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Pedagogy (word formation from ancient Greek παιδαγωγικὴ [τέχνη] paidagōgikḗ [téchnē] , German , '[art or craft relating to the] management of a boy' ) and educational science are terms for a scientific discipline that deals mainly with the theory and practice of education and upbringing dealt with by children and young people.

The distinction between the designations is primarily to be viewed historically: According to today's understanding, educational science has the dual role of researching educational contexts as a reflection science, but as an action science also making suggestions on how educational and educational practice can be designed and improved. Her area of ​​responsibility remains vague, as she cooperates on an interdisciplinary basis with numerous related disciplines. This includes cultural , psychological and sociological theories and findings.

The Education, Science concentrates with a holistic view of lifelong education and learning process.

Pedagogy or educational science is also taught as an independent subject in schools, for example in some German federal states at grammar schools and comprehensive schools as a subject in the social sciences area of ​​the upper secondary school level and in a different form and focus in teacher training (more on this: pedagogy lessons ).

Education was in the 1970s in NRW after the reform of vocational education in the field of teachers training a central subject in the training, the subjects content of classical pedagogy, Erziehungswissenschaft- and developmental psychology as well as some content integrated (focus 15) sociology together. The subject no longer exists in this area and in this form.

Word history

The word pedagogy corresponds to the ancient Greek παιδαγωγία paidagōgía , German 'leading a boy, educating, teaching, care' , which goes back to παῖς páis , German ' child ' and ἄγειν ágein , German 'lead, guide' . The sophists ( Protagoras , Gorgias , Hippias von Elis ) with their reflections on παιδεία paideía , German for 'upbringing and teaching the child', marked the beginning of occidental pedagogy. But in ancient Greece the expression παιδαγωγός paidagōgós initially referred to a slave who accompanied the children from the parents' house to school or to the gymnasium and back home, then generally the supervisor or educator of the boys.

The term pedagogy only acquired its current meaning in the second half of the 18th century, when the discipline differentiated itself from philosophy and theology and emancipated it as an independent subject.

In English, pedagogy is usually referred to as Educational Science (s) or Education for short , in French "sciences de l'éducation", Spanish "ciencias de la educación". Anyone who translates education into German has to bear in mind that it usually means training and education . A peculiarity of German becomes apparent in the term education , for which there is no equivalent in other languages. The discussion about education and educational theory is therefore sometimes difficult to convey outside of the German-speaking area.

“Pedagogy” only appears to be used in English and the Romance languages. The words "pedagogy" (English), "pédagogie" (French), "pedagogía" (Spanish) mean more of a practice and not a science. In other languages, however, there is a usage like in German, e.g. B. Dutch “pedagogiek”, Polish “pedagogika”.

Differentiation of the terms pedagogy and educational science (s)

The distinction between the names is not to be viewed exclusively historically. Education is more the traditional concept that in ancient times and the Middle Ages was used or normative religious-with targets combines ( "Christian Education") Education and Education Sciences contrast, a new term that was first used in the 18th century From the 1960s onwards, it was increasingly used to emphasize the scientific character of the discipline.

The terms pedagogy and educational science are used inconsistently in the professional world. Depending on the introductory work, the terms are either understood as synonymous or an attempt is made to justify a separation of the terms. The idea that the term educational science has replaced the term pedagogy is controversially discussed - especially in German-speaking countries . The dispute over the terminology cannot be understood without reference to epistemological considerations, because authors who argue for a definition of the terms mostly refer to “competing epistemological approaches”. When delimiting the terms, a specific method of dealing with questions of upbringing and education should be identified. In this respect, the controversy surrounding the two terms can also be understood as a dispute about a fundamental self-understanding of the discipline.

The term educational science emphasizes the empirical and therefore, from the perspective of positivism, the only scientific approach to the topic. According to this understanding, educational science starts from education as a given fact, which it describes and explains with empirical methods. The purpose of educational science is therefore "not to influence educational action, but [...] to recognize the circumstances." Due to its exclusively empirical method, educational science in this understanding is not able to make statements about the tasks of education, as it were, since, from a logical point of view, one cannot infer from a descriptive judgment to a normative judgment ( Hume's law ). This results in the problem of the question of completeness for this interpretation of the discipline, since the investigation of education would not ignore the question of why education is taking place at all. However, the answer to these questions of meaning cannot be derived from empirical evidence.

