
Culture of remembrance
Wuerzburg since July remember 2006 stumbling blocks to victims of the Nazi time, for example before the 1956 built Kaufhof building new dikes in the Schönbornstraße to former owners of since about 1900 seasoned on the same property, founded in 1898 by Siegmund Ruschkewitz department store Ruschkewitz and before Kilian's crypt to the Catholic pastor Georg Häfner , who stood up for his convictions and was beatified on May 15, 2011 .
→ Article: List of stumbling blocks in Würzburg
In addition to the memorial sites on Jewish life, a memorial stone on Geschwister-Scholl-Platz / Ottostraße commemorates the Christian resistance fighters Hans and Sophie Scholl , who were murdered in 1943. Several street names in the industrial area of Heuchelhof keep memories of those persecuted and victims of the Nazi tyranny alive . In Heidingsfeld , the Herta-Mannheimer-Weg commemorates the Jewish SPD city councilor Herta Mannheimer, who was murdered in the Auschwitz concentration camp .
The Catholic pharmacist and scout group leader in Würzburg and Pforzheim Fred Joseph (1911–1943) was arrested in connection with the use of boy scout badges, arrested again by the Gestapo in Würzburg after his release and transferred to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Joseph allegedly died of pleurisy on January 21, 1943 in Auschwitz. He continued - defamed as a " half-Jew " - despite the ban, the scout work in the "Community of St. George". A tribe of St. George's Boy Scouts in the Sanderau district is named after him .
The Würzburg Mozart Festival is the oldest Mozart festival in Germany and has been taking place in the Würzburg Residenz during the summer months since 1922. With around 50 individual concerts, it is now one of the most renowned festivals for classical music in German-speaking countries, alongside the Salzburg Festival. Every year up to 30,000 visitors come to the events that take place in the historic building of the residence, in the courtyard garden and in neighboring locations.
In 1974 the International Film Weekend Würzburg was founded. The event takes place annually at the beginning of the year. Among the festival co-founders were Georg Förster, Almut Kircher and documentary filmmaker Norbert Westenrieder from the Filminitiative.
The " Africa Festival " is an event on the culture and music of the African continent. It was launched in 1989 by the Würzburger Afro Projekt, a working group for the promotion of African culture in Germany. The Africa Festival is currently the largest festival on this topic in Europe and is funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Culture and the Foreign Office .
The flamenco festival has existed since 2003. Regional and international flamenco dancers and musicians perform at the annual event .
In terms of non-commercial night-time offers, municipal facilities such as the youth facilities “Cairo”, the “ Bechtolsheimer Hof ” (short: B-Hof), the Kellerperle and the Protestant sponsor “At least” are worth mentioning.
The list contains events that take place regularly.
- February: Würzburg Carnival
- March: Spring fair and folk festival, commemoration / hope run
- March / April: International film weekend in Würzburg
- April: Residenz run
- May: Africa Festival , Würzburg City Marathon , Baroque festivals
- May / June: Würzburg wine village
- June: Free and outdoors
- June / July: Mozart Festival, Christopher Street Day , Hofgarten Wine Festival
- July: Festungsflicker - open air cinema, Kiliani folk festival
- July / August: Würzburg harbor summer, Barbarossa Spectaculum (every two years)
- August / September: Wine parade on the market square
- September: Street music festival, city festival and theater festival, Mainfranken fair (every two years)
- October: Würzburg impro-theater festival, Würzburg jazz festival, Mantle Sunday
- October / November: Würzburg Cabaret Days, Literary Autumn, All Saints' Day Mass
- November: Honky Tonk Music Festival, Luster, Würzburg Business Symposium, Würzburg Bachtage
- December: Christmas market
Libraries and Archives
- University Library of Würzburg .
- Library of the University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt .
- Institute for Higher Education .
- Würzburg City Library . Public library system with central library in the Falkenhaus on the market square - known for its Rococo stucco facade; Branch offices in the districts of Heidingsfeld , Heuchelhof , Lengfeld , Hubland and Versbach .
- The State Archive of Würzburg is responsible for the Lower Franconia administrative district and stores around 21,350 running meters of files on the history of the administrative district and the former territories on its territory.
