|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||28 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||147.85 km 2|
|Residents:||57,751 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||391 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||15230, 15232, 15234, 15236|
|Primaries :||0335, 033605|
|License plate :||FF|
|Community key :||12 0 53 000|
|LOCODE :||DE FFO|
City administration address :
15230 Frankfurt (Oder)
|Lord Mayor :||René Wilke ( DIE LINKE )|
|Location of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) in Brandenburg|
Frankfurt (Oder) , also known as the Frankfurt an der Oder , is on the west bank of the Oder located county-level city in eastern Brandenburg . The neighboring Polish town of Słubice emerged in 1945 from the Frankfurt district of Dammvorstadt. Since 1999 Frankfurt has had the additional designation "Kleiststadt" after its most famous son Heinrich von Kleist . With the re-establishment of the European University Viadrina in 1991, Frankfurt (Oder) is again a university city .
Earlier forms of the place name Frankfurt were "Vrankenforde" (1253), "Frankenforde", "Francfurd" or "Franckfurde" and "Franckfurt an der Oder" (1706). A name transfer from Frankfurt am Main is assumed .
The Oder forms the eastern city limits and at the same time the German state border with Poland . On the other bank of the river is Słubice , which emerged from the former Frankfurt district of Dammvorstadt .
The city is located in the Brandenburg meadow, forest and lake landscape at 22–56 m above sea level. NHN ; the city center is about 27 m above sea level. NHN. The highest point is the Hirschberge at 135 m above sea level. NHN. The 250 hectare and 56.63 m deep Helenesee lies in the middle of the Brandenburg pine forests and is a popular leisure area . Because of the interesting nature of the bottom, this lake is very popular with divers . The Helenesee emerged from an earlier open- cast brown coal mine , the so-called Helene shaft. Adjacent to it was the Katja shaft. Both shafts were flooded in the 1960s and are now connected by a canal.
The city has a north-south extension of about 14 kilometers and an east-west extension of 10.5 kilometers. The circumference of the urban area is 66.8 kilometers.
The area of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) is divided into five parts; Center with the districts Stadtmitte , Gubener Vorstadt and Obere Stadt ; Beresinchen with the districts of Altberesinchen and Neuberesinchen and the districts of Güldendorf and Lossow ; North with the districts of Lebuser Vorstadt , Hansaviertel and Klingetal and the districts of Kliestow and Boossen ; West with the district Nuhnenvorstadt and the districts Rosengarten / Pagram and Lichtenberg and Süd with the district south and the districts Markendorf , Markendorf-Siedlung and Hohenwalde .
Frankfurt (Oder) borders (clockwise, starting from the north) on Treplin , Lebus (both in the district of Märkisch-Oderland), Słubice (Poland), Brieskow-Finkenheerd , Groß Lindow , Müllrose , Briesen (Mark) and Jacobsdorf (all in the district Oder-Spree).
The average annual temperature is the long-term funds 10.6 ° C at a sunshine duration of 1,860 hours.
The average temperature in January is 1.3 ° C. In July, the long-term average temperature is 19.7 ° C. In August the long-term temperature is 20 ° C and the amount of precipitation is 37 mm. The duration of sunshine here is just under 245 hours. In September, the mean average temperature is 15.3 ° C with an average rainfall of 34 mm. In October, the mean average temperature was 10.1 ° C with an average rainfall of 47 mm. On average the sun shines 110–120 hours. In October 2005, however, it seemed 180 hours. According to the weather report of the German Meteorological Service in 2009, Frankfurt (Oder) was the place in Germany with the heaviest rainfall with a rainfall of 100 millimeters within 24 hours (measured on July 4, 2009).
The November brings an average temperature of 5.6 ° C. Frost will occur in ten to twelve nights. The first snowfall is possible in mid-November, the amount of precipitation averages 39 mm for the month. The duration of sunshine is 50–55 hours, and fog must be expected on six to eight days in November.
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Frankfurt (Oder)
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
Frankfurt (Oder) lies on the Oder River. The Alte Oder and the Winterhafen come from the former course of the river and form its side arms. The city of Frankfurt (Oder) has a water surface of 577 ha and there are 98 lakes and ponds as well as 178 rivers and ditches.
The lowest water level of the Oder ever measured was 86 cm on August 8, 1950. Since the beginning of the recordings on October 7, 1910, the highest water level was measured when the Oder floods in 1997 at 657 cm. By then, 635 cm was the highest on November 7, 1930.
In the area of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) and its districts, 84 trees and groups of trees of the species silver maple , red beech , European yew , pedunculate oak (also called column oak ), swamp oak , winter green oak ( Quercus × turneri , hybrids of English oak and oak ), black alder , Ginkgo , black elder , chestnut , Horse chestnut , Sommerlinde , white mulberry , black poplar , silver poplar , London plane , Japanese pagoda tree , elm , Chinese pasture (cultivar corkscrew willow ), White willow (cultivated form in weeping willow ), Crataegus monogyna (in the form hawthorn ) and Caucasian hackberry , a Hickory - and a cherry art declared natural monuments.
After 1200, a merchant settlement developed on a valley sand island at a narrow point on the Oder . It was at the crossroads of several long-distance trade routes. Duke Heinrich I of Silesia granted her market and settlement rights in 1225 . The influx of wealthy long-distance traders from northwest Germany and Flanders increased.
The mayor Gottfried von Herzberg negotiated with Margrave Johann I at Spandau Castle about granting city rights. On Saturday, July 12th, 1253, Margrave Johann I issued the document for the foundation of the city. The Berlin city law, which was derived from Magdeburg city law , should apply . On July 14, 1253, the following Monday, a supplementary certificate was issued. This document secured the future city "Vrankenvorde" the sole settlement rights in their radius and more land to the right of Or.
Frankfurt was named as a participant in the files of the Lübeck day trip of 1430 . Only members of the Hanseatic League were allowed to take part in the day trips - as a result, Frankfurt had been a member of the Hanse by this year at the latest.
The Hussites burned down the Guben suburb on April 6, 1432. The Carthusian monastery was also reduced to rubble that day. An attack on the city itself on April 13, 1432 failed.
The fish above the southern decorative gable of the town hall , which probably symbolizes the right to “elevate” in the herring barrels, is dated to 1454 .
Early modern age
At the end of January 1506, teaching began at the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt with the humanistic lecture given by the first “appointed” teacher, Axungia . The opening ceremony took place on April 26th in the presence of Elector Joachim I and his brother Albrecht . 950 academics, among them the young Ulrich von Hutten , came in the first year, more than at any other German university up to then. The first rector was the Leipzig theologian Konrad Wimpina .
Martin Luther published his theses in Wittenberg in 1517, which were also directed against Albrecht, now Archbishop of Magdeburg and Mainz. The Brandenburg University responded with a disputation on January 20, 1518 in front of 300 friars. The answer theses submitted by the Dominican and later indulgence preacher Johannes Tetzel , however, had been written by Konrad Wimpina. They were approved by the congregation, and Luther was considered refuted. In the following, many students turned away from Frankfurt and moved to Wittenberg .
In the same year, at the request of Elector Joachim I. Frankfurt formally left the Hanseatic League . 1535 the first Civil Musiziergemeinschaft Germany was in Frankfurt convivium musicum by Jodocus Willich founded. In it twelve people dealt with secular music and discussed musical questions.
The Thirty Years' War first reached the city in April 1626, when the army of Peter Ernst II von Mansfeld, defeated by Wallenstein near Dessau , fled eastwards through the city. Thereupon Elector Georg Wilhelm called on the Brandenburg estates to set up a standing army. Colonel Hillebrand von Kracht was commissioned with the formation of 3,000 infantry . On May 1st, nine companies were called up on foot for this "at the bird bars near the Carthaus" (today's Anger). This event was considered to be the foundation of the 4th Grenadiers and is viewed as the foundation of the Prussian Army in general.
After the Swedish King Gustav Adolf landed with an army on the Pomeranian coast in July 1630, he attacked Frankfurt in the summer of 1631 in order to force the Brandenburg Elector Georg Wilhelm into an alliance with him. The city was besieged for a few days and then in the battle of Frankfurt the storming and sacking of the city followed with great losses for the defenders.
In the course of the Thirty Years War, the population had decreased from around 12,000 to 2,366. Economically, the city could no longer recover from the extorted war contributions. But after the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648, the university regained importance, 250 students were enrolled that year.
During the Seven Years' War, a Russian vanguard under General de Villebois occupied the dam suburb at the end of July 1759 . The small garrison under Major von Arnim withdrew after a short bombardment. General de Villebois demanded 600,000 thalers contributions from the city. The Austrians who arrived later made the same request. Thanks to the negotiating skills of Mayor Ungnad, the total claim was reduced to 100,000 thalers. On August 12, 1759, Friedrich II suffered his worst defeat in the battle of Kunersdorf on the eastern side of the Odra not far from Frankfurt. The Prussian army was subject to the united Russians and Austrians. 19,000 men were killed; among them Ewald Christian von Kleist .
On April 28, 1785, the dam broke during the spring flood and the entire dam suburb was flooded. The only casualty was garrison commander Leopold von Braunschweig , whose boat turned over on the way to the rescue work.
Frankfurt was temporarily of considerable importance for the trade between Eastern Europe and Germany and not only for the fur trade mentioned by Krünitz . Krünitz wrote around 1800: “The local [German] furriers buy the foreign furs at the trade fairs in Leipzig and in Frankfurth on the Oder. […] At the fair in Frankfurth on the Oder, there are especially Polnian Jews who trade in Ukrainian sheepskins, among other things, and also from Gdansk, but generally Leipzig smokers' dealers ”.
At the beginning of February 1811, the Frankfurter received the final news that the university had been relocated to Breslau . The reason was the University of Berlin , which Wilhelm von Humboldt opened last year . The farewell party for the students took place on August 10th.
As a replacement for the relocation of the university to Breslau , Frankfurt became the seat of the government of the new Frankfurt administrative district and a higher regional court on January 1, 1816 .