The discipline's turn to empirical methods is to be understood as a result of the pressure to make the disciplines scientifically developed through the Enlightenment and the progress of the natural sciences . It is thus closely interwoven with the emancipation of the discipline from practical philosophy , a part of which it has been understood since ancient times. According to Brezinka , the turn to empirical methods can also be interpreted as a development from pedagogy to educational science and thus designates a history of progress. Important historical steps in this development are, for example, Otto Willmann , who, in his Prague lectures in 1876, advocated the thesis that education must be understood as a social science - i.e. empirical science - which, above all, made a distinction from philosophy clear. Emile Durkheim is also worth mentioning in this regard , who in 1911 advocated the need to distinguish between a theoretical social science of education, educational science, and a practical theory for educators. Since then, in addition to the designation of educational science as " social science ", it has also been referred to as "pedagogical real science ".

The term pedagogy is usually used for any kind of preoccupation with upbringing and educational issues. It can therefore be seen as a traditionally adult umbrella term for the discipline. This includes value judgments about goals worth striving for in upbringing and the norms derived therefrom for educational action, as well as suggestions about organizational forms of educational institutions, but also descriptive and explanatory statements about the reality of upbringing.

If pedagogy is used to distinguish it from educational science - i.e. in a special sense - then the humanities-hermeneutic approach to the topic is usually emphasized. In this sense, pedagogy is a discipline that can hardly be separated from practical philosophy due to a common palette of methods, and tries to clarify the task of educational activity and to derive normative conclusions for practice . The pre-scientific pedagogical practice is viewed as the basis, which is analyzed through methodical-critical reflection in order to transform the existing practice in an effective and meaningful way. The use of the term pedagogy thus takes into account, on the one hand, the view that education always implies a double character of facticity and normativity (education as fact and as task). It can not only be a question of clarifying what technical means can be to achieve certain goals in educational practice, but also what goals these should actually have. Here, the view is usually taken that there can be no unencumbered educational reality that could function as the basis of an empirical educational science, since education cannot be fully explored without reference to historical and social conditions and causal relationships.

Trying to show reasons for differentiating the terms can be useful in order to better understand the respective self-image of the discipline, which is expressed in contributions from the professional world. Overall, the delimitation of the two terms can also serve to make it clear that different aspects are constitutive for the discipline. It includes an action-guiding and a descriptive aspect as well as a humanities as well as empirical access to questions relevant to education.

Tasks of pedagogy / educational science

There is no consensus within the discipline about the goals and tasks of pedagogy / educational science. Widespread is z. B. the view that the task of educational science is the scientific observation and analysis of pedagogical reality. Partly scientific-empirical methods (measurements, repeatable experiments), partly hermeneutic methods ( humanities pedagogy ) are used.

Following on from the philosopher Immanuel Kant , another widespread view is that pedagogy (as an action science ) should provide pedagogical practice with knowledge and norms so that it can promote maturity and self-determination ( critical educational science ). In this way, educational science itself becomes a factor that helps to shape educational reality.

The legitimacy of this and any pedagogical practice is disputed in what is known as anti - pedagogy . In times when empirical studies such as PISA dominate scientific and public discussions as well as political decisions, such discourses seem to have no relation to today's society.

According to Dieter Lenzen , pedagogy is the teaching, theory and science of upbringing and education not only for children, but - since the advance of pedagogy into many areas of society - also for adults (see andragogy ) in various educational fields such as family, school , Leisure and work.

A special problem is the necessary professionalism in educational professions, for which Hermann Giesecke has presented his own theory, according to which educational action in this sense is fundamentally cognitively oriented and must be reflected on again and again. Ulrich Oevermann sees professionalization as a sociological problem. On the contrary, there are views that strive for a stronger, also affective identity of life, teaching and learning, which are represented in democracy education by Volker Reinhardt .


The schoolmaster of Eßlingen ( Codex Manesse , 14th century)

For a long time, pedagogy legitimized itself through the training of the next generation of teachers and clergymen and drew its knowledge and theories primarily from related disciplines such as philosophy or theology , psychology or sociology . In 1779 Ernst Christian Trapp was the first scholar to be appointed professor of education in Germany. The traditional designation of pedagogy is in line with the largely discontinued humanities pedagogy up to the end of the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s, an intense debate began about the scientific-theoretical location and the scientific-political positioning of education. The main topics of discussion were the hitherto prevailing humanities pedagogy and the research methods associated with it ( hermeneutics , phenomenology , dialectics ). To turn to empirical to make research methods identified, has an alternative in the 1960s, the term Education enforced, rare is the term Education Science preferred. The Educational Anthropology considered here is that the person is to be regarded as a fundamentally gifted with freedom of being that can not be "produced" by skillful teaching and training techniques, but can only be encouraged on the part of teachers / parents and guided himself to form, as it is mainly taught by constructivism today .