- The Würzburg City Archives (housed in a residential building built in 1716 with a lavish facade probably created by the cathedral capital builder Georg Bayer at Neubaustraße 14) stores the documents and files of the city offices, the archives of the citizens' hospital, the archives of the city of Heidingsfeld and the archives of the incorporated places as well as around 90 bequests from Würzburg personalities and an extensive collection of photos, posters and maps.
- The diocesan archive in Domerschulstrasse keeps the records of the old and the new diocese of Würzburg created in 1821, as well as special collections and around 250 estates and personal collections. It was mentioned as early as 1339 and was then on the Marienburg. Today it includes documents, parish registers and correspondence from the deaneries. Around a third of the original holdings have been preserved. These losses were due to the effects of the Reformation, secularization and the bombing during World War II.
- The university archive preserves the tradition of the Bavarian Julius Maximilians University.
- Until 2005, the archive of the former Reichsstudentenführung and the former National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) was held as a deposit in the Würzburg State Archive and was looked after from there. It is now on loan in the Berlin Federal Archives.
- The Documentation Center for Jewish History, opened in 1987, is the central information point for Jewish history in the region.
sons and daughters of the town
Walther von der Vogelweide ; minstrel
Matthias Grünewald ; Painter and graphic artist
Philipp Franz von Siebold ; Doctor and Japan researcher
Luitpold of Bavaria ; Prince Regent of Bavaria
Werner Heisenberg ; Physicist and Nobel Prize Winner
Dirk Nowitzki ; Basketball player
Personalities working in Würzburg
Beatrix of Burgundy ; empress
Tilman Riemenschneider ; sculptor
Antonio Petrini ; builder
Balthasar Neumann ; builder
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo ; Artist
Emil Fischer ; Chemist and Nobel Prize Winner
Hermann Ritter ; Violist, composer, music historian and professor at the royal music school in Würzburg
Würzburg in travel reports
The volume Poetenleben , published in Switzerland in 1917, contains a humorous report by Robert Walser about a stay in the city. Among other things, the recreational value of Main Franconian wine bars in the old town and relevant localities in the hikable vineyards around Würzburg are praised. On his trip from Munich to Berlin in the summer of 1901, the young Swiss poet stopped at his Würzburg friend, the poet Max Dauthendey , for eight days.
On March 22, 1928, Hermann Hesse visited the episcopal city, which was reflected in his novel Narcissus and Goldmund . More specifically, he describes his impressions in 1928 in the prose text once in Würzburg and in the travel report Walk in Würzburg published in 1945 .
In the spring of 2008, the writer Wladimir Kaminer reported in the monthly magazine “ Cicero ” in the section “Kaminers Reisen” about a stay in Würzburg. He described his perceptions around the election campaign on the occasion of the local elections .
Würzburg is the center of Franconian wine ; The most famous Franconian wine location Würzburger Stein and the three large, traditional wineries, each with a hall-like wine bar, are located in the urban area :
- the Staatliche Hofkeller Würzburg (state, formerly ascending) at Residenzplatz 3
- the Juliusspital in Klinikstrasse 1
- the Bürgerpital zum Heiligen Geist in Theaterstrasse 19
All three wineries offer tours of the wine cellars and direct wine sales.
The vineyards (individual layers ) are the Stein (85 ha), the Abtsleite in the south (45 ha), Inner Bar (south of the Marienberg Fortress - 10 ha), Kirchberg in the Heidingsfeld district (50 ha), Pfaffenberg in the north ( 60 ha), Schlossberg (4.5 ha), the eastern location below the Marienberg Fortress, and stone / harp to the north (above the main station - 8 ha). The name Marienberg is a bit misleading as a large-site name for blended wines from these individual sites, it is almost never used. The Greinberg (which was the place of witch sabbaths at the time of the witch trials in Würzburg ) in the northeast of Würzburg was recently planted for the first time by the Juliusspital winery. Official site name and first harvest are still pending. [outdated]
Würzburg has had its own bratwurst since the 1980s .