The Frankfurt district, formed in 1816, consisted of the city of Frankfurt and areas that had previously belonged to the Lebus district and the Sternberg district, including the suburbs Carthaus, Kliestow , Boossen , Buschmühle, Lossow , Rosengarten , Schiffersruh, Tschetschnow and Ziegelei. The district office for the Lebus district was also located in Frankfurt.
On January 1, 1827, the Frankfurt district was dissolved again. The city of Frankfurt was independent again in 1827, but remained the capital of the Lebus district.
On October 22, 1842, the Berlin-Frankfurt (Oder) line of the Berlin-Frankfurt Railway Company was inaugurated . In 1870 the railway line to Poznan was opened with the 444 meter long railway bridge over the Oder .
In 1895 the first stone bridge over the Oder was inaugurated. At the end of the 19th century, Frankfurt an der Oder had five Protestant churches, a Catholic church and a synagogue .
The first aircraft landed in Frankfurt on August 19, 1911 on the Kunersdorf parade ground, which had not been used since the beginning of the century.
Between 1919 and 1926, 8,254 refugees came to Frankfurt from areas of Germany that fell to Poland after the First World War. The loss of the eastern territories through the formation of Poland meant an enormous loss for the Frankfurt economy due to the loss of sales and reference markets. Traffic was also affected. Compared to 1913, 40% less passenger transport and over a third less freight transport were recorded on the Frankfurt – Poznan railway in 1928 .
From June 16 to 24, 1924, the Ostmarkschau for trade and agriculture (“Ogela”) took place in Frankfurt and was attended by almost 100,000 people. The city hoped that this would stimulate the settlement of industry and founded a GmbH for the project. This prepared 250,000 m² of space in Dammvorstadt, on which the four main areas of the trade show , agricultural machinery show , small animal show and animal show were to take place. The organizers were satisfied with the event despite a loss of 100,000 Reichsmarks . However, industrial companies were not attracted by this.
On April 1, 1930, the new building of the state building trade school (Higher Technical State College for Civil Engineering) was inaugurated.
A new building was also built from 1931 for the new Pedagogical Academy in Frankfurt (Oder) , which was closed again in 1932 for reasons of economy, but was reopened as a college for teacher training in 1934. The new building in Bismarckstr. 51/52 was inaugurated in 1935.
time of the nationalsocialism
In 1937 the motorway to Berlin was inaugurated.
With the exception of an attack by the British Air Force in early 1944, the city was largely spared from the wars of the Second World War until 1945, as there were hardly any important industrial or military facilities. With the beginning of the Vistula-Oder operation by the Soviet armed forces, a large wave of German refugees began, which also passed through Frankfurt (Oder). The total number of refugees passing through was between 264,000 and 300,000 people. The city was declared a fortress on January 26, 1945 . On April 19 at 5:29 in the morning, the Oder Bridge was blown up by the Wehrmacht . Russian air raids began on April 20. The fortress status was lifted on the afternoon of April 21, and the fortress troops began to withdraw one day later. On April 22nd and 23rd, Soviet bombers flew further attacks. This resulted in numerous fires, especially in the center of Frankfurt. On the morning of April 23, 1945, the first Soviet units reached Frankfurt. 93% of the inner city was destroyed by the previous bombardment and arson, which started in the following days. On the evening of April 24th, the tower of St. Mary's Church burned down , the vault of the church collapsed months later.
Between 1933 and 1945, thousands of Frankfurters were killed by the Nazis. By 2018, a stumbling block had been set for more than 170 of them .
SBZ / GDR
As early as May 1945, the connection to Dammvorstadt was re-established by a temporary bridge . According to the Potsdam Agreement , Frankfurt (Oder) - Ffo for short - became a border town. The Dammvorstadt was separated, completely cleared within two days and placed under Polish administration. This resulted in today's Polish neighboring city of Frankfurt, Słubice . In 1952, the treaty to mark the state border between the GDR and Poland was signed in Frankfurt (after the Görlitz Agreement in 1950). The Federal Republic did not recognize this border until 1970 ( Warsaw Treaty ), and finally only in 1990.
With the dissolution of the states, including Brandenburg , by the GDR, Frankfurt (Oder) became a district town in 1952 . In 1957 the motorway bridge over the Oder was completed. The city center was rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s, largely abandoning the old town plan. Few historical buildings, such as the town hall , have been restored. In the 1970s and 1980s, several large new building areas were built using prefabricated panels, including Hansa Nord, Südring and Neuberesinchen .
Peaceful revolution and German unity
On November 1, 1989, 35,000 people responded to the New Forum's call to protest against the SED: The central rally took place on Brunnenplatz, a memorial of which was reminiscent of words from the speech by doctor Karl-Ludwig von Klitzing : “We need a perfect one Democratization, freedom of travel, freedom of speech and the press, equal opportunities, perspectives for each individual, a better education system. And we need effective controls. The peaceful demonstration should announce that we are all here for the turnaround, work on it, support it, and urgently demand it. "
With the restoration of the states still in the GDR in 1990, the city came back to the state of Brandenburg . On July 15, 1991 the official (re) establishment of the European University Viadrina was completed. In September 1994 the last occupation soldier of the Soviet army left the city. In 2001, the larger demolition of houses, mainly prefabricated buildings, from the GDR era began. Up to and including 2005, the city lost 3,500 largely vacant apartments.
Jewish life in the city
From 1294 at the latest, Jews lived in the city. The Jewish cemetery was first mentioned in 1399. In a pogrom in 1491/1492 all Jews were killed. A new synagogue was built in 1561 and the Talmud was first printed in Germany in 1697–1699 .
In 1933 about 800 Jews lived in the city, most of whom had immigrated from Posen and West Prussia after the First World War , because they felt as Germans and did not want to live in Poland. On the night of the pogrom in 1938 , the synagogue was set on fire and burned down. Jewish shops were looted and destroyed, Jewish fathers arrested and deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp . The synagogue building was later used as a storage room and demolished in the 1950s for the construction of living space. A memorial plaque and brass strips embedded in the roadway remind of them.
In 1944 only 62 Jews lived in Frankfurt (Oder) after they were forced to leave the country and were deported to their death. In the Soviet Zone / GDR, Jewish history hardly played a role.
Since 1998, after the immigration of Jews from the areas of the former Soviet Union to Frankfurt (Oder), there has been a Jewish community again, which had more than 240 members in 2017 and has a community center in the Halbe Stadt area , but no synagogue. The new Jewish cemetery was inaugurated on June 27, 2011 in the Südring district of Frankfurt.
The population of Frankfurt (Oder) rose only slowly in the Middle Ages and early modern times and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. The city lost 82% of its inhabitants as a result of the Thirty Years' War . The population fell from 13,000 in 1625 to only 2,366 in 1653. Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did population growth accelerate. In 1816 15,600 people lived in the city, in 1900 there were already 62,000.
The halving of the population from 83,000 in 1939 to 42,000 in December 1945 is due to the effects of the Second World War and the separation of the Dammvorstadt district - today's Polish city of Słubice . In 1980 there were 1,471 births in the city, 766 of them boys, and 80,414 inhabitants, of which 42,241 were women. The population grew by 1,461 people compared to 1979. In 1988 the population of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) reached its historical high of 88,000. During the GDR era, Frankfurt benefited from the fact that the supply and housing situation in the district cities was significantly better than in the other regions. In the meantime, however, the population has fallen sharply again.
On June 30, 2005 the " official population " for Frankfurt (Oder) was 64,429 (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices) according to updates by the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics Brandenburg, on December 31, 2005, according to the same source, only 63,748 inhabitants (30,877 male, 32,871 female). In contrast, according to the city administration, there were 63,210 people on that day. Of these, 30,389 were male and 32,731 were female. 2,488 foreign citizens were registered as having their main residence in the city. Since the turning point and peaceful revolution in the GDR in 1989, the city has lost almost 30 percent of its residents (28,000 people) due to high unemployment and the decline in the birth rate.
Estimates published in 2009 assumed that Frankfurt would lose around 28 to 30 percent of its population by 2025, bringing the population to below 44,000, which would mean more than halving since 1988. A population forecast prepared on behalf of the city (based on data from 2005 to 2008), on the other hand, forecast a more moderate population decline. According to this study, the population should be less than 54,000 in 2020, a little over 51,000 in 2025 and around 48,500 in 2030. In fact, according to statistics from Berlin-Brandenburg, around 58,200 people lived in Frankfurt (Oder) in December 2017.
In January 2006, 46 people were counted as homeless in Frankfurt, in January 2007 there were 49.
|1800||10,453||Civilians, including the three suburbs, of whom 9,611 Protestants, 350 Catholics, 592 Jews (2,110 military personnel)|
|1801||12,522||with the garrison (staff and two battalions of Infantry Regiment No. 24, 1646 active military personnel), including the three suburbs, including 81 French and 96 Jewish families with 592 individuals|
|1840||24,948||Civilians, including the three suburbs, including 23,493 Evangelicals, 807 Catholics, 648 Jews|
|1867||40.994||on December 3rd|
|1871||43.214||on December 1st, of which 40,049 Protestants, 2,281 Catholics, 113 other Christians, 767 Jews, four others|
|1890||55,738||thereof 51,091 Protestants, 3,518 Catholics, 775 Jews|
|1900||61,852||with the garrison (two grenadier regiments No. 8 and No. 12, a field artillery regiment No. 18, a section of field artillery No. 54), including 4,132 Catholics, 747 Jews and 56,575 Evangelicals|
|1910||68,277||including 61,712 Evangelicals, 5350 Catholics|
|1925||70,844||62,520 Protestants, 4949 Catholics, 56 other Christians, 669 Jews|
|1933||75,831||66,766 of them Protestants, 5338 Catholics, six other Christians, 568 Jews|
|1939||76,990||66,216 Protestants, 5931 Catholics, 782 other Christians, 172 Jews|
|1950||52,822||on August 31|
|1955||57,200||On the 31st of December|
|1971||62,433||on 1 January|
|1975||72.213||On the 31st of December|
|1981||81.009||On the 31st of December|
|1985||87,863||On the 31st of December|
|1990||86,200||on Octoder 3rd|
Mayor and Lord Mayor
René Wilke has been Lord Mayor of Frankfurt (Oder) since May 2018 . His choice was made by the list connection Frankfurt goes better , which was made up of the district associations of the party Die Linke and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , as well as politically independent individuals. Mayor and 1st alderman is Claus Junghanns ( CDU ).
