Hussite Wars

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hussite battle in a contemporary chronicle

The term Hussite Wars describes a series of disputes and battles in the years 1419 to 1436, starting from the territory of the Kingdom of Bohemia .

The term Hussites summarizes several reformatory and revolutionary currents that emerged from 1415 after the burning of the theologian and reformer Jan Hus .

History and causes

The national and social aspect

German settlers were mainly responsible for the emergence of the first large Bohemian cities. These settlers and their descendants thus largely made up the urban upper class, while the Czechs were more of the rural population. At first, the German influence was viewed benevolently, because one could certainly learn from it, and the old Bohemian nobility, who took over the knightly culture from German countries, partially joined it. However, all this changed at the turn of the 14th century. The German influx experienced stagnation and the Czech Bohemians gradually emancipated themselves. The foundation for this was the Czech language. It connected the population with one another and separated them from the German settlers and their descendants. A Czech identity gradually developed. This made u. a. noticeable because the courtly literature, which mainly came from the German-speaking area, was translated into the Czech language. Religious texts were also increasingly transmitted. These translations were carried out by the Czech clergy, who were considered to be the forerunners of the burgeoning national consciousness: "Wherever there was social tension in Bohemia in the 14th century, it could easily be related to the language differences between people speaking Czech and German."

When immigration came to a standstill in the early 14th century, the Czech part of the population also grew in the cities. It was he who directed his aversions against Germans in higher positions, for example in the city administration. The antagonism between the Czech lower class and the German upper class cemented itself. On the German side, there was increasing distrust, especially of the lower Czech aristocracy, who, due to the growing level of education, occupied more and more church offices. The German Bohemians also saw their top positions in the city and church threatened. Peter Hilsch notes that the national consciousness of the Czechs resulted from the preponderance of Germans in clerical offices - a competitive situation. The Bohemian King Wenceslaus also promoted the national endeavor in Bohemia. In 1408 he set up a Prague council for the first time, which consisted mainly of Czechs.

The religious aspect and influence of Wyclif

In addition to the national aspirations of the Bohemians, the reform movement was primarily caused by the moral decline of the Church and the desire for fundamental renewals. The church had lost its earlier credibility in the 14th century. Especially the simony , the accumulation of wealth through church benefices and the unbelievability of the church, especially through the occidental schism of 1378 and the intensification of the crisis in 1409 at the Pisan Council , caused displeasure. “The schism in the church had cost the church its reputation and credibility. Just think of the mutual curse of the two popes or the need to finance two expensive papal courts. ”For Josef Válka, the Hussite movement arose because of church grievances, primarily the papal schism and the moral decline of the clergy.

In times of crisis, the writings of the English philosopher John Wyclif were increasingly circulating at Prague University. At first one dealt extensively with his philosophical writings, before one also considered his theological and church-political treatises. With his texts he attacked “in the name of the Bible, the authority and rule of the entire ecclesiastical hierarchy itself”. For Wyclif, the Bible represented the foundation of his ideology, from which one had to start and argue without exception.

So he attacked the secular rule of the church - thus its worldly possessions and riches - because, according to the Bible, this cannot be justified. Building on this, worldly masters are permitted to withdraw goods from sinful churches. Wycliffe also proclaimed, among other things, that the Pope could be a condemned one to whom one was not obliged to obey. So it would be the job of every believer to know the Bible themselves. Based on the Bible, he rejected sacraments such as baptism and confession. The annual communion is also not justified in the Bible. A major criticism of his writings was his view of the Eucharist . He was of the opinion that the transubstantiation of bread and wine would not take place in the celebration of the Eucharist. The substances bread and wine do not change into the body and blood of Christ. Rather, it is to be viewed as a symbolic and additive act. One of the few views that Hus later did not take. The sacraments, which are administered by the church, he saw as superfluous, whereby he consequently questioned the church itself. He denied the right to obedience to every clergyman who found himself in mortal sin. He criticized the authority of the Pope and the material prosperity of the Church, which speaks against the Church's ideology of living in poverty. He fundamentally questioned the authority of the Pope . The popes have presumed their position in the Church because there is no evidence of the papacy in the Bible. In his last works he increasingly equated him with the devil or antichrist, who was a forerunner of the apocalypse.

