|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Královéhradecký kraj|
|Area :||10,336 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||30,372 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||541 01|
|License plate :||H|
Velký Osek – Trutnov
Jaroměř – Lubawka
Trutnov – Svoboda nad Úpou
Trutnov – Teplice nad Metují
|Mayor :||Ivan Adamec (as of 2007)|
|Address:||Slovanské náměstí 165
541 16 Trutnov
The city is located in northern Bohemia at an altitude of 414 m above sea level in the southeastern Giant Mountains in the valley of the Úpa (Aupa) and is known as the "Gateway to the Giant Mountains".
South of the city center rise the Šibeník ( Gablenzberg, formerly also Galgenberg, 509 m), the Janský vrch ( Kapellenberg, also Johannisberg, 508 m) and the Chmelnice ( Knebelsberg, 510 m). Other mountains are in the west of the Pekelský vrch ( Seplberg, 583 m), in the north of the Lány ( Scharlaberg, 512 m), Zamecký vrch and Bučina and in the east of the Ziegenberg.
Neighboring towns are Zlatá Olešnice (Gold oil) and Libeč in the north, Bezděkov and Petříkovice in the Northeast, Markoušovice the east, Bohuslavice nad Úpou (Bausnitz) and Velké Svatoňovice (United Schwadowitz) to the southeast, Stritez in the south, Pilníkov (Pilnikau) and Vlčice (Wildschütz ) in the southwest and Mladé Buky (Jungbuch) in the northwest.
The place was probably created in the first half of the 13th century as part of the colonization activities of the Moravian lords of Schwabenitz . It was initially called "Aupa" and first mentioned in 1260 as the property of Egidius de Upa . This year he founded a new settlement on a cheaper area further south, which was initially called "Aupa secunda". Also in 1260 the church of Aupa was elevated to a parish church and the hospital of the Kreuzherren with the Red Star , which was subordinate to the monastery in Neisse , was first mentioned. In 1286 the possessions belonged to the Witico ( Vitek ) de Vppa . After 1297 the place came to King Wenzel II. The place name "Trautenau", documented in 1301, is said to go back to the colonists from Silesia .
After the Přemyslids died out in 1306, the land was pledged to Johann von Wartenberg , who was followed by Botho von Torgau in 1316 . On May 3, 1329, King Johann von Luxemburg traded Trautenau for the area around Görlitz with his brother-in-law, Duke Heinrich I von Schweidnitz-Jauer, for his lifetime. In 1340 King Johann made Trautenau a town. For the year 1344 Peter I. von Rosenberg is proven as pledge gentleman of Trautenau, who died in 1347. After other noble pledges, Emperor Karl IV. Trautenau as well as the Queen's Court on the Elbe and Schatzlar Castle in 1365 to the Schweidnitz Duke Bolko II and his wife Agnes . After the death of Duchess Agnes in 1392, the city fell to King Wenzel IV , who declared Trautenau to be a royal treasure of his wife Sophie of Bavaria . In 1394 the knight Nickel von Kölln (also von Kottwitz) is named in a Prague document as having sat at Trawtnaw .
In the Hussite Wars , Trautenau was conquered and burned down in 1421. A Hussite occupation ruled the castle and the valley of the Aupa. As a result, Trautenau came to the East Bohemian Hussite Brotherhood of Orphans . Later the city and the also destroyed hospital of the Kreuzherren were rebuilt together with the church of St. Peter and Paul. In 1437 King Sigismund designated Trautenau as the Wittum of his wife Barbara von Cilli . This pledged it in 1441 to the North Bohemian knight and later governor of the County of Glatz , Hans von Warnsdorf . In 1472 he transferred the lien for the city and the castle to his son-in-law Friedrich von Schönburg ( Schumburg ), from whom his sons inherited. Because of over-indebtedness, the town and rule of Trautenau were sold to the brothers Johann and Wilhelm Kruschina von Lichtenburg in 1521 . After Johann Kruschina von Lichtenburg had been sentenced to loss of life and limb and there were again disputes over property, the Roman-German King and later Emperor Ferdinand I took over the dominions of Trautenau and Schatzlar in 1532. In 1534 he prescribed the rule of Trautenau to Count Johann von Hardegg as an advance payment to the County of Glatz, which Hardegg had previously ceded to the crown of Bohemia . In the same year Hardegg handed over his claim to the royal chief miner Christoph von Gendorf , who had owned the Hohenelbe rule since 1533 . Due to property disputes, Queen Anna of Bohemia and Hungary took the town and rule of Trautenau with all the income of the residents in hereditary subjection in 1541 .