Mayor before 1808 (incomplete)
- Perzko Leve
- Friedrich Belckow the Elder
- Johann Beyer
- Hencze Jesar, also Heinrich Jesar
- Johann Renner
- Ellias Bellin
- Petrus Svevus
- Siegmund Schaum, also Siegmund Schum
- Egbert foam
- Hieronymus Jobst, d. 1540, grandfather of Wolfgang Jobst
- Laurentius Schreck, d. 1541
- Caspar Wiederstat, died July 25, 1561
- Petrus Petersdorf
- Christoph Wins, died June 20, 1553
- Joachim von Blankenfelde (1529–1612)
- Albrecht Wins, died July 16, 1583
- Thomas Riebe, died January 26, 1559
- Michael Bolfras, mayor for 28 years, died July 8, 1577
- Adam Bolfras, (1585–1577), died June 1596, judge, son of Michael Bolfras
- Georgius Reinhard (1577–1584), died in early December 1599
- Benediktus Stymmel (1584–1594), b. 1522, d. July 1602
- Samuel Praetorius (1594–1597), died October 2, 1605
- Christian Prüfer (1597–1601), died August 8, 1607
- Johann Heber (1601–1604), died at the end of May 1613
- Friedrich Schaum (1604-1606), died November 23, 1615
- David Reinhard (1606–1609), died at the end of February 1630
- Sixtus Sandreuter (1609–1613), d. 1624
- Samuel Krüger (1613-1616), died April 3, 1631
- Hieronymus Müller (1616–1625), b. November 11, 1577, d. November 11, 1634
- Johannes Thyme (1625-1630), died February 22, 1630
- Samuel Gerstman (1630–1631), died October 5, 1652, son of Sebastian Gerstmann
- Friedrich Meurer (1631–1633), died March 14, 1649, also Franz Meurer, Friedrich von Drossen
- Ægidius Gastmeister (1633–1635), d. 1638
- Georgius Müller (1635–1638), b. in the Lubusz suburb, died November 15, 1645
- Sigismundus Sandreuter (1638–1644), died March 22, 1642, son of Sixtus Sandreuter
- Michael Kretschmar (1644–1650), b. 1600, d. 1681
- Henning Thieß (1650-1651), b. in Frankfurt (Oder), died February 25, 1658
- Melchior Hoffmann von Greiffenpfeil (1651–1652), until 1654 Melchior Hofman, b. 1596, d. May 9, 1659
- Hieronymus Müller (January 22, 1622– January 23, 1622), died January 23, 1622
- Johann Wanser (1657–1660), died September 3, 1676
- Joachimus Decher (1660–1660), died June 24, 1667, first mayor of the Reformed religion
- Adam Selle (1660–), died December 28, 1663
- Sigmund Schultze (1666–1668), died May 27, 1678
- Daniel Booes (1668–1671), b. in Bremen, died July 25, 1676
- Jonathan le Clerq (1671–1677), b. in Koethen, d. August 1692
- Marcus Stubbe (1677–1679), died March 17, 1678
- Cölestin Hoffmann von Greifenpfeil (1679–1679)
- Johann Jacob Thiele (1679–1682), died January 4, 1700
- Tido Heinrich von der Lith (1682–1688), b. 1646 in Bremen, d. 1698
- Erdman Bartholdi (1688-1692), April 6, 1696
- Melchior Genge (1692-1696), b. in Lobesentz , d. April 18, 1696
- Jeremias Schrei (1696–), died September 28, 1699
- Johann Samuel Ungnad (1751–1779), b. 1710, d. 1779
- Paul Heinrich Trummer (1779–1808)
Lord Mayor from 1808
- Johann Heinrich Freytag (1808–1809)
- Friedrich Gottlieb Krüger (1809–1810)
- Karl Heinrich Endell (1810-1816)
- Johann Gottlieb Lehmann (1816–1837)
- Julius Eduard Ludwig Gensichen (1838–1850)
- Theodor Spilling (1850-1852)
- Alfred Friedrich Ludwig Albert Piper (1852–1864)
- Friedrich Dagobert Deetz (1864–1871)
- Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm von Kemnitz (1871-1894)
- Paul Adolph (1894-1903)
- Georg Richter (1903-1917)
- Paul Trautmann (1917–1925)
- Gustav Adolf Hugo Max Kinne (1925–1933)
- Martin Albrecht ( NSDAP ) (1933–1943)
- Gero Friedrich (1943)
- Viktor von Podbielski (NSDAP) (1943–1945)
- Ernst Ruge ( SPD ) (1945–1946)
- Oskar Wegener ( SED ) (1946–1948)
- Willy Jentsch (SED) (1949–1950)
- Erwin Hinze (SED) (1950–1955)
- Else Noack (SED) (1955-1960)
- Lucie Hein (SED) (1960–1965)
- Wolfgang Klaus (SED) (1965)
- Fritz Krause (SED) (1965–1990)
- Bernhard Wündisch (SED) (1990)
- Wolfgang Denda (SPD) (1990–1992)
- Wolfgang Pohl ( New Forum , SPD) (1992–2002)
- Martin Patzelt ( CDU ) (2002-2010)
- Martin Wilke (independent) (2010-2018)
- René Wilke ( Die Linke ), since May 2018
coat of arms
The coat of arms was approved on September 3, 1992.
Official blazon : “A gold-armored red cock standing upright in silver on a green mountain in the cloverleaf arch of an open, red gate building separated by two hexagonal towers; above it hovers a silver shield with a red eagle; On the roofs of the side towers, with their golden knobs, there is a turned away, stubborn golden bird; the broad central tower is provided with a golden cross at each corner. "
Correct blazon: “In silver on a green arched foot, a standing, gold-armored, red rooster under the cloverleaf arch of one of two growing, hexagonal, tinned, red towers with gold-studded roofs, on each of which a golden bird, the one on the left turned away, removed open, red gates with a growing, wide red central tower with gold-crossed gable roofs, carrying a silver shield with a red eagle in the middle. "
The seal from 1294, the oldest preserved, shows the city's coat of arms in its present form. It shows a red rooster with a red crest, golden feet and a beak. It is a talking coat of arms : gallus is the Latin word for cock, but the galli are the Franks ("Gauls") in medieval Latin.
The flag of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) shows three stripes in the colors red-green-silver (white) with the city coat of arms covering the central stripe.
Frankfurt (Oder) maintains the following cities partnerships :
- Gorzów Wielkopolski ( Landsberg an der Warthe ), Poland, since 1975
- Słubice , Poland, since 1975
- Nîmes , France, since 1976
- Vantaa , Finland, since 1987
- Heilbronn , Germany, since 1988
- Vitebsk , Belarus, since 1991
- Tzoran-Kadima , Israel, since 1997
- Yuma, Arizona , USA, since 1997
- Wraza , Bulgaria, since 2009
There is also a partnership with Powiat Słubicki (Poland), which lies to the east .
Since the devastating flood disaster in Southeast Asia in December 2004, Frankfurt has had a close sponsorship with the coastal city of Weligama in Sri Lanka . At that time, Frankfurt DLRG members headed by chairman Sven Oberländer traveled to Sri Lanka to help care for the victims of the tsunami. Back in Germany, the experience reports of the rescuers ensured solidarity between the city and the coastal town of Weligama. Help could be given in the form of the purchase of essential objects such as mattresses, cooking utensils and other things. The contact to those responsible, those affected and helpers on site was particularly important in order to obtain information for long-term help. During the flood disaster, a temple was destroyed, the reconstruction of which was financed by the city of Frankfurt (Oder). Donations were not only provided from the city's bank account, but also from the population of Frankfurt. The Frankfurter water and wastewater GmbH learned of the devastating conditions of sanitation and sent in May 2005 experts to Sri Lanka; this project was co- funded by the Lions club . The project to build a reference village was brought to the city of Frankfurt . The Solidarity Service International e. V. (SODI), Target Agriculture pvt ltd Weligama , the Agrobodi Temple Weligama , the city of Frankfurt, Słubice and the Arcelor Eisenhüttenstadt steelworks . It is an eco-village with the possibility of agricultural use.
- District Court Frankfurt (Oder)
- Labor Court Frankfurt (Oder)
- District Court Frankfurt (Oder)
- Social Court Frankfurt (Oder)
- Administrative Court Frankfurt (Oder)
- Federal Police Inspection Frankfurt (Oder)
- Police Directorate East, based in Frankfurt (Oder), The Police Directorate cooperates with the Polish police. As part of the cooperation, patrols will be completed jointly by one Polish and one German police officer.
- Federal Office for Central Services and Unresolved Property Issues Office Frankfurt (Oder)
- Main customs office Frankfurt (Oder) - The office has 1,015 employees (2005) and in 2005 received 6 million euros in customs revenues and an additional 1.5 million euros in tobacco tax.