At the turn of the century, Johannes Hus came into contact with these writings. He not only read them, but commented on individual passages and expanded on some theses. The so-called 45 theses of Wyclif appeared for the first time in 1403. Originally there were 24 theses that were compiled at the London earthquake synod of 1382. The Prague Magister Johannes Hübner added another 21 to these 24. These now 45 theses were used in the following years and at the following council against the Hussite reform movement and especially against Johannes Hus.

Research today agrees that "all the currents that were recognizable in the Bohemian reform movement at the time: Wyclifism, the emphasis on Czech national reform and the renewed urgency of criticism of moral abuses" came together in Johannes Hus. He became the main, but also tragic, incarnation of Hussitism. Hus was soon putting Wyclif's theories into practice.

The Council of Constance

The German King Sigismund assured Jan Hus for the summoned Council of Constance (November 5, 1414 to April 22, 1418) safe conduct (a salvus conductus for the outward and return journey and the time of stay) and promised him a letter of safe conduct. Hus reached Konstanz prematurely on November 3rd, on November 28th he was held prisoner against the promises in the house of the cathedral cantor and from December 6th arrested in a semicircular extension of the Dominican monastery. When King Sigismund arrived on December 24, 1414, he was angry about the breach of the letter of safe conduct, but did nothing to help Hus. Since he wanted to inherit the Bohemian crown of his brother Wenceslaus, he was more interested in rehabilitating the reputation of Bohemia.

From March 24, 1415, Hus was relocated to a somewhat more tolerable quarter, the barefoot tower at the later Stefansschule. He was then imprisoned in the prison tower of Gottlieben Castle. On May 4, 1415, the Council posthumously condemned Wycliffe and his teaching. Hus came to the Franciscan monastery on June 5th. There he spent the last weeks of his life. From June 5 to 8, Hus was interrogated in the monastery refectory. The council demanded that he publicly repudiate and renounce his teachings. Hus refused and remained steadfast until the end of June. On the morning of July 6th, 1415, Hus was sentenced to death by fire as a heretic and burned as a heretic in the solemn plenary assembly of the council in Constance Minster due to his teaching of the "Church as the invisible community of the predestined" . The executioners scattered his ashes in the Rhine.


Lintel and first skirmishes (1419)

King Wenceslas' action against the Hussites led to an uprising. The first lintel in Prague occurred on July 30, 1419 , when the Hussites stormed the town hall and threw some councilors out of the window. According to contemporary information, King Wenzel is said to have been hit when the news of the lintel reached him. On August 16, 1419, less than three weeks later, the Bohemian king died.

The Hussites did not want to recognize his brother Sigismund as king because he had not kept the safe conduct promised to Jan Hus at the time; he was considered to be its murderer. In the days after Wenceslas's death, the Hussite masses in Prague forcibly subjected churches and monasteries to chalice communion or destroyed and burned them. The uprising lasted for several weeks.

In November 1419, after the fighting between the radical Hussites and the mercenaries of Vinzenz von Wartenberg over the Lesser Town in Prague, 135 aristocrats and four royal cities were exiled to a provisional peace agreement that lasted until April 1420. At the same time, the lay judges of the New Town of Prague returned Vyšehrad Castle to the Bohemian regent Queen Sophie , which had been occupied by the Hussites in 1419. The disappointed radical Hussites then left Prague. The Hussite leader Jan Žižka and his captains under the leadership of Brenek von Fels moved via Alttabor to Pilsen, which was administered by the priest Václav Koranda and which was meanwhile a center of the radical Hussites. This Hussite stronghold thus became the main target of the Catholic alliance under the leadership of the West Bohemian aristocracy, a reason for Žižka to protect the city against attacks. In December 1419, a royal Catholic unit near Pilsen suffered its first defeat against a small Hussite contingent.