After the bohemian uprising of 1547, King Ferdinand I pledged the Trautenau reign to Christoph von Gendorf, who also held the office of burgrave and expanded the Trautenau castle into a city palace. Disputes with the citizens led to Gendorfer transferring the rule of Trautenau to his daughter Eustachie in 1562. In 1563, Trautenau was given to her son-in-law Wilhelm Mir (z) kowsky von (S) Tropczicz (Miřkovský von Stropčice), who lost the town eight years later on the grounds that it belonged to the Bohemian Queen. This made Trautenau a royal city. At the end of the 16th century, the royal chamber sold the estate of Trautenau, which included the castle, mills and paper mill, to the town of 24 villages. She lost numerous goods because of her participation in the Bohemian class uprising of 1618 . The castle was restituted to the city in 1628 at the time of the re-Catholicization , but destroyed in the Thirty Years War . During the Silesian Wars , Trautenau was set on fire in 1745.
After the administrative reform of 1849, Trautenau was the seat of the judicial district of Trautenau in the district of the same name . In addition to the profitable agriculture, the linen manufacture and cotton weaving mill established by the industrialist Johann Faltis in 1823 and other textile and trading companies etc. were of economic importance . a. the tar of Silberstein from Arnau (Hostinné), the industrialist families Kluge from Hermannseifen (Rudník v Krk.) Etrich of Freedom (Svoboda n.Ú.) and upper Old Town and Walzel of Wiesentreu in Parschnitz (Poříčí) with trading offices in Austria, Germany, Russia, the Netherlands and England. A European yarn exchange with a flax fiber market , founded in 1875 by the industrialist Alois Haase , as well as a wood processing and an electrotechnical industry promoted the tax revenue and the expansion of the city. As a result of the Edict of Tolerance of Emperor Joseph II in 1781 , Protestant-Lutheran, Jewish and Old Catholic communities emerged in Trautenau with the construction of a Protestant church in neo-Gothic style, a synagogue and a prayer room for Old Catholics.
During the German War , the Battle of Trautenau between Prussian and Austrian troop units took place on June 27, 1866 . The Trautenau Military Veterans Association had a 17 m high obelisk built on the Gablenzberg in 1868, inside of which the remains of the Austrian general Ludwig von Gablenz were transferred from Zurich to Trautenau in 1905 to find their final resting place. On August 1, 1868, the railway line from Josefstadt to the Silesian border of the south-north German connecting line reached the suburb of Poříćí (Parschnitz), and in autumn 1870 the main station was opened. In 1871 further rail connections were opened to Hohenelbe (Vrchlabí), Freiheit (Svoboda nad Úpou) and Altpaka (Stará Paka) .
From the end of the 19th century tourism developed in the Giant Mountains. Since the middle of the 19th century there were conflicts between Germans and Czechs . To educate the children, the city had a Catholic kindergarten , elementary schools for boys and girls, a teacher training institute , an agricultural school , a middle school and a secondary school with German as the language of instruction, which was also accessible to girls after 1918. In 1900 a national house for the Czech minority was opened. In 1908 the local railway Wekelsdorf – Parschnitz – Trautenau was opened. In 1917 Trautenau had 1,000 houses, mostly made of stone, and 17,000 inhabitants, of which 10,110 were Catholics, 368 Protestants of the Evangelical Lutheran faith and 292 of the Jewish faith.
After the First World War , the Treaty of Saint-Germain was dictated to Austria-Hungary . The right of self-determination of the German-speaking population in the Sudetenland ( German Bohemia and German Moravians ), who founded the independent provinces of German Bohemia and Sudetenland in October 1918 , was not taken into account. The Czechoslovakia was established and staffed Trutnov 1918 by Czechoslovak soldiers. In 1920 a Czech citizen school and a Czech secondary school were established. The economic situation of the city worsened in 1923 due to the inflation of the currency and from 1929 to 1930 due to mass unemployment as a result of the breakdown of the traditionally grown trade markets. In 1930 there were 15,923 inhabitants in the city, in 1939 there were 14,811.