- State Insurance Institution Brandenburg (Head Office)
On July 1, 1865, a paid fire brigade was founded and a tower guard was hired for a wage of 500 thalers and free living . On April 1, 1880, the “Association of Fire Brigades and Street Cleaning” increased the number of vehicles available. In 1882 a telegraph system equipped with 34 fire alarms was put into operation. In 1899 the city joined the Association of German Professional Fire Brigades , making it one of the first cities in Germany. On February 25, 1909, the manpower was increased by 14 to 24, and the fire brigade was now called the Frankfurt an der Oder professional fire brigade . The salary was 80 marks or 110 for the chief fire fighter. An 18 m long turntable ladder , three water trucks and five pressure syringes were part of the equipment of the fire brigade. In 1823 part of the former parade yard of the 8th Leib Grenadier Regiment was handed over to the fire brigade. The first engine sprayer was purchased by Adam Opel Rüsselsheim in 1917 . To support the professional fire brigade , a volunteer fire brigade was founded in 1934 and the fire brigade was renamed the fire fighting police. During the final days of World War II , the fire department building was destroyed and they moved to the trade and trade school. In 1950 the fire brigade was subordinated to the People's Police . In 1962 a diving group began to be set up. In the spring of 1968 the new fire station in Heinrich-Hildebrand-Straße was moved into after a two-year construction period. The equipment included eleven emergency vehicles. The first fire engine for Frankfurt with the type designation LF 16 , which was based on a W 50 chassis, was handed over to the city. On December 3, 1990, the police handed over the management of the fire brigade to the city. On June 1 of the following year, the fire brigade introduced the three-shift system . Helmut Otto has been Head of the Office for Fire, Disaster Protection and Rescue Services since 1990 . The Oderland regional control center has been in operation since June 1, 2006 and is located in the disaster control center in Frankfurt (Oder). She arranges emergency rescue , fire protection and technical assistance as well as patient transport and the on-call medical service in the independent city of Frankfurt (Oder), the Oder-Spree district and the Märkisch-Oderland district. In 2009, the complete renovation of the main building, which was occupied in 1968, began. In 2012, the entire area of the guard was finally completed. The city of Frankfurt (Oder) operates a professional fire department and eight volunteer fire departments. As a civil defense, the siren network is rehearsed every first Wednesday of the month at 6:00 p.m.
- European University Viadrina with the Collegium Polonicum
- City and Regional Library Frankfurt (Oder)
- Kunst & KulturWagen ( caravan used as a public bookshelf in the courtyard of the European University Viadrina )
- Adult Education Center Frankfurt (Oder)
- Music School Frankfurt (Oder)
- Schools in Frankfurt (Oder)
In 1993 there were 72 day care centers. In 2011 there were 38 day-care centers run by 21 independent organizations, 7 day-care centers and three playgroups with pedagogical support. Five of the daycare centers were integrative . In 2000, the first German-Polish kindergarten in Frankfurt opened with the Eurokita .
Frankfurt (Oder) is a center of sport in the state of Brandenburg . In addition to the Olympic base , the Bundeswehr sports promotion group and the sports school , more than 10,000 members practice top and popular sports in the 13 state training centers and the 83 sports clubs that are part of the City Sports Association . The Frankfurter Sportunion 90, which unites a third of all sports enthusiasts in the city, especially top athletes, plays an outstanding role in club sport. The city has two stadiums, the Stadium of Friendship and the Fritz Lesch Stadium, with a total of around 5,000 seats and 12,000 standing places (2014). There are also 14 large field places.
Hermann Weingärtner from Frankfurt (Oder) won three gold medals in gymnastics at the 1st Olympic Games in Athens in 1896 . As the center of boxing , the Oderstadt became world-famous thanks to the professional boxing world champion and today's honorary citizen of the city Henry Maske, as well as the professional boxer Axel Schulz . The most successful representative of the traditional wrestling center is today's national coach Maik Bullmann , Olympic champion in 1992 and three-time world champion. The women of the Frankfurt Handball Club became German champions in 2004 . The Frankfurt sports shooter, Manfred Kurzer , Schützengilde Frankfurt ad Oder 1406, was Olympic champion in 2004 in Athens in the discipline running target. The most important football club is in the season 2018/2019 in the Brandenburg-league playing 1. FC Frankfurt .
Leisure / recreation
The people of Frankfurt find relaxation in the Wildlife Park Frankfurt (Oder) , at the Helenesee or one of the other lakes in the city and the surrounding area, in the city's parks , in the city forests or in the oak forest.
Culture and sights
- The Kleist Forum was founded on March 30, 2001. The house with its impressive architecture offers a wide-ranging program that ranges from classical operas and operettas to drama , from jazz concerts, international festivals such as the German-Polish music festivals, children's and school theater to readings, discussion forums and variety events. It is the annual co-organizer of the Kleist Festival. The Kleist Forum is also the venue for meetings and congresses.
- The CPE Bach concert hall is a former Franciscan church from the 13th century. A variety of events take place throughout the year, such as the German-Polish Music Festival on the Oder , music series and subscriptions in classical and entertaining genres, organ concerts, tours, guided tours and exhibitions.
- The German-Polish theater festival Unithea is a theater festival conceived and organized by students from Viadrina University , which has been taking place in the cities of Frankfurt (Oder) and Słubice for over 15 years .
- The Oderhähne , a satirical theater and cabaret , developed from the Lach after-work brigade , which was founded in 1976, at the Kleist Theater in Frankfurt. The Oderhähne has been a non-profit association since 1991 . More than 200 times a year they step around in fat and food bowls that politics and society are only too willing to present to them. Court jesters are up to mischief in the lovingly and lavishly renovated town hall cellar.
- The Theater des Lachens emerged from the Frankfurt (Oder) State Puppet Theater, which was founded in 1975 . In 1992 the theater of the former puppet theater, which had been made available for use by the municipality, was taken over by players and employees. They founded the Kleine Theater, Puppen- und Schauspiel e. V. With productions such as Danton's death , the puppet theater with the then artistic director Astrid Griesbach also became known beyond the city limits. When it moved to Ziegelstrasse 31 in 1996, the only professional puppet theater in Brandenburg is now called Theater des Lachens .
- Theater Frankfurt - Das Theater im Schuppen e. V. was founded in 1990. Since 1995 it has run its own house, which consists of a stage room, a foyer and numerous training and rehearsal rooms and was located in the Gerstenberger Höfe on Ziegelstrasse. Since October 2006, state-recognized actors have been trained in the "Theater School for Body & Education Frankfurt (Oder)". In 2011 the theater and the drama school moved to their new domicile, Sophienstrasse 1.
- The Modern Theater Oderland (MTO) has its premises in Ziegelstraße 28a in the Gerstenberger Höfe. Own and third-party productions will be shown. Concerts are also part of the program.
The sports museum in the city center was handed over to the mayor on July 11, 2003 on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of the Oderstadt. Frankfurt's sports history is documented between many pictures, trophies and memorabilia. The sports history association Frankfurt (Oder) e. V. does not only want to awaken memories, but also encourage young people to do their own sport.
The Kleist Museum was established in 1969 in the building of the former garrison school. The permanent exhibition comprises four rooms. The approximately 250 documents give an overview of Kleist's life and work. With around 34,000 inventory units, including around 10,000 volumes of special literature on Kleist and its literary-historical environment, the house has what is currently the most extensive Kleist collection. The museum's work profile is based on a coordinated interplay of collections. Exhibition, research, publication and event activities. Public relations work includes temporary exhibitions, readings and lectures. The annual costs are 500,000 euros. The museum generated € 50,000 from admission fees and donations, 50% of the remaining amount was borne by the federal government, 35% by the state of Brandenburg and 15% by the city.
The Museum Junge Kunst exhibits one of the most important collections of art from Eastern Germany in two buildings, the town hall with the town hall and the Gothic ballroom and in the Museum's PackHof on C.-Ph.-E.-Bach-Straße. The museum owns over 11,000 works of painting, hand drawings and watercolors, prints, sculptures and Polish graphics.
The Viadrina Museum is the cultural and historical museum for the city of Frankfurt. It is located in the Junkerhaus , in a valuable, supraregional, baroque monument. It is one of the few buildings in the city center that was spared from destruction at the end of the Second World War. Its architecture and history are of particular importance for Frankfurt and the state of Brandenburg. The building with its valuable original stucco ceilings from the end of the 17th century was the electoral or royal residence of the Hohenzollern , i.e. the city palace of Frankfurt. After more than 15 years of construction, it has been fully open since October 4, 2003 with a new permanent exhibition. It offers the opportunity to deal with various topics of the city and regional history.
The Verbündungshaus fforst eV is a non-profit and self-managed housing project that is located in the heart of Europe and is initiated by students intercultural coexistence as well as for the implementation of ideas through projects and events. The association, founded in 2006, is supported by the European University Viadrina and rents its premises from the Frankfurt (Oder) housing industry (WoWi) at a symbolic price. Both the university and WoWi are - among others - cooperation partners in many areas. There is a public event location on the ground floor of the clubhouse, where international evenings, concerts, readings, plays and film premieres take place. In addition, the association members live in shared apartments for two to four people in 13 tenants. The residents volunteer to organize and run the events and to maintain the project.
Medieval city churches
The St. Marien Church is the former main parish church in Frankfurt. In 1253 the original building in the form of the north German brick Gothic began. In 1945 it was only a ruin due to the effects of the war. Reconstructions have been taking place since 1979. Since the 1990s it has been converted into the socio-cultural center of St. Marien. In 2002 Russia returned 111 medieval leaded glass window panels.
The Franciscan monastery church on Untermarkt, built at the end of the 13th century, has housed the “Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach” concert hall since 1969 .
The Friedenskirche on Untermarkt is originally the oldest stone building in the city. It already existed when the city was founded in 1253 as St. Nikolai Church, but with the consecration of St. Mary's Church at the beginning of the 14th century it was no longer the main church in the city. After the services were relocated to the Franciscan monastery church in the middle of the 16th century, the Nikolaikirche was temporarily used as a granary, hay barn, powder magazine and to accommodate the sick and prisoners. Services of the Reformed Congregation have been held in the building since the mid-17th century. The church, which was largely undamaged after the Second World War, was repaired at the beginning of the 1990s to such an extent that it was preserved. The Friedenskirche is being converted into the “Ecumenical Europe Center” with the help of funding.
