Integrative pedagogy generally describes the inclusion of special characteristics, behavior and ways of thinking in the education and training system. In a narrower sense, it describes the integration of disadvantaged students in special education .
In pedagogy, school integration refers tothe inclusion of people with disabilities in the school lessons of non-disabled people. The point is that people with disabilities through direct imitation skills autodidactic teach. This distinguishes the learning method from integrative pedagogy, because there, even non-impaired classmates shouldactively impart learning content and skills to the “physically or mentally disadvantaged”, provided that the integrators are able to acquire such content and skills (e.g. the learning objective “recognize” must never be interpreted as “perceive by sight” if a student is blind).
Discussion of terms
However, there is a wide range of conceptual versions here. In North Rhine-Westphalia at the beginning of the 1980s, the term “ school trial of joint teaching with disabled and non-disabled people ” was coined as part of a school trial for integrative teaching in 80 schools. Since the terminology including pedagogy or inclusive teaching was established internationally , this term has also spread in Germany. Inclusive pedagogy is understood as an approach of living and learning together, in which individual individuals or groups are not defined as specifically disabled.
Goals of integrative education
In the school area, a distinction is made between goal-oriented and goal-different integration. In the case of integration with the same goals, all students strive for the same educational goal; in the case of goal-different integration, an educational goal is adapted to the abilities of a student (e.g. in the case of intellectual disabilities).
An example of integrative pedagogy can be found in the numerous Montessori schools. According to Dr. Maria Montessori called Montessori method is based on open classes as opposed to frontal teaching . In addition to mixed-age upbringing, children with disabilities are also integrated into regular lessons. Through independent learning, the underperforming students benefit from the help of higher performing students, who in turn benefit from the help provided.
According to the findings of learning psychology, learning content remains more firmly anchored in the memory if it is planned and carried out or tried out independently. Face-to-face teaching is less effective for some learning content. At the same time, important social skills of the students are promoted by helping each other to learn.
Institutions for integration
The institutions and forms of organization that work on the integration of the disadvantaged include kindergartens, schools, after-school care centers, independent educational institutions, universities, early intervention, day-care centers and pre-school groups.
For German school-related integration:
- Regular school classes without special educational support (see inclusive pedagogy )
- Regular school classes with an advisory program
- Regular school classes with temporary remedial classes
- Regular school classes with outpatient teachers ( support teacher system )
- Mainstream classes in a school with a resource room
Integration class with a two-teacher system
- with the same catchment area for all students
- with an extended catchment area for disabled students
- Cooperative special school class in a regular school
- Separate special school class in a regular school
- Cooperative special school at a regular school
- Special school with additional non-disabled students ( preventive integration )
- Separate special school
- Open home special school
- Separate home special school
The organizational framework is determined by the respective federal state. According to integrative education, a disadvantaged child is taught together with other children, but receives (additional) special instruction on the basis of a diagnosis from which special educational needs are derived. In inclusive education, on the other hand, all children should be placed in regular school classes and not be separated there, not even in phases . Proponents of inclusion assume that every child makes optimal learning progress if they are never separated from their classmates, and that every trained teacher can optimally support them in joint lessons.
Approaches in other countries
In England, the inclusive perspective has the rank of a central goal dimension in the national curriculum.
- Frank J. Müller (ed.): Looking back ahead - pioneers of inclusion Volume 1: Alfred Sander, Hans Eberwein, Helmut Reiser, Jutta Schöler, Rainer Maikowski, Reimer Kornmann, Ulf Preuss-Lausitz, Ulrike Schildmann and Wolfgang Jantzen, ISBN 3837927725
- Seitz, Simone: Time for inclusive science lessons. Baltmannsweiler 2005.
- Schöler, Jutta. Integrative school - integrative teaching. A guide for parents and teachers. Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1993.
- ↑ Brigitte Schumann : Germany lies across . bildungsklick.de . 4th February 2016.