As a result of the Munich Agreement Trutnov was the predominantly German-speaking inhabitants had, in 1938 joined the German Reich and was until 1945 the seat of the district Trutnov , Region of Usti nad Labem , in the Reich District of Sudetenland . The Jewish fellow citizens were persecuted, expropriated and tried to flee. The synagogue was burned down on November 9, 1938 by supporters of National Socialism .
Numerous forced labor camps run by the Schmelt organization have been set up in the Trautenau region since 1941 . From March 1944 on, they were converted into satellite camps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp . The camp complex under the name "SS-Kommando Trautenau" comprised the women's satellite camps in Bernsdorf , Gabersdorf , Ober Altstadt , Parschnitz ( Poříčí ) and Schatzlar . The Liebau and Ober Hohenelbe ( Hořejší Vrchlabí ) subcamps, which were set up in September 1944, were also managed by this camp complex, which was located in Parschnitz.
After the end of World War II , the city was occupied by Red Army troops and the territories transferred to Germany in the Munich Agreement (September 1938) came back to Czechoslovakia . The Czech place names came into use again.
As early as May 1945, most of the German residents were expelled from Trautenau by the Czechoslovak militia . Her property was confiscated , legitimized by the Beneš decree 108 . The number of residents initially fell sharply as a result, but was offset by incorporations and immigration.
The Catholic Church was expropriated during the socialist era 1948–1989 . The Czech Republic made no compensation for the confiscated assets.
|1830||2,324||in 383 houses|
|1833||2,350||in 388 houses|
|1900||12,695||with the suburbs Krieblitz and Niederaltstadt 14,791 German inhabitants|
|1917||11,000||of which 10,110 Catholics, 368 Evangelicals and 292 Jews|
|1930||15,923||thereof 11,619 (73%) Germans, 3,879 (24%) Czechs and 338 foreigners|
|1939||14,152||thereof 12,608 Catholics, 1,059 Evangelicals, 78 other Christians and 17 Jews|
|Residents||26 046||29 506||31 999||31 997||31 398||31 239|
Historic city center
The Ringplatz or Ring (today: Krakonošovo náměstí , German Rübezahlplatz ) with its arcades is in the middle of the historic city center. The baroque plague column of St. Trinity from 1704, the Rübezahlbrunnen (1892, renovated in 2011) and a monument to Emperor Joseph II from 1886 (removed in 1923, rebuilt in 2009). The town hall was originally located in the middle of the square. After a fire in 1583, it was rebuilt on the market side in 1591 according to plans by Carlo Valmadi in the Renaissance style. After another fire in 1861, it was rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style. The palace of the industrialist family Haase (Haasepalais) was built in neo-renaissance style after the town fire in 1861 according to the plans of the master builder Novotný from Trautenau.
The Arch-Dean Church of the Virgin Mary stands on a hill above the Aupa next to the old cemetery and the foundations of the former castle. It was built in the 13th century and rebuilt in the Baroque style from 1755 to 1782 . It has a harmonious sound.
The remains of the former city fortifications can be seen particularly on the eastern edge of the city center.
- Chapel of St. John the Baptist on Johannisberg from 1712, was renovated from 1811 to 1818.
- Obelisk for General Ludwig von Gablenz , commander of the Battle of Trautenau in 1866, on the Gallows Hill ( Šibeník ) above the city park.
- Artillery fortification Stachelberg above Trautenbach ( Babí )
- Monument to Uffo Horn in the city park
- Monuments in the city cemetery
- Jewish cemetery (1870)
- Museum of the Krkonoše foothills ( Muzeum Podkrkonoší )
- Church of St. Wenceslas in Upper Old Town ( Horní Staré Město )
- Neo-Gothic Saints Peter and Paul Church (Parschnitz)
- People's House ( Národní dům ) from 1900 in the New Town near Neumarkt.