The Sankt-Gertraud-Kirche is a three-aisled neo-Gothic brick building, which was built in 1874 about 200 m south of the previous building, a chapel of the dressmakers built in 1368. Around 1930 architectural jewelry was extensively removed. During a renovation from 1978 to 1980, a false ceiling was installed in the choir room at the level of the former galleries. Office and community rooms were created in the lower part. Since 1980 there has been a high altar, seven-armed chandelier, bronze baptism and numerous epitaphs from the Marienkirche in the Sankt-Gertraud-Kirche .
The Protestant St. George Church was built from 1926–1928. The round church was executed in the expressionist style as a reinforced concrete structure and clad with brick. Its predecessor, built at the beginning of the 14th century, was demolished in 1926 due to its dilapidation.
The Heilandskapelle in the homecoming settlement was built during the First World War 1915/16 by prisoners of war members of the Tsarist Russian army. It served Catholics, Protestants, Gospel Christians, Russian Orthodox and Jews separately as a place of worship. The building was also used by prisoners and guards as a reading room and for theater and other cultural performances.
Other places of worship in Frankfurt are the New Apostolic Church, the Catholic Apostolic Church, a chapel in Wichernheim and a chapel in Lutherstift .
The village church in Boossen was built around 1250 as a fortified church. Destroyed down to the surrounding walls in the Thirty Years War, it was rebuilt in 1671 in the Renaissance style. In 1961 the church was completely redesigned.
The Kliestower village church was built around 1300 as a rectangular field stone building. The tower was built at the end of the 15th / beginning of the 16th century.
The village church in Lossow is mentioned for the first time in the Lebuser Abbey Register in 1405. Due to dilapidation, a new church was built in 1741–1748. At the end of World War II, the church burned down. After securing work, the church ruins are accessible.
The neo-baroque village church in Rosengarten was consecrated in 1903.
The core of the church in Lichtenberg is an early Gothic field stone building. The nave dates from the second half of the 13th and first half of the 14th century. Around 1700 the church was redesigned in Baroque style. In the last days of the Second World War in 1945, the church was destroyed. In 1950 the roof structure collapsed. The community of Lichtenberg has been trying to rebuild since 2001. The bell tower, rebuilt in 2015, was completely covered in 2018. At the end of 2018, he received a bell that comes from the Cottbus Castle Church , which was rededicated as a synagogue in 2014 .
The tower of the church in Hohenwalde , consecrated in 1607, was rebuilt in 1784. Inside there is a richly designed Renaissance altar.
The village church in Güldendorf was built from field stones in the second half of the 13th century in the early Gothic style. The church tower was built in the 15th century and rebuilt in 1773. After a lightning strike in June 1945, ammunition stored there from the Second World War burned down with explosions. In 1951/1952 the church got a new roof.
The town hall was built as a two-storey department store with council chamber and court arbor after 1253. Between 1607 and 1609 it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, and between 1911 and 1913 it was expanded according to plans by the architect Fritz Beyer . At the end of the Second World War in 1945 it was badly damaged. In October 1949, a lottery called Rettet das Rathaus was started in order to obtain the necessary financial resources. In March 1950 the decision was made to rebuild, and on June 22, 1953 the topping-out ceremony for the second construction phase followed. In 1977/78 the entrance was moved from the east to the south side as part of a modernization.
The city's oldest town houses are located at Grosse Oderstrasse 42 with the Löwenapotheke and the adjoining residential buildings, Forststrasse. 1 and 2 . At its core, it is a solid medieval structure. The buildings were rebuilt several times and the facades changed. Today a classical design dominates.
- Today's forest road, formerly Wortsgasse , was an elongated merchant's house in the 16th century, which was the property of Merten Knobloch , a merchant, chamberlain and councilor. In 1881 the Klosterkeller restaurant was set up in the basement of the house .
- The Große Oderstr. 42 originally consisted of two houses, but this was only rediscovered during the renovation work in 1972–1974. Around 1650 the house belonged to Tido Heinrich, a professor of philosophy at the Viadrina University. This merged the two buildings into one and raised the building by one floor. The roof of the building was destroyed in a fire in 1742 and then replaced by the current one. The northern house did not originally have a basement, so it was probably not a merchant's house.
The gasometer still preserved today in the Frankfurt (Oder) gas works was built in 1855 and used for about 100 years. The current owner, Stadtwerke, no longer uses the listed building. In 2005 the telescopic gas container was removed and scrapped. Up to this point in time it was the oldest of its kind in Germany.
The parade hall at Logenstrasse 15 (from 1953 to 1992 Wilhelm-Pieck-Strasse, in front of it Litzmannstrasse) was built in 1879–1882. It used to belong to the barracks complex of the Frankfurt Leib Grenadier Regiment "King Friedrich Wilhelm III." (1st Brandenburg) No. 8 . In 1940 a public kitchen was opened in it with a dining room for 150 people and a daily capacity of 1,200 meals. Originally it was significantly longer, but after 1945 it was shortened to around a third. Even after the war, the building was opened as a kitchen, for example there was school food for the Rosa Luxemburg School. After the fall of the Wall in 1990, a cheap market for various household goods was temporarily rented there. Today the building is plastered and painted several times, so it no longer shows its historical facade.
The double rectory in the late Baroque style now houses the Frankfurt (Oder) city archive . The building is also called the College House; but the actual college building was the main building of the university, which was demolished after the war. The former rectory was built between 1739 and 1742 according to plans by the building director Christoph Gottlieb Hedemann . In 1967 the building was reconstructed.
The Renaissance Bolfrashaus , which was destroyed in World War II , was reconstructed in 2012.
The former Ferdinandshof brewery , which has been used several times , has been renovated since 2017 and should be completed in 2019.
The peace bell (Frankfurt (Oder)) was donated by the CDU of the GDR for the 6th party congress on January 27, 1953 in memory of the signing of the Oder-Neisse peace treaty . It is thus a symbol of friendship for German-Polish relations. It is traditionally rung on September 1st on World Day of Peace .
At the edge of the Lennépark is the relief wall History of the Old University . The roughly ten meter long sandstone wall was created by Walter Kreisel in the 1980s . The city had commissioned the artist, but it took four years from the first draft to completion. The wall shows portraits of old professors, and the modeled portal of the old university is in the wall. The portal is located on the site of the former college building , which was demolished in 1962.
Not far from the train station is the railway monument . It commemorates the fallen railroad workers of the First World War and the following borderland battles. The decision to collect donations for the memorial was unanimously adopted by the district association of railway workers in 1931. The design comes from the Reichsbahnrat and architect Wilhelm Beringer, the execution was carried out by the sculptor Georg Fürstenberg . The three steles symbolize the administrative districts of Poznan , West Prussia and Danzig , and the common base symbolizes the union in the Eastern Railway Directorate . The inauguration took place on July 3, 1932.
A memorial to the victims of fascism is located on Rosa-Luxemburg-Strasse.
The memorial for the fallen Soviet soldiers of the Second World War is located in Der Anger Park south of the St. Gertraud Church. The Russian inscription read there means: Eternal memory of the soldiers of the Soviet Army who sacrificed their lives for the freedom and independence of the Soviet Union . Another inscription on the back says: Our deed is just - we have won .
There is a memorial stone for Albrecht Zehme at the Thomas-Müntzer-Hof . The teacher Albrecht Zehme (* 1828; † 1880) took an active part in the March Fights in Berlin in 1848 , was vice-rector of the secondary school from 1865 and later chairman of the city council.
The Karl-Marx-Monument is located on Karl-Marx-Strasse on the edge of Lennépark. The bust was created by Fritz Cremer . The memorial with the chiseled slogan Theory became material violence was inaugurated on May 5, 1968 on the 100th birthday of Marx.
A commemorative plaque was inaugurated on Robert-Havemann-Strasse in spring 1990 for the Stasi victims . The ground-level slab is now in front of the former State Security District Administration.
Not far from the Eduardspring forestry there is a monument to Richard Burmeister . He was probably shot and seriously injured by a poacher on the night of March 3 to 4, 1920 . On May 17, 1920, he died in hospital from his injuries. Despite a promised reward of 3,000 marks, the perpetrator was never caught. On May 17, 1924, the memorial stone with the marble plaque was inaugurated. In her memory of the dutiful city forester Richard Burmeister is a victim of cowardly deceit * 30. Jullo 1865 † May 17, 1920 .
The Ernst Thälmann Memorial is located on the edge of the Kleist Park on Fürstenwalder Straße. The memorial was inaugurated on April 15, 1986 for the 100th birthday of Thälmann . The Thälmann bust was created by the sculptor Walter Kreisel . In November 2019 the bust was dismantled from the base and stolen. Behind the memorial is a mausoleum of the Otto Stahl family .
The Memorial for Peace is located on Nuhnenstrasse.
A memorial plaque for Heino Goepel can be found at Marienbad II in Dresdener Strasse. The plate was attached during the renovation of the bath in 1993, but it may have been there before. The ophthalmologist, who lived from 1833 to 1896 and founded social institutions, including the first public bath in Marienbad I , is commemorated.
The memorial and documentation center for victims of political tyranny is located on Collegienstraße, in a former penal institution. Insights into everyday life in prison and the history of the persecution of political opponents in Frankfurt (Oder) and the surrounding area between 1933 and 1989 are provided.
Frankfurt (Oder) has a long history as a military base. Numerous barracks testify to this, including Bülow barracks, Eichhorn barracks, Feldzeugmeister barracks, Hindenburg barracks, Horn barracks, Kleist barracks, Nuhnen barracks and Ziethen barracks.
The Oder is crossed in Frankfurt (Oder) by a city bridge for pedestrians and passenger traffic, a motorway bridge and a railway bridge . A bridge built in 1996 with a span of 68.20 meters and another smaller bridge lead to the island of Ziegenwerder .
Frankfurt (Oder) has over 30 jewelry fountains, of which around 20 have been preserved. The largest fountain was the fountain system on Brunnenplatz, which was popularly known as the "tank barrier". The most famous fountains are the Comic Fountain on Brunnenplatz (2000), the Seven Raven Fountain next to the town hall (2003) and the Alinenbrunnen on Stiftsplatz (1887).