First Crusade (1420)

15th century Hussite wagon castle (contemporary illustration)

The crusade bull of Pope Martin V of March 17, 1420 led to a real crusade against the heretical Bohemia. A few days after the bull was issued, Catholic troops attacked a Hussite unit in South Bohemia in the Battle of Sudoměř in vain at the end of March . 400 Taborites under Jan Žižka withstood an attack by around 2000 imperial-Catholic horsemen. The defeat established Žižka's military glory and gave the prelude to the development of the tactics of the wagon castle on the part of the Hussites.

On April 7th, Taborites under Nikolaus von Hus conquered Sedlice , then Písek , the Rabi Castle near Schüttenhofen , Strakonitz and Prachatitz . The reason for the siege and storming of Rabi Castle was the support given by Jan von Ryzmburk to King Sigismund. One after the other, the Mühlhausen, Nepomuk and Goldenkron monasteries were destroyed. Around the same time, in early April, the Kalixtines took power in Prague. The arrival of their commander, Vinzenz von Wartenberg, in Prague on April 17, increased the will of the Hussites to resist.

At the end of April a new cross army crossed the Bohemian border, on May 3rd Königgrätz capitulated . On May 7, 1420, Czech and German mercenaries surrounded the Hradschin and occupied it on the same day. The Hussites then set fire to Lesser Town in Prague to prevent supplies to the royal family. The royals were then reinforced by another 364 nobles, knights and townspeople, who declared war on the Prague people. The conditions for a surrender negotiated between representatives of both parties in Kuttenberg , the Hussites regarded as unacceptable. They therefore decided to call on the rural population for help in defending Prague. The call for help did not reach the Taborites until the early morning of May 17th. The next day a combat group moved towards Prague. A first encounter with the enemy took place at Beneschau . After an evasion maneuver, Peter von Sternberg and his comrades-in-arms beat 400 of the royalists who had tried to defend the city against the Taborites. After the battle the Catholic troops were destroyed and Beneschau burned down.

In the meantime, the Hussites from Kuttenberg met Hungarian horsemen. When the captains of the Taborites, who were camped in Porschitz an der Sasau not far from Beneschau, heard about it, they gave the order to leave and built a wagon castle at a strategically more favorable point. Despite the falling darkness, the Catholics under Janek von Chtenic and Philippo Scolari attacked on the evening of May 20th. In the battle of Beneschau the approximately two thousand horsemen of Žižka were put to flight.

During the further train to Prague there was no more fighting, and on May 20, 1420 the Hussites reached the city. Jan Žižka destroyed the train of the imperial family that was supposed to secure supplies for the garrisons at the Prague castles Hradschin and Vyšehrad. Meanwhile, Hungarian horsemen of the crusade army conquered the cities of Schlan , Laun and Melnik, which had been abandoned by the Hussites .

At the beginning of June 1420, Austrian contingents united with the troops of the German king at Beraun . On June 12th, Sigismund moved with a strong army from Wroclaw to Břevnov and began to siege Prague Castle, the Hradschin . The attempt to conquer all of Prague was prevented by a victory of Žižka's troops on July 14, 1420 in the Battle of Prague's St. Vitus Hill (on Vitkow Mountain).

A little before that, the young Ulrich II von Rosenberg had offered Sigismund his services. Ulrich and Duke Ernst of Bavaria besieged the Hussite stronghold of Tabor on June 23 . When the Taborites found out, 350 Hussites, led by Nikolaus von Hus, came to the aid of the besieged city. On June 30th there was a counterattack, the Rosenbergs suffered a defeat and withdrew. The Hussites then withdrew to the castle. Ernst continued the siege and captured Tabor on July 9th, the entire occupation of the city was slain or burned. Meanwhile, another formation of the Hussites with the commander Jan Roháč conquered the city of Lomnitz .

On September 15, 1420 the siege of Vyschehrad began . The Hussite artillery managed to stop the attack by the Hungarian and German horsemen. The Hussites then attacked. Four hundred knights were killed by the Hussites who did not take prisoners. After the battle, the crusade troops withdrew from Prague. Žižka led a tight regiment, which among other things led to the death and expulsion of many Germans from Bohemia.