- former Protestant church (1900), in the neo-Gothic style of the builder Karl Rieger on Aupitzer Strasse
The city of Trutnov consists of 21 districts:
- Adamov (Adamsthal)
- Babí (Trautenbach)
- Bohuslavice (Bausnitz)
- Bojiště (Hohenbruck)
- Dolní Předměstí (Lower Suburb)
- Dolní Staré Město (Lower Old Town)
- Horní Předměstí (Upper Suburb)
- Horní Staré Město (Upper Old Town)
- Kryblice (Krieblitz)
- Lhota (Welhotta)
- Libeč (Gabersdorf)
- Nový Rokytník (Neurognitz)
- Oblanov (Kaltenhof)
- Poříčí (Parschnitz)
- Starý Rokytník (Altrognitz)
- Střední Předměstí
- Střítež (Burkersdorf)
- Studenec (Staudenz)
- Vnitřní Město
- Volanov (Weigelsdorf)
- Voletiny (Wolta)
There are also the following settlements and locations:
ZZN Trutnov and the Pivovar Krakonoš brewery are active in the food industry.
The power station of the EPO energy company is located in Poříčí.
Kara Trutnov is a company in the leather industry.
For a long time the city and its surroundings were an important location for the textile industry in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy . After many companies went bankrupt in 1945, the GRUND company still produces here today.
Trutnov received a railway connection as early as 1871 and is now a railway junction on the lines 032 Jaroměř –Trutnov, 047 Trutnov– Teplice nad Metují , 045 Trutnov– Svoboda nad Úpou , 040 Trutnov– Stará Paka - Chlumec nad Cidlinou and 043 Trutnov – Žacléř. In summer there are also some trains to Jelenia Góra at the weekend . In addition to the main train station (Trutnov hlavni nadrazi) there are other train stations.
The local bus service is operated by the OSNADO company.
Sport has a great tradition in Trutnov. The basketball teams of BK KARA Trutnov play in the 1st Czech league. The HC Trutnov ice hockey team competes in the 2nd Czech league. There is also football and tennis.
- Lohfelden , Germany
- Würzburg , since 2008 (sponsorship since 1956). The local Trautenauer Straße is named after it
- Kępno , Poland
- Kamienna Góra , Poland
- Świdnica , Poland
- Strzelin , Poland
- Senica , Slovakia
sons and daughters of the town
- Simon Hüttel (1530–1601), painter, cartographer, geodesist and chronicler
- Vincenz Weber (1809-1859), doctor and poet
- Uffo Daniel Horn (1817–1860), poet
- Josef Nowak (1841–1886), Austrian hygienist
- Vincenz Czerny (1842–1916), German surgeon
- Igo Etrich (1879–1967), pilot and aircraft designer
- Friedrich Hopfner (1881–1949), geodesist, geophysicist and planetary researcher
- Felix Günther (1886–1951), Austrian composer, film composer and conductor
- Josef Mühlberger (1903–1985), German writer and journalist
- Rudolf Kraus (1907–1988), painter and graphic artist
- Fritz Rieger (1910–1978), German conductor and general music director
- Karl Riegel (1915–2001), German politician (SPD), Member of the Bundestag, Member of the Bundestag
- Walter Blümel (1921–1997), German painter, sculptor and poet
- Gerhard Scholten (1923–1995), Austrian author
- Wolfgang Mitter (1927–2014), professor of comparative education
- Wilhelm Braun (1929–2010), Germanist and lexicographer
- Alfred A. Haase (1929–2017), German photographer
- Karl Heinz Ritschel (1930–2019), Austrian journalist
- Rudolf Peschel (1931–1989), German painter and graphic artist
- Christine Maring (* 1933), Hamburg Senator
- Willi Reiland (1933–2015), politician and Lord Mayor of Aschaffenburg
- Peter Maly (* 1936), interior architect and industrial designer
- Heimo Bachstein (1937–2011), cineast and film critic
- Annelies Schwarz (* 1938), German educator and writer
- Winfried Kreutzer (* 1940), German Professor of Romance Studies
- Iris Gusner (* 1941), German film director and screenwriter
- Jenny Schon (* 1942), writer, sinologist
- Klaus Honomichl (* 1943), German zoologist and entomologist
- Dieter Böhmdorfer (* 1943), Austrian lawyer and politician
- Josef Rose (* 1943), German handball trainer and handball player
- Helmut Becker (* 1944), German geophysicist and geoarchaeologist
- Walter Purkert (* 1944), professor of mathematics, mathematics historian
- Lothar Böhnisch (* 1944), professor of social education
- Harald Lastovka (1944–2016), politician and Lord Mayor of Stralsund
- Ivo Žďárek (1960–2008), Czech diplomat
- Robert Rosenberg (* 1975), actor
- Jan Blažek (* 1988), football player
- Karl Ritter von Stremayr (1823–1904), Minister for Culture and Education
- 1864–1870: Hieronymus Roth
- Joachim Bahlcke , Winfried Eberhard, Miloslav Polívka (eds.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: Bohemia and Moravia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 329). Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-520-32901-8 , pp. 618-621.