- The Oderturmlauf has been held annually since 2002 . The starting point is on Brunnenplatz, and after about 150 meters the participants begin to climb the 511 steps of the Oder Tower. Markus Rebert from Frankfurt (Oder) holds the record with 2:26 minutes, which he set up in 2009. The winner of the first run on September 22, 2002 was Holm Kunze .
- Since 1965, still under the name Frankfurter Festtage der Musik , there has been the annual music festival on the Oder from 1966 onwards . They were brought into being by the music society "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach", which has been cultivating the musical legacy of the second Bach son for many years.
- Since 2013, the three-week student-organized art festival ART on the border has taken place annually at the end of April / beginning of May, which primarily exhibits works by German and Polish artists from the region and offers various cultural offers in the framework program.
- Every year at the end of May / beginning of June, the theater festival of the European University Viadrina Unithea takes place with young ensembles at various locations.
- The Kleist Festival has been held every October since 1992 . Theater, readings, spectacles, music and pantomime are performed in honor of Heinrich von Kleist.
- The European Festival for Lied - World Music transVOCALE has been taking place in Frankfurt (Oder) and Słubice since 2004 .
- Every year in July, the HanseStadtFest "Bunter Hering" takes place, the title of which is linked to a medieval legend.
- The Little Park Night has been held in Lennépark every August since 2010 .
The Kleist Park (6.9 ha ) in the district of "Upper Town" was created in 1953 on part of the site of the old city cemetery from the 1802nd It has old trees, playgrounds and several memorial and gravestones.
The Lennépark (8.3 ha) in the center of Frankfurt was created between 1834 and 1845 according to plans by Peter Joseph Lenné in place of the old ramparts. The English-style park has very old trees, an artificial waterfall, rivers, ponds and a fountain, sculptures and playgrounds. The second oldest public park in Germany is designated as a garden monument.
The Lienau Park (2.4 hectares) in the center northwest of the Lenné Park goes back to the Frankfurt wine wholesaler and politician Martin Michael Lienau.
The goat werder (14 ha) is designed as a park river island in the Oder.
The botanical garden (4.8 ha) was created in the 1970s to compensate for the soil sealing when the Kleistpark was reduced in size.
The Anger (4.3 ha) in the Guben suburb was created in 1923/1924 on the former parade ground.
In the park at the St. Gertraud Church (1.9 ha) in the center there are several monuments, including the one for Heinrich von Kleist. The park goes back to parts of the cemetery of the Gertraudengemeinde.
Today the Kleist Forum is located on the square of the unit (1 ha) in the center.
The arboretum (1.6 ha) in Neuberesinchen goes back to a private garden area before the district was built.
The Frankfurt city forest with an area of around 760 hectares is located in the west of the city between Boossen and Rosengarten.
The wildlife park (16.3 ha) was created in 2000 in Rosengarten, at the entrance to the city forest.
The Zehmeplatz (0.24 ha) was originally called Kleiner Wilhelmsplatz.
The Stiftsplatz (0.20 ha) owes its name to Guhr's monastery. In the middle is the listed two-shell limestone aline fountain.
The Republic Square (0.56 ha) was originally called Wilhelmsplatz and was built in place of the leveled city fortifications.
The Oder promenade (3.9 hectares) is the fortified bank of the Oder with bushes, trees, works of art and children's playgrounds, starting in the south at the Kleisthaus and extending to the winter harbor in the north.
The Märkische Naturgarten (15 ha) is a botanical garden in the Frankfurt district of Güldendorf. It was laid out in 1926 at the instigation of the Volksbund Naturschutz on the former grounds of the estate park in a highly structured moraine and inaugurated on May 2, 1926. After it was no longer maintained from 1953, it was reconstructed in 1990.
Economy and research
The city of Frankfurt is a science and research location . With the Leibniz Institute for Innovative Microelectronics , which is a globally recognized research facility in the East Brandenburg Technology Park , companies from the fields of microelectronics and microsystem technology , information and communication technology as well as environmental and energy technology have settled. The business location is one of 15 regional growth centers in the state of Brandenburg. This promotes selected future-oriented industries.
In 2016, Frankfurt generated a gross domestic product of € 1.992 billion within its city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 34,254 per capita (Brandenburg: € 26,887, Germany € 38,180) and was thus below the national average. The GDP per labor force was € 53,355. In 2016, around 37,300 people were employed in the city.
In December 2018 the unemployment rate was 8.1% (August 2013: 14.3%). In April 2007, there were 1,807 people in employment opportunities at the Frankfurt (Oder) Employment Agency . That was 669 fewer than the year before. The economically tense situation also affected the youth. In 2005, 30.2% of all children and young people in the city lived on social assistance. That was the second highest number in Brandenburg .
In September 2009, it was forecast that the city's debts are expected to decrease by 16–18 million euros by the end of 2009 to a total of around 70 million euros. Due to the successful settlement policy, trade tax revenues have increased significantly.
Important resident companies are:
- Frankfurter Brauhaus GmbH
- Klinikum Frankfurt (Oder), belongs to the Rhön-Klinikum AG
- Sparkasse Oder-Spree
- Yamaichi Electronics
In Frankfurt, the Märkische Oderzeitung is published as the daily regional newspaper with a total sold circulation of almost 100,000 copies ( IVW ). The advertising papers are Märkischer Markt (total circulation according to BVDA around 315,000), Märkischer Sonntag (total circulation according to BVDA around 315,000), BlickPunkt Frankfurt (Oder) (local edition circulation according to BVDA 54,000) and Der Oderland-Spiegel (total circulation around 90,000 according to the publisher's information). The rbb operates a regional studio in the city center, in which radio and television programs are produced. The private regional television broadcaster , Frankfurter Fernsehen , reaches more than 35,000 households in and around Frankfurt (Oder) via the local cable networks (FAKS, Kabel Deutschland GmbH).
- Axa Assistance
- D + S Europe
- Walter Services
- Deutsche Telekom Customer Service GmbH (DTKS)
- call24 Telemarketing GmbH
- CommuniGate Kommunikationsservice GmbH
In Frankfurt, 60 traffic lights control the traffic, 51 of which are connected to the traffic control system. The streets with the most traffic are Leipziger Strasse . and Kieler Strasse. The road network covers around 300 kilometers.
In the south of Frankfurt, the A 12 federal motorway (part of the E 30 European route ) crosses the border to Poland and becomes the A 2 autostrada . Frankfurt is located in the catchment area of the federal highways B 5 , B 87 , B 112 and B 112n .
Urban public transport is used by trams and buses . The operator of the tram and bus routes is Stadtverkehrsgesellschaft mbH Frankfurt (Oder). On February 3, 2005 , the city council passed a narrow majority to expand the tram network across the border river Oder to Słubice . In a public poll on January 22, 2006, around 83% of all participating voters voted against this tram project to Słubice. As a result, the city council of Frankfurt (Oder) decided in February 2006 to repeal the resolution of February 3, 2005. On December 9, 2012, the 983 bus line started between Frankfurt and Słubice. In February 2013 it was the third most heavily used bus route operated by the Frankfurt City Transport Company (SVF).
- RE 1: Magdeburg - Brandenburg - Potsdam - Berlin - Frankfurt - Eisenhüttenstadt - Cottbus
- RB 11: Frankfurt - Eisenhüttenstadt - Cottbus (serves more stations on this route than RE 1)
- RB 36: Frankfurt - Müllrose - Beeskow - Wendisch Rietz - Königs Wusterhausen
- RB 60: Frankfurt - Seelow - Wriezen - Bad Freienwalde - Eberswalde
- RB 91: Frankfurt - Rzepin - Zielona Góra
Frankfurt also has other train stations .
Many international passenger trains travel on the Frankfurt (Oder) –Poznań line to Poznań and on to Warsaw and Moscow, including the EuroCity line Berlin-Warszawa-Express . The regional train connection to Zielona Góra uses the same section to Rzepin . This makes Frankfurt (Oder) the most important German rail border crossing to Poland, through which around half of all border crossings between Germany and Poland take place.
Stadtverkehrsgesellschaft mbH Frankfurt (Oder) (SVF), along with the Hanover region and BVG, is one of the three winners in the nationwide pilot project Ambitious environmental standards in the public transport competition of the BMU . The concept of the SVF consisted of the complete new acquisition of the bus fleet with switch to natural gas drive. In September 2002 the first diesel buses were taken out of service. Since 2002 drive eleven MAN - solo buses and since 2003 eleven articulated buses powered by natural gas through Frankfurt. The emissions standard EEV (enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle) is satisfied.
Brewery for bats
In the center of Frankfurt there is winter quarters for around 2,000 bats. The greater mouse-eared mouse-ear can be found here among more than 30 species . The district is located in the brewery, which was closed in 1950, and has an area of 0.92 hectares. In addition, there is a 40-meter-wide barrier strip that is not allowed to be built on. In 1987 around 150 animals wintered in the building. In 1994 the population of 1,000 flying mammals was established. In 1997 there were 1,500, 2002 2,200 and 2007 1,837, of which 811 were large mouse-ears . With these figures, the building is one of the largest hibernating roosts for bats in Germany. From the Müritz to the Czech Republic , the animals ringed in Frankfurt have already been discovered. The Euronatur Foundation has owned the site since 2003 . In the same year the area was declared a nature reserve. In 2004 the area was also designated as the FFH area Fledermausquartier Brauereikeller Frankfurt (Oder) with a size of 0.25 ha . In 2006, as part of job creation measures, the site was started to be more friendly, including removing the garbage stored there. In the winter of 2007/2008, 2,023 bats overwintered in the former brewery, including animals such as the rare pond bat , the large and the small bearded bat .
The poet Heinrich von Kleist , the philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten , the officer Erich Hoepner , the military musician Gottfried Piefke and the architect Konrad Wachsmann were born in Frankfurt (Oder) . The composer and organist Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , the natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt and the scholar and statesman Wilhelm von Humboldt , the humanist Ulrich von Hutten , the boxers Henry Maske and Axel Schulz , the pastor and leader in the peasant war Thomas Müntzer , the diplomat, worked here and scholar Martin Opitz , the composer, music theorist and music publisher Michael Praetorius , the officer Hans Joachim von Zieten and the publicist, educator, politician and poet Heinrich Zschokke . The poet Ewald Christian von Kleist and the Prussian general Leopold von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel died in Frankfurt .