Second and Third Crusade (1421, 1422)

The second crusade in 1421 also failed miserably. The victory of Friedrich von Meissen over the Hussites in the Battle of Brüx in August had no lasting effect. The victory at Brüx did not have a major impact on the further course of the Hussite Wars, the militarily superior Hussites soon regained the upper hand for several years. For Frederick, the tactical success later led to the rise of Duke and Elector of Saxony, while his opponent Želivský was executed soon after, in March 1422.

The Habsburg Albrecht V took over the supreme command of the royal troops against the Hussites on September 28, 1421 according to an agreement with Sigismund in Pressburg.

On October 2, an army of the cross broke off the siege of the nearby Saaz and vacated the country in frantic flight after rumors arose that a Hussite army was approaching. Subsequently, Ostroh Castle, which they called "The New Tabor", became a military center of the Hussites in Southeast Moravia. From here they attacked the Velehrad monastery on January 12, 1421 and burned it down. In the same year the Olomouc bishop Johann von Bucca tried to recapture Ostroh with Austrian reinforcements without success.

The third crusade ended in January 1422 after two more defeats by the Imperial Catholic armies at Kuttenberg and Deutschbrod .

Inner conflicts (1423 and 1424)

The atrocities committed by the Taborites so angered the Calixtines that they split off and chose their own king in the person of the Lithuanian Prince Zygmond Korybut . The Polish king Wladyslaw Jagiello supported his nephew in this undertaking because he welcomed the independence of Bohemia as a buffer state to the empire. Together with his brother Duke Witold (Vytautas), Korybut entered Prague on May 17, 1422 with a strong army. Because the crown of Bohemia was missing for the coronation, there was an unsuccessful five-month siege of Karlstein Castle . After Pope Martin V insisted that the King of Poland recall Prince Korybut immediately, the Polish-Lithuanian troops had to withdraw from Bohemia on December 24th.

In the spring of 1423 serious differences broke out within the various Hussite currents. In the Battle of Horschitz in April 1423, the radical Taborites under Jan Žižka prevailed against the Prague Utraquists . In June there was a temporary settlement between the various parties in Konopischt . After peace negotiations between the Utraquists in Prague and Sigismund failed in October 1423, the inner-Hussite conflict broke out again.

In June 1424 Žižka again had the upper hand against the Prague in the battle of Maleschau . The focus of the fighting now shifted to Moravia . While Duke Albrecht tried to take control of the country from the south in July, a devastating Hussite attack began from the west. Habsburg - Catholic cities were taken and razed to the ground.

After Žižka's death on October 11, 1424, who succumbed to an epidemic during the siege of Pribislau Castle , Prokop the Great took over the leadership of the Hussites. Even under his command, the Hussites remained victorious. After Bohemia's economic resources had already been plundered by the war, the other raids by the Hussites now had to be expanded further.

Advance of the Hussites (from 1425)

The Hussites advanced into Silesia for the first time in 1425 , but otherwise the fighting, which was fought with great cruelty by both sides, was largely confined to Moravian-Bohemian territory until autumn 1425.

In November 1425, the Hussites under their new leader Prokop the Great again advanced to Lower Austria in order to distract Duke Albrecht, who operated successfully in Moravia, to reduce the burden on his own country and to take booty. The Bohemians conquered Trebitsch, on November 12th they destroyed the monastery Klosterbruck near Znaim . On November 25, 1425 they conquered Retz and Pulkau , numerous monasteries and towns were plundered. Duke Albrecht feared that the Hussites would also penetrate the Waldviertel , the Lower Austrian Land Marshal Otto von Maissau took preventive countermeasures.

In the spring of 1426, Moravia was struck by a serious invasion and immediately afterwards northern Bohemia was overlaid with war. Weißwasser , Leipa, Trebnitz, Teplitz and Graupen fell into the hands of the Hussites.