Nicknames and mottos
The various epithets or mottos that Würzburg had in recent decades are remarkable:
- In 1969 a slogan was sought through a competition “Würzburg advertises”, which should attract new guests to the city. The slogan of Helmut Rademacher, who came in second, “Würzburg - The wine barrel on the Autobahn” was selected from over 2,000 senders . This motto was then affixed in large letters on upright wine barrel bottoms, which were posted on all arteries in Würzburg. This nickname was quickly adopted by a number of travel guides and often gave rise to mocking remarks.
- For several decades, the city has been calling itself " European City Würzburg" and refers in this context to the award of the European Prize by the Council of Europe in 1973 , which was made possible by Hannsheinz Bauer's activities in European policy since 1958. The title "European City ", however, is not an official title the city awarded with the flag of honor of the Council of Europe.
- The Förderkreis Würzburg is Fun e. Founded in 1986 from representatives from trade, gastronomy and services . V. , renamed in 2005 to Stadtmarketing "Würzburg is fun" e. V. , advertises its actions with the motto of the same name.
- For the 600th anniversary of the University of Würzburg in 2002, all town signs were given the addition of university town . This addition was sometimes used for announcements at Würzburg Central Station.
- "Würzburg. World-class province ” is the 2010 motto proposed by Würzburg AG . This fell through with the population and finally in the city council.
Nicknames that appeared before 1945 were, for example, "Perle des Mains" and "Jewel among cities".
- The first verifiable bathing room in Würzburg was in 1294 "against sant Affern". Other bathing rooms were in the Büttnergasse (the "Mittelstube" and the "zume Lewen"), in the Sander district in the parish of St. Peter (the bathing room "zu dem Gueldin" in today's Neubaustraße and one near St.-Agnes Monastery ) in Hauger quarter ( "to the basin" and "Ebersperg"), in the chapel of Our lady (the bath-house "before the hole") in Kresser quarter (or Gress district ) near the Kärrnergasse the wooden gate , the bathhouse “Uf dem Sande” and another bathing room in the Pleich district. The bathing room in what was then Semmelgasse was sold to the Bürgerspital in 1342 . In addition, there was a bathing room in the Domherrnhof Sternberg , in the St. Stephen's Monastery and in the infirmary ( domus leprosorum ) in front of the Zeller Tor (see also History of the City of Würzburg # Leprosorien in Würzburg ). Up to the end of the 15th century (when the bathing rooms were recognized as transmission sites for sexually transmitted diseases) there were around nine bathing rooms in the city of Würzburg. As part of the artisan class, the bathing brotherhood had to comply with a craft regulations issued in 1515.
- Before swimming pools were built in Würzburg, people swam or bathed not only in the Main, but in the Middle Ages also in the city moat (bathing ban in 1502) or - from 1504 also forbidden - in what was then Eichelsee (area between Semmelstrasse and Ludwigstrasse). The first swimming pools in Würzburg were a river pool on the Zellerauer meadows from 1932 to 1934 and from 1934 the "pool in the free Main River", the Riedinselbad on the "Riedinsel an der Eisenbahnbrücke" in Heidingsfeld, which was incorporated in 1930. In 1934 another outdoor swimming pool was built near Heidingsfeld directly on the banks of the Main. At the. November 15, 1936, the first indoor swimming pool in Würzburg , which still exists today and was built by Franz Kleinsteuber on the basis of a model from 1929, was opened in the Sanderau.
- In October 1930 the art gallery named after the publisher Otto Richter was opened at Hofstrasse 11.
- In Würzburg the Christian Social Union in Bavaria was founded on October 13, 1945 . V. (CSU) founded.
- The Airbus A321-100 D-Airu of Lufthansa is given the name of the city.
- The ICE multiple unit 406 080 has also been called "Würzburg" since 2002. It is a multi-system vehicle that is equipped for the electricity systems in Switzerland , the Netherlands , Belgium and France .
- The "Railway Museum Würzburg" gave the steam locomotive 52 7409 the name "City of Würzburg". It bears the Würzburg coat of arms on the smoke deflectors.
- The Würzburg giant (FuMg 65) and Würzburg (FuMg 39) were radar systems that could indicate the penetration of Allied bombers and fighters into the airspace controlled by Germany during World War II.
- In 1946 the scout tribe Schwarzer Haufen Würzburg was founded, this was only possible with the approval of the American occupation forces.