The honorary citizenship is the highest honor the city of Frankfurt (Oder). This honors personalities who have committed themselves to the city far beyond normal levels and who have achieved something special for the city. The city council decides on the award on the proposal of the main committee with a two-thirds majority. The granting of honorary citizenship is regulated in the "Statute on the Award for Special Services to the City of Frankfurt (Oder)". The city council can withdraw honors for important reasons. This was done after the end of National Socialism with Karl Litzmann, Wilhelm Kube, Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg. The list of honorary citizens can be viewed on the city archives website.
- No. 1, 1830, August Carl Sembach (* 1758), Judicial Councilor at the City and Regional Court of Frankfurt (Oder)
- No. 2, 1831, Friedrich August Wilhelm von Brause , (* 1769; † 1836), General of the Infantry
- No. 3, 1838, Johann Carl Ferdinand Gerlach († 1851), Counselor at the City and Regional Court of Frankfurt (Oder)
- No. 4, 1841, Johann Carl von Corbin , Lieutenant Colonel, Commander of the 1st Battalion of the 8th Landwehr Regiment
- No. 5, 1844, Friedrich von Wißmann , (* 1772; † 1856), first district president in Frankfurt (Oder)
- No. 6, 1844, Louis Roquette (1768–1855), preacher of the French / German Reformed congregation, teacher
- No. 7, 1849 (?), Johann Friedrichevalu (* 1780 (?); † 1863), director of the City and Regional Court of Frankfurt (Oder)
- No. 8, Karl von Gerlach , (* 1792; † 1863), Privy Higher Government Council
- No. 9, 1852, Friedrich Wilhelm Kurt von Hobe (* 1792; † 1866), Lieutenant General, commander of the 5th Landwehr Brigade
- No. 10, 1853, Anatole Demidoff di San Donato (* 1813; † 1870), Russian envoy
- No. 11, 1854, Christian Wilhelm Spieker (* 1780; † 1858), pastor St. Marien, city school inspector, founder and publisher of the "Frankfurter Patriotischen Wochenblatt"
- No. 12, 1861, Friedrich Ernst Scheller (* 1791; † 1869), Privy Chief Justice, President of the Frankfurt (Oder) Court of Appeal
- No. 13, 1862, Karl Petersen, pharmacist and city councilor
- No. 14, 1866, Wilhelm von Tümpling (* 1809; † 1884), General of the Infantry
- No. 15, 1869, Emanuel Otto Koffka (* 1816; † 1899), judicial councilor, head of the city council
- No. 16, 1871, Wolf Louis Anton Ferdinand von Stülpnagel (* 1813; † 1885), General of the Infantry
- No. 17, 1873, Eduard von Simson (* 1810; † 1899), lawyer, President of the Frankfurt (Oder) Court of Appeal, 1st President of the Imperial Court of Leipzig, President of Parliament
- No. 18, 1882, Gustav Robert von Maltzahn (* 1807; † 1882), lawyer, President of the Frankfurt (Oder) Regional Court
- No. 19, 1895, Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm von Kemnitz (* 1826; † 1900), Lord Mayor
- No. 20, 1903, Paul Adolph (* 1840; † 1914), Lord Mayor
- No. 21, 1916, Alfred von Tirpitz (* 1849; † 1930), Grand Admiral
- No. 22, 1916, Georg Wichura (* 1851; † 1923), General of the Infantry, Commander of the 5th Division.
- No. 23, 1917, Georg Richter (* 1853; † 1925), Lord Mayor
- (No. 24), 1933, revoked in 1990, Karl Litzmann (* 1850; † 1936), General of the Infantry
- (No. 25), 1933, revoked in 1990, Wilhelm Kube , (* 1887; † 1943), President of the Province of Brandenburg, Gauleiter of the NSDAP in Kurmark
- (No. 26), 1933, revoked 1990, Adolf Hitler , (* 1889; † 1945)
- (No. 27), 1933, revoked in 1990, Paul von Hindenburg , (* 1847, † 1934), Field Marshal General, President of the Reich
- No. 24, 1967, Greta Kuckhoff (* 1902 in Frankfurt (Oder), † 1981), member of the Schulze-Boysen-Harnack resistance group, sentenced to death during the Nazi era, then pardoned to 10 years in prison; Active in various responsible positions in the GDR, also personally committed to Frankfurt (Oder)
- No. 25, 1992, Wilhelm Neumann (* 1904; † 1996), civil engineer, head of the construction department, was particularly committed to the preservation of nature and the environment
- No. 26, 1995, Henry Maske (* 1964), boxer, world champion
- No. 27, 1997, Ursula Sellschopp (* 1915; † 1998), doctor
- No. 28, 1999, Hans N. Weiler (* 1934), Rector of the European University Viadrina
in alphabetical order by authors / editors
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Margraviate Nieder-Lausitz in the middle of the 19th century . Volume 3, 1st edition, Brandenburg 1856, pp. 308–333 ( online ).
- Frankfurt an der Oder , encyclopedia entry, in: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition, Volume 6, Leipzig / Vienna 1906, pp. 839-840 ( Zeno.org ).
- Sybille Gramlich: Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany . Monuments in Brandenburg 3 = City of Frankfurt (Oder) . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2002. ISBN 978-3-88462-190-5
- Monika Kilian, Ulrich Knefelkamp (eds.): Frankfurt Oder Słubice. Seven walks through the city's history . Scrîpvaz-Verlag, Berlin 2003. ISBN 3-931278-06-9
- Ulrich Knefelkamp, Siegfried Griesa (ed.): Frankfurt an der Oder 1253–2003 . VWF, Berlin 2003. ISBN 3-89700-367-8
- Jörg Kotterba, Frank Mangelsdorf (ed.): Once and now: Frankfurt (Oder) / Słubice . Märkische Oderzeitung / Culturcon-Medien, Berlin 2010. ISBN 978-3-941092-36-5
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State. 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 98-99, item 7.
- FWG Sachse: History of the city of Frankfurth on the Oder together with topographical-statistical remarks about the same and description of its most excellent peculiarities . Frankfurt a. O. 1830.
- Wolfgang Stribrny, Fritz zapke: Frankfurt / Oder portrait of a bridge city. Westkreuz-Verlag, Berlin 1991. ISBN 3-922131-75-1
- Fritz Timme : The development of Frankfurt on the Oder. In: Zeitschrift für Ostforschung 3rd year (1954), pp. 497-517.
- City map Frankfurt an der Oder 1909 . Reprint of the large-format, multi-colored historical city map. Guben 2005, ISBN 3-935881-24-X
- This is how Frankfurt came into being . 3D animated film by Christoph Neubauer and the Viadrina Museum on the history of the city. Chr. Neubauer Verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-9811593-7-0 .
- List of all Wikipedia articles whose title begins with Frankfurt (Oder)
- List of all the Wikipedia article whose title Frankfurt (Oder) contains
- Official website of the city of Frankfurt (Oder)
- City Archives website
- www.zentrum-ffo.de - Comprehensive information about downtown Frankfurt
- Paul Zalewski on modernREGIONAL over the Große Scharrnstraße - with many historical pictures
- Postcards from Frankfurt (Oder) from 1953 to 1989
- Observations from Frankfurt Oder Słubice. The twin cities from A to Z slubice.de & frankfurt.pl
- Population in the State of Brandenburg according to municipalities, offices and municipalities not subject to official registration on December 31, 2019 (XLSX file; 223 KB) (updated official population figures) ( help on this ).
- The additional name is not part of the official city name. Therefore, until 2013, their use was e.g. B. on entrance signs not permitted (see Joachim Eggers: Now Gerhart Hauptmann could also on town sign. In: Märkische or newspaper . March 3, 2013, accessed on July 3, 2015 . ); (see yet the soon unterbundene attempt was previously made to install such signs : Mathias Hausding municipalities Signs fight. In: Märkische or newspaper . November 8th 2011, accessed on July 3, 2015 . )
- Reinhard E. Fischer : The place names of the states of Brandenburg and Berlin. Age - origin - meaning. be.bra Wissenschaft, Berlin 2005, ISBN 978-3-937233-30-7 , p. 58.
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 6, Leipzig / Vienna 1906, pp. 839-840 ( Zeno.org ).
- Measurement in 2001 by the Institute for Applied Aquatic Ecology GmbH Seddin on behalf of the Brandenburg State Environment Agency
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. August 2, 2005, p. 18.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. 2nd / 3rd October 2006, p. 20.
- Total precipitation, 24 hours, measured values Frankfurt (Oder) from 04.07.2009. In: kachelmannwetter.com. Retrieved March 15, 2019 .
- Mechthild Henneke: Weather extremes in Germany 2009 . In: Südkurier from April 28, 2010.
-  , German Weather Service, on wetterdienst.de
- Annual and Demographic Report of Municipal Statistics 2013. (PDF; 8 MB) Figures, data and facts of the city of Frankfurt (Oder). (No longer available online.) City of Frankfurt (Oder), Der Oberbürgermeister, December 23, 2013, archived from the original on July 24, 2014 ; Retrieved July 24, 2014 .
- Joachim Schneider: high water mark at the royal calibration office . In: Historischer Verein zu Frankfurt / Oder e. V. (Ed.): Communications Frankfurt (Oder) . Volume 2, 1996, pp. 25 .
- Christian Wilhelm Spieker : History of the City of Frankfurt on the Oder. First part: From the founding of the city to the kingdom of the Hohenzollern . Gustav Harnecker & Comp, Frankfurt (Oder) 1853, p. 3–5 ( full text in Google Book Search [accessed August 22, 2015]).