The Reichstag convened by King Sigismund in Vienna in February and in May 1426 in Nuremberg were poorly attended, and the resolutions passed there against the heretical Bohemia could not be implemented. The Hussites then threatened the margraviate of Meißen and besieged the city of Aussig from May 26th . The city was shelled daily, but the population under Jakob von Wresowitz offered bitter resistance, as they hoped for relief. The Counts Vizthum, Weiden and Schwarzburg succeeded in assembling a strong army from troops of the Meissen, Saxons, Thuringians and Upper Lusatians, which marched off on June 11, 1426 towards Bohemia. The relief army, which is said to be 36,000 strong, was divided into several groups. One came via the Janauer Weg near Brüx, the second crossed the border at Ossegg, and the third stream came via Graupen and Teplitz.

On the morning of June 16, 1426 the battle of Aussig began , the returned Prince Korybut and Prokop the Bald awaited the attack of the Meissner on a hill in the village of Predlitz. The Hussites barricaded themselves behind a wagon castle and anchored it with chains. The German knights tried to break through into the fortified camp, the Hussites made a sortie and threw the opposing cavalry over the pile, for which they used special forks with which the riders were torn from the saddle. Thousands of dead remained on the battlefield. Most of the Meißnisch-Ostland and Thuringian commanders and banner lords, counts, barons and lords fell. Among the 500 dead from the nobility were Heinrich II. Von Hartenstein as the last Burgrave of Meißen, Burgrave Oswald von Kirchberg, Count Ernst I von Hohnstein and Count Friedrich XIV. Von Beichlingen-Wiehe. The victory cost the Bohemians only about 2000 men, the entire train of the knight army fell into their hands. The following morning Aussig was also stormed and set on fire after the looting.

Since March 1426, other Hussite armies had advanced into the eastern Weinviertel , and towards the end of the year a Hussite army under Heinrich von Platz crossed the border at Weitra. On January 3, 1427, these associations withdrew via Windigsteig and Dobersberg and did not dispense with the usual looting. On March 12, 1427, strong armies under Prokop besieged the city of Zwettl . On March 25, there was probably a bloody battle in the nearby vineyard, which the Austrian relief army initially won. When the wagon castle was sacked, they were attacked again by the quickly organized ranks of the Hussites and had to escape behind the Zwettl fortifications. After three days of looting, Prokop's troops left the scene, looted Altenburg Abbey and withdrew via Horn.

Fourth crusade, Hussite marches to neighboring countries (from 1427)

Pope Martin V pushed for a new crusade, his legate Cardinal Henry Beaufort , Bishop of Winchester, took over the supreme leadership. On the side of the Roman Catholic army, according to an unknown source, eighty thousand men, including thousands of English archers, are said to have been drawn together to attack in order to advance into Bohemia from the Upper Palatinate . The battle showed that the fighting technique with wagon castles, supported by a powerful baggage train, could not be used successfully by every army, but required an army that knew how to use the wagons successfully in attacks and defenses. The Catholic troops were defeated on August 4, 1427 during the battle of Mies (also Tachau ). Cardinal Beaufort and the rest of the troops struggled to escape west over the Bohemian Forest passes. In Bärnau near Tirschenreuth, Johann von Pfalz-Neumarkt was able to repel a Hussite mercenary group in pursuit. The fourth crusade in 1427 ended in a heavy defeat for the Catholic troops, and no more crusades were undertaken in the following four years.

The Reichstag in Frankfurt under the Roman-German King Sigismund decided on December 2, 1427 a tax, also known as the Hussite pfennig , to set up new troops .

As early as 1428, the Hussites under Prokop the Great began attacking Catholic bastions. The war campaign of 1428 devastated Lower Austria and parts of Silesia, and in 1429 another advance to Lower Austria and Lusatia followed . The town of Guben (on the Neisse) and the Neuzelle monastery (near today's Eisenhüttenstadt) were destroyed and the monks were murdered or abducted. On July 25, 1429, an alliance between the Wettins and the Hohenzollern against the Hussites was formed in Plauen . But just three months later, Altendresden was burned down by the Hussites, a few months later the Hussites attacked the Mulde through the Vogtland with the conquest of Altenburg (January 12-16, 1430), Plauen (January 24, 1430), Oelsnitz / Vogtland (April 6, 1430) and Auerbach .