- Matthias Blazek : The battle near Trautenau. Austria's only victory in the German War of 1866. Ibidem-Verlag, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-8382-0367-6 , pp. 13-17.
- Julius Wilh. Fischer: Travels through Austria, Hungary, Steyermark, Venice, Bohemia and Moravia in 1801 and 1802. Theil 3. Anton Doll, Vienna 1803, pp. 21–30 .
- Theodor Fontane : The German War of 1866. Volume 1: The campaign in Bohemia and Moravia. Half volume 1: To Königgrätz. von Decker, Berlin 1870, pp. 355-391, (facsimile. Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, Munich 1971, ISBN 3-485-01452-4 ).
- Paul-Werner Kempa: Trautenau - Würzburg's godfather town in the Giant Mountains. Preußler, Nuremberg, ISBN 3-925362-56-8 .
- Julius Lippert : History of the royal treasury town of Trautenau . Prague 1863. ( E-copy ).
- Karl Prätorius: Comparative Timeline Bohemia – Trautenau – Schatzlar. In: Karl Prätorius, Hellmut Weber (ed.): Schatzlar. A Sudeten German city in the Bohemian Giant Mountains and the district municipalities. A home book with individual contributions. Wenzel, Marburg / Lahn 1993, pp. 617-653.
- Lillian Schacherl: Bohemia. Cultural image of a landscape. Prestel, Munich 1966, pp. 261-264: Trautenau. (With a picture of the mood of the overflowing weekly market and the atmosphere during the yarn exchange at the time of the profits in the American Civil War.).
- Jan Šícha, Eva Habel, Peter Liebald, Gudrun Heissig: Odsun. The expulsion of the Sudeten Germans. Documentation on the causes, planning and realization of an "ethnic cleansing" in the middle of Europe in 1945/46. Sudeten German Archive, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-930626-08-X .
- History of Upa Castle
- Unforgettable Trautenau
- Tourist Information
- Association for German-Czech Understanding Trautenau-Riesengebirge eV
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- www.riesengebirgler.de .
- Emil Schieche: Political history from 1327-1526. In: Ludwig Petry , Josef Joachim Menzel, Winfried Irgang (Hrsg.): History of Silesia. Volume 1: From prehistoric times to 1526. 6th, unchanged edition. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1988, ISBN 3-7995-6341-5 , pp. 157-237, here p. 162.
- Leo Woerl (Ed.): Illustrated guide through Trautenau and the surrounding area. 4th edition. Woerl, Leipzig 1913, with a plan of the city, a map of the Riesengebirge, illustration u. a. of the obelisk on Gablenzberg and p. 25 to 30 a mention by name of the fallen soldiers, of which military graves on the Kapellenberg are a reminder.
- Rudolf M. Wlaschek: Jews in Böhmen . Munich: Oldenbourg, 1990, p. 153; Andrea Rudorff, women in the subcamps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp, Berlin: Metropol, 2014.
- Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 193, point 4).
- Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 4: Königgrätzer Kreis , Prague 1834, p. 131.
- Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, p. 681.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Trautenau district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- http://www.czso.cz/ Czeski Urząd Statystyczny
- From the brewery to the presidency (en) . Retrieved September 26, 2018.