- City Archives Frankfurt (Oder). In: stadtarchiv-ffo.de. City Archives Frankfurt (Oder), accessed on August 30, 2014 .
- Colmar Grünhagen : The hereditary brotherhood between Hohenzollern and Piast dated 1537 , in: Journal for Prussian History and Regional Studies , Volume 5, Berlin 1868, pp. 337-366 ( online ).
- Christopher Clark : Prussia , p. 58
- Johann Georg Krünitz: Economic-Technological Encyclopedia or general system of state, town, house and agriculture and the history of art [...] . Part 57, 2nd edition, Berlin 1981, p. 27.
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind: History of the Neumark Brandenburg . Enslinsche Buchhandlung, Berlin and Küstrin 1848, chap. 6, The Lubusz Circle ( digitized version ).
- Topographical-statistical overview of the administrative district of Frankfurt ad O., Harnecker, 1844, p. XIX
- Ralf-Rüdiger Targiel : Frankfurt's way to independence. Märkische Onlinezeitung, August 26, 2015, accessed on May 5, 2016 .
- Martin Schieck: Ogela. In: Messages from the Historical Association of Frankfurt (Oder) e. V. , 2nd issue 1994, pp. 20-23.
- Reinhard Kusch: Collapse without agony. The end of the SED regime in the Frankfurt an der Oder district . Frankfurter Jahrbuch 1996/97. Frankfurt Oder.
- Reinhard Kusch: Collapse without agony: the end of the SED regime in the Frankfurt (Oder) district, Verlag Die Furt, 1999, p. 90/95 
- Annette Kaminsky, Ruth Gleinig, Foundation for the Reconciliation of the SED Dictatorship: Places of Remembrance: memorials, memorials and museums to the dictatorship in SBZ and GDR, Ch Links Verlag, 2016, pp 190th 
- Reading upwards as a symbol of upright walking , Märkische Oder-Zeitung, September 17, 2009
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. Sept. 12, 2005, p. 11.
- Thomas Gutke: Troop withdrawal 20 years ago. In: moz.de. September 24, 2014, accessed September 20, 2015 .
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 22, 2006, p. 11.
- Racially persecuted (139) - stumbling blocks for Frankfurt (Oder) and Słubice. (No longer available online.) In: stolpersteine-ffo.de. Frank Hühner, archived from the original on January 21, 2016 ; accessed on September 20, 2015 .
- Friedrich Lotter: uprooting and self-assertion. Fate of Frankfurt Jews under Nazi rule in their new homeland . In: Messages from the Historical Association of Frankfurt (Oder) e. V. Band 2 . Frankfurt (Oder) 1996, p. 3 .
- Henning Kraudzun: Jewish cemetery opened in Frankfurt (Oder). In: moz.de. June 27, 2010, accessed September 20, 2015 .
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 17, 2006, p. 11.
- "Facts, data, paths" .
- Thorsten Metzner: Moving around the capital: Demography: Berlin saves Brandenburg. In: Tagesspiegel. February 25, 2009, accessed September 20, 2015 .
- Barbara Genschow (WIMES - Economic Institute): forecasts for the city of Frankfurt (Oder). (PDF) (No longer available online.) City of Frankfurt (Oder). Department for Economy, Urban Development, Building and Environmental Protection, Building Authority. Urban Development Department / Statistics Office, September 2009, p. 10 , formerly in the original ; accessed on September 21, 2015 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Population as of December 31, 2017. Accessed January 8, 2019 .
- Fewer and fewer Frankfurters. (No longer available online.) In: Märkische Oderzeitung. May 29, 2007, archived from the original on December 2, 2007 ; accessed on September 21, 2015 .
- FWG Sachse: History of the city of Frankfurth on the Oder together with topographical-statistical comments about the same and description of its most excellent peculiarities . Frankfurt a. Cit. 1830, p. 239 ( online ).
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Margrave of Lower Lusatia in the middle of the 19th century . Volume 3, 1st edition, Brandenburg 1856, p. 310 ( online ).
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Bratring : Statistical-topographical description of the entire Mark Brandenburg. Volume 2: Containing the Mittelmark and Ukermark. Berlin 1805, p. 283 ( online ).
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The communities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population . Part II: Province of Brandenburg , Berlin 1873, pp. 242–243, No. 7 ( online ).
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- Claus Junghanns / Frankfurt (Oder). Retrieved February 9, 2019 .
- Wolfgang Jobst: Kurtze description of the old laudable Stat Franckfurt on the Oder . Ed .: Johann Christoph Becmann. Jeremias Schrey and Johann Christoph Hartmann, Frankfurt (Oder) 1706, p. 88-90 ( google.de ).
- Coat of arms of the city of Frankfurt (Oder). In: service.brandenburg.de. Retrieved September 21, 2015 .
- town twinning. (No longer available online.) In: frankfurt-oder.de. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016 ; accessed on September 21, 2015 .
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 21, 2006, p. 10.
- Märkische Oderzeitung, March 24, 2006, p. 9.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. 13./14. August 2005, p. 17.
- Dorothee Stacke: Schönbohm: New regional control centers facilitate cross-border coordination of operations. Interior Minister honors the work of the regional control center "Oderland" in Frankfurt (Oder). In: brandenburg.de. December 20, 2007, accessed September 21, 2015 .
- Guide to day care centers and publicly funded child day care in the city of Frankfurt (Oder). (PDF; 1 MB) (No longer available online.) City of Frankfurt (Oder), Der Oberbürgermeister, November 9, 2012, p. 3 , archived from the original on August 8, 2014 ; accessed on August 2, 2014 .
- Eurokita website, May we introduce ourselves? , accessed on Dec. 16, 2009.
- Homepage of the German-Polish theater festival Unithea
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. May 10, 2006, p. 16.
- Christian Wilhelm Spieker : Description and history of the Marien- or Oberkirche in Frankfurt on the Oder - A contribution to the churches. and Reformation history of the Mark Brandenburg. Frankfurt / Oder 1835, digitized online at Archive.org .
- www.oec-ff.de , www.oec-ff.de/oec_002
- Ines Weber-Rath: Double ringing on Christmas Eve. In: moz.de. December 17, 2018, accessed January 4, 2019 .
- Information at the town hall.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. Aug. 30, 2006, p. 16.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 20, 2006, p. 14.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 21, 2006, p. 14.
- Monument topography of the city of Frankfurt (Oder).
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. Sept. 7, 2005, p. 13.
- Märkische Oderzeitung, Sept. 14, 2005, p. 16.
- Information on the building.
- Bernhard Klemm: Frankfurter Denkmalgeschichte - told based on the fates of individual monuments In: Mitteilungen Frankfurt (Oder) Heft 1 1997, Historischer Verein zu Frankfurt (Oder) e. V., pp. 17-18.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. Sept. 20, 2005, p. 15.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. May 8, 2006, p. 11.
- Stumbling blocks map. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 19, 2013 ; Retrieved December 11, 2011 .
- Вечная память воинам советскои армии отдавшим жизнь за свободу и независимость СССР Photo of the inscription .
- Наше дело правое мы победили : photo of the inscription .
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. Sept 20, 2005.
- Bernhard Klemm: Frankfurter Denkmalgeschichte - told based on the fates of individual monuments In: Mitteilungen Frankfurt (Oder) Issue 1 1997, Historischer Verein zu Frankfurt (Oder) e. V.
- Klemm / Höfer, Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. May 17, 2005, p. 15.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. August 16, 2006, p. 17.
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. 16./17. Sept. 2006, p. 18.
- Museum Viadrina .
- MOZ record broken .
- CityInfo Frankfurt Oder ( Memento from April 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- Tourism Association Frankfurt Oder .
- Website of the art festival ART at the border
- Hans-Joachim Dreger, Jürgen Kleeberg: The Lennépark in Frankfurt an der Oder: Wallanlage - Bürgerpark - Gartendenkmal = workbooks of the Brandenburg State Office for Monument Preservation and Archaeological State Museum 30 (2013). ISBN 978-3-88462-349-7
- garden - Güldendorf. In: gueldendorf.de. Retrieved January 23, 2019 .
- Thomas Gutke: Frankfurt's Märkische Schweiz. In: moz.de. August 30, 2016, accessed January 23, 2019 .
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Regional statistical information. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 14, 2019 .
- Regional statistical information. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on September 26, 2013 .
- Federal Employment Agency: The labor market in the district of the Frankfurt (Oder) Employment Agency In: Arbeitsmarktreport reporting month April 2007 ( Memento from September 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF, 1 MB), viewed October 4, 2008.
- Every third child lives on social benefits. In: Märkische Oderzeitung. March 17, 2006.
- Chamberlain expects a million surplus. In: Märkische Oderzeitung. September 7, 2009.
- On March 1, 2006, 13,649 vehicles drove inward and 14,729 out of town
- 13,882 vehicles driving into and out of town (February 28, 2006). Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. March 7, 2006, p. 11.
- Märkische Oderzeitung, After Frost Comes Frustration , Jan. 29, 2009 ( WebCite ( Memento from January 30, 2009 on WebCite )).
- Märkische Oderzeitung, First local public transport to Poland , December 9, 2012
- Slubice bus a big hit in city traffic. In: Märkische Oderzeitung. 20th February 2013.
- see also list of Polish rail border crossings # Poland – Germany
- Märkische Oderzeitung / Frankfurter Stadtbote. November 28, 2006, p. 13.
- Märkische Oderzeitung, Capital of the Bats , January 12, 2008 .
- Märkische Oderzeitung from 13./14. January 2007, p. 13.
- DE3653304 Fledermausquartier Brauereikeller Frankfurt (Oder). Published by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation . Retrieved March 12, 2017.
- Information at the brewery.
- Statutes on the award for special services to the city of Frankfurt (Oder). (PDF; 624 Byte) (No longer available online.) In: frankfurt-oder.de. November 26, 1999, formerly in the original ; accessed on September 20, 2015 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- City Archives Frankfurt (Oder) / FAQ. In: stadtarchiv-ffo.de. Retrieved July 11, 2015 .