The Hussite procession of 1430 also affected Silesia, Brandenburg , Upper Palatinate and Upper Franconia , and that of 1431 again Brandenburg and parts of Hungary (western Slovakia ).

Fifth Crusade (from 1431)

Even a resolution to fight the Hussites at the Reichstag in Nuremberg in 1431 could not change the fortunes of war. The fifth crusade under Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini ended on August 14, 1431 with an embarrassing defeat at Taus . The emperor then looked for a negotiated solution.

Meanwhile, the most extensive operations of the Hussites followed in 1432/34, which led in the east to Upper Silesia and western Slovakia, north to Lusatia, to Lower Silesia , via Neumark to the Danzig area (Land of the Teutonic Order) and to Poland . Another advance from March 18 to May 5, 1432 again affected Brandenburg (including Frankfurt (Oder) , Bernau , Strausberg ) and the westernmost parts of Silesia.

Since the imperial and papal troops were denied victory against the Hussites except for minor skirmishes, negotiations with them took place between 1431 and 1433. Although Elector Friedrich II of Saxony had already concluded a separate peace with the Hussites on August 23, 1432, for two years, the war did not end everywhere until 1436.

At the Basel Council , the Hussites were granted some concessions with the Prague compacts . Pressure was exerted on the council by the Bohemians under Procopius through the siege of the Catholic and loyal city of Pilsen from mid-1433. The "Upper Palatinate", today Upper Palatinate , was threatened by raids by the Hussites as it has often been the case. On September 21, 1433 a partial contingent of the Hussite siege army, which had penetrated into the "Upper Palatinate" for foraging, was defeated by the much smaller army of Count Palatine Johann von Pfalz-Neumarkt , the "Hussite Scourge", near Hiltersried .

Compromise with the moderate Hussites, defeat of the radicals (1433 to 1436)

In January 1433 the new Pope Eugene IV gave in to the guidelines of the Council of Basel, which was supported by King Sigismund . On May 31, 1433, he carried out Sigismund's coronation as emperor in Rome, and in April 1434 the balance between the council, emperor and pope was established. The way for a common church reform was finally free, which now also paved the way for an agreement with the Hussites. In October 1433 a Bohemian delegation appeared in Basel and there were renewed unsuccessful disputes of the church's contradictions. Emperor Sigismund, who had left Italy in August 1433, achieved through his diplomatic skill that a delegation was sent from Basel to Prague to negotiate there. Finally, on November 30, 1433, an agreement was reached on the Prague compacts , which were approved by the council and also confirmed by the Bohemian state parliament.

During these negotiations, the more moderate Hussite wing of the Utraquists or Calixtines ("Chalice Brothers") returned to the bosom of the Catholic Church and even allied themselves with the imperial troops against the more radical Taborites. These were finally defeated on May 30, 1434 in the Battle of Lipan ( Czech : Lipany) after a tactical error by Prokop. The battle ended in a massacre, with the victors liquidating most of the prisoners and thus wiping out the core of the Taborites. Some of the prisoners of the Taborite army, which originally numbered 12,000 men, sided with the moderates, originally around 20,000 men, while some of the survivors volunteered as mercenaries in foreign armies. Only a small delegation under Jan Roháč z Dubé rescued themselves at his castle Sion near Kuttenberg, until this too was conquered in 1437 and Roháč was executed in Prague.

With the death of King Wladislaw of Poland at the end of May 1434, the situation in the east changed considerably and the political connection between the Hussites and the Poles was no longer to be feared. The last battle of the Hussite Wars is usually the battle of Brüx on September 23, 1434, when the Hussites, who were allied with the Poles, suffered a heavy defeat against Emperor Sigismund, Friedrich II. And Heinrich von Schwarzburg .

In the summer of 1435 both parties finally negotiated in Brno in endless debates about the handling of the Prague compacts and the conditions under which Sigismund could be recognized in Bohemia. Without waiting for a result, the emperor entered Prague on August 23, 1436. The Hussites had come to terms with the compacts of the Council of Basel on July 5, 1436 in the state parliament of Iglau and had to recognize Sigismund as King of Bohemia.