- From 1971 to 1975 the so-called Würzburg Synod took place in Würzburg .
- The Würzburg tap water (see also Würzburger Versorgungs- und Verkehrs-GmbH ) has an extremely high water hardness due to the calcareous and water-permeable karst soil .
- Würzburg was the location for parts of the outdoor shots of the film Lammbock as well as for various indoor and outdoor shots of its sequel Lommbock .
- The “Würzburg Key” is the name of a classification of mental disorders from 1933, which led to a differentiation of mental illnesses and was developed by the German Society for Psychiatry.
- In 1980 the Würzburg Congress Center opened with a view of the Main and Marienberg Fortress.
- As part of a Franconian crime night, Bayerischer Rundfunk produced the crime thriller Freiwild set in Würzburg . A Würzburg crime thriller .
- The youth drama Up to the Blood - Brothers on Probation , directed by Oliver Kienle , was also produced in Würzburg and the surrounding area .
- On September 13, 2010, filming for the Hollywood film The Three Musketeers began with Orlando Bloom and Milla Jovovich in the Würzburg Residence, the Marienberg Fortress and on the Old Main Bridge .
- On the last series of D-Mark banknotes , on the 50 D-Mark banknote, to the left of the portrait of the builder Balthasar Neumann , there was a collage of various historical buildings in Würzburg. There the residence, the old town hall, the Marienberg fortress, the Schönborn chapel at the cathedral , the Haug monastery, the wooden gate and the old Main bridge could be seen.
- Until 1999, Bayerischer Rundfunk operated a medium-wave transmitter at the Frankenwarte on the 520 kHz frequency outside the official medium-wave band. Together with the Hof transmitter, which operated on the same frequency, it was the only radio broadcaster in Germany outside of an official broadcasting range. It was often used to test radio reception ranges and propagation conditions.
Walks in Würzburg
Path through the Ringpark Würzburg
The path through the Ringpark Würzburg leads in a semicircle from the Friedensbrücke am Main over the main station, the Berliner Platz roundabout, touches the main cemetery, the bird aviaries in Klein Nice and ends at the Ludwigsbrücke am Main. It follows the course of the former fortifications.
Stone wine path
The well-known Stein vineyards are accessed through this walk through the vines. The starting point at Weingut am Stein is reached via Rotkreuzstraße and Rotkreuz Steige. Grape varieties, wineries ( Bürgerspital zum Heiligen Geist , Juliusspital , Staatlicher Hofkeller Würzburg , private), types of stone, terroir, old Franconian and new care of the vines are presented on 20 information boards. The path leads over the Steinburg, the Moltkeruh pavilion to the Bismarck tower and then steeply down to the starting point at the Weingut am Stein. Along with Stuttgart and Vienna, Würzburg is the third city to have a vineyard in the urban area.
Würzburg Planet Path
The planet path in the southeast of Würzburg leads through the Upper Frauenland and the garden city of Keesburg. It begins at the corner of Ebertsklinge / Oberer Neubergweg, 100 meters into Oberen Neubergweg at a children's playground ( ). The sun , the central star of our solar system, is presented as the first planet . The planet path ends after the Kettelerstraße at Sieboldswäldchen with the dwarf planet Pluto . Over a length of 2.5 kilometers, the distances between the planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto) are covered on a scale of 1 to 1.2 billion. The key data on the respective planet are conveyed on stone steles with metal panels. The path first leads through a green strip, then through an area with single-family houses. It leads close to the Volkssternwarte Würzburg e. V and the Wolfgang-Adami-Bad. The stone steles in the second half of the way are difficult to find.
Paths to Marienberg Fortress
- The direct route from the Old Main Bridge over the Tellsteige leads past the Peasant War Memorial through the Neutor. It conveys the steep slope of the fortress and has steep gradients.
- The “Weinwanderweg Schlossberg und Leiste” leads over the east and south slopes of the Marienberg from the church of St. Burkard through the vineyards to the fortress. It conveys the construction of the outer bastions and leads past the Maschikuliturm .
- A path leads from the Friedensbrücke through the park of the State Garden Show grounds from 1990 to the fortress. It conveys the dimensions of the castle and fortifications (height and length of the protective walls).
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