The lower nobility of the Bohemian lands are considered to be the political and economic victors of the Hussite Wars. As a result of the Hussite Wars, the Bohemian lands lost their economic and cultural leading position in Europe in the 14th century for several generations.

Individual battles and major military operations

Replica of a Hussite shield. Original in the Prague Museum

In some cases, the following battles are still attributed to the Hussite Wars:

See also


  • Friedrich von Bezold : King Sigmund and the Imperial Wars against the Husites. 2 volumes 1872–1877. Reprinted by G. Olms, Hildesheim 1978, ISBN 3-487-05967-3 .
  • Richard Jecht : The Upper Lusatian Hussite War and the land of the six cities under Emperor Sigmund , 1st part. In: Neues Lausitzisches Magazin, Volume 87, Görlitz 1911, pp. 35-279.
  • Richard Jecht: The Upper Lusatian Hussite War and the Land of the Six Cities under Emperor Sigmund , 2nd part. In: Neues Lausitzisches Magazin, Volume 90, Görlitz 1914, pp. 31–151.
  • Jiří Kejř; Jiří Ployhar (photos): The Hussite Revolution . Translated from the Czech by Dagmar Bilková. Orbis, Prague 1988, DNB 891488057 .
  • Lutz Mohr : The Hussites in Upper Lusatia with special consideration of their campaigns in the years from 1424 to 1434 . Special edition No. 2 of the series: History and stories from Neusalza-Spremberg , Greifswald a. Neusalza-Spremberg 2014.
  • František Šmahel: The Hussite Revolution . 3 volumes (= MGH-Schriften 43 / I-III). Hanover 2002.
  • Uwe Tresp : Mercenaries from Bohemia in the service of German princes. War business and army organization in the 15th century . Paderborn 2004 (here especially p. 22ff.)
  • Jan Durdík: Hussite army . (Original title: Husitské vojenství , translated by Eberhard Wolfgramm). German military publisher, Berlin 1961 DNB 572939604 .

Web links

Commons : Hussite Wars  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. Malcolm Lambert: Heresy in the Middle Ages, Heresies from Bogumil to Hus. Munich 1981, p. 399.
  2. See Lambert, Malcolm: Heresy in the Middle Ages, Heresies from Bogumil to Hus. Munich 1981, p. 399.
  3. See Hilsch Peter: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 63.
  4. See Hilsch Peter: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 101.
  5. a b cf. Peter Hilsch: Jan Hus. A reformer as a threat to empire and church? In: Franz Machilek (ed.): The Hussite Revolution. Religious, political and regional aspects. Cologne [et al.] 2012, p. 30f.
  6. Cf. Josef Válka: Sigismund and the Hussites, or: how to end a revolution [sic!]? In: Karel Hruza, Alexandra Kaar (eds.): Kaiser Sigismund (1368–1437). On the rule of a European monarch. Vienna [et al.] 2012, p. 26.
  7. Cf. Malcolm Lambert: Heresy in the Middle Ages, Heresies from Bogumil to Hus. Munich 1981, p. 408f.
  8. Peter Hilsch: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 46.
  9. See Peter Hilsch: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 47.
  10. See Peter Hilsch: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 48.
  11. See Peter Hilsch: Johannes Hus. Preacher of God and heretic. Regensburg 1999, p. 53.
  12. Malcolm Lambert: Heresy in the Middle Ages, Heresies from Bogumil to Hus. Munich 1981, p. 410.
  13. Radio Prague: The year 1419 - 1st lintel in Prague and the death of Wenceslas IV. ( Memento of the original from April 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  14. ^ Franz Theuer : Der Raub der Stephanskrone, Edition Roetzer, Eisenstadt 1994, p. 51 f.
  15. Joseph Aschbach: Gesch. Sigismunds, Volume 3, Friedrich Perthes Verlag 1841, p. 171 f.
  16. Helmolt Weltgeschichte, Volume VII., Ed. Armin Tille, Bibliographisches Institut. Leipzig 1920, p. 51