Since 1908 (admission of girls to the Abitur in Prussia ), pedagogy / educational science has also been taught at secondary schools, first at the Lyceum , then as a subject in the field of "women's work" ( education under National Socialism ) and today as a general school subject "educational science" in the upper level / sec II of the grammar school in some federal states (Bremen, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, Brandenburg). In almost all federal states, pedagogy is also given as a profile subject (pedagogy / psychology) at vocational high schools that offer a focus on social pedagogy. School pedagogy lessons therefore have a hundred-year tradition.

Disciplines and departments

In the history of the development of pedagogy , especially in Germany in the context of the introduction and establishment of major pedagogical courses (e.g. diploma and master's degree) at universities in the 1960s and 1970s, scientific pedagogy has become very differentiated. This corresponds to an increasingly differentiated professional field for professions with educational science training. The associated emergence of sub-or sub-disciplines, application subjects and subject areas is reflected in particular in the structure of the educational science associations and the educational faculties, departments and institutes at universities, but is by no means undisputed and is in constant change. Furthermore, this list is only a list of the most important disciplines and subject areas and is by no means exhaustive. Education is now divided into at least 25 subdisciplines and subject areas and is now the second largest university subject in Germany.

Theoretical pedagogy

Sub-disciplines of applied pedagogy

In addition to general pedagogy, pedagogy as an application-oriented teaching of upbringing and education encompasses a large number of sub-disciplines. B. are explicitly identified as chairs at universities and can be studied. In this context, social discussions about recognized educational deficits and reform impulses play an innovative role (migration, women's movement , environmental movement , new media ).

A distinction is made according to the type of institution in which learning takes place. This includes the pre-school education , school education , higher education pedagogy , vocational education , museum education , theater education , cultural education , community education and industrial education .

Another category relates to the subject or field of education. This includes subject didactics , art education , music education , religious education , sports education , sex education , political education , nature and environmental education , environmental education , business education and material teaching didactics .

A distinction is also made according to teaching material or type of teaching. This applies to media education , media didactics ; Adventure education , wilderness education and Budo education .

Furthermore, one looks at different target groups. This includes the gender education , particularly the education of girls and the boys' work , special, medical and special education , vocational education , continuing education , adult education , youth education and Geragogik .

There are also differences in terms of social or political objectives. The different perspectives can be seen in social education and intercultural education.

Cross-disciplinary / interdisciplinary pedagogical disciplines

The interdisciplinary or interdisciplinary pedagogical sub-disciplines and sub-disciplines deal with pedagogical questions with the help of the methods of other disciplines. The listed interdisciplinary disciplines are therefore not permanently assigned to any of the scientific disciplines involved, rather the chairs or departments are unsystematically and mostly for historical reasons assigned to the educational institutes and departments, sometimes to the facilities of the respective neighboring discipline.

Neighboring disciplines

In the history of educational science, the pedagogical discussion has always referred to the findings and knowledge of many other scientific disciplines, which in this sense are included as auxiliary sciences. Since pedagogy developed out of practical philosophy ( see also: History of Pedagogy ), philosophy remains one of the most important neighboring disciplines to this day. Further examples of significant neighboring disciplines are:

Philosophical classification

Three basic positions or concepts of science can be distinguished, which correspond to the three historically most significant and influential “mainstreams” of educational science.

The heated discussion of the various theoretical positions in the 1960s and 1970s led to the insight that educational science is characterized and distinguished by the diversity of its approaches. There are different scientific approaches of an understanding and explanatory nature, but also independent contributions from related disciplines such as sociology and psychology , which can be understood in the sense of a complementary relationship (see educational sociology , educational sociology and educational psychology ).

In terms of content, education has long focused on schools as an educational institution and space for learning and teaching . With the increasing expansion of the view to all age groups and learning spaces of humans - at least in research - the orientation of educational science has changed significantly. For this reason, many universities are increasingly offering courses of study with a focus on adult and further education / new media , as there are increasing and special new tasks for educators in these areas . However, the term “pedagogy” for the target group “adults” is being questioned. B. replaced by the - nevertheless also controversial - term andragogy (male leadership).

Another problem area in education is the critical examination of the values ​​and values on which it is based (see value, value theory ). In general, it can be stated that educational goals are based on the highest values ​​and norms derived from them , the general or universalistic - i.e. cross-cultural and societal - validity of which is controversial. The sub-area of ​​educational ethics deals with these questions. A comparable discussion about the universalisability of values ​​and norms is also being conducted within ethics (cf., for example, the work of Karl-Otto Apel for the draft of an ethics with universalistic claim ).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, portrait by Maurice Quentin de La Tour

Basic educational concepts

There is a discussion about the number of basic concepts in pedagogy. Upbringing and / or education ( Klaus Prange ) usually come first, at least socialization ( enculturation ) as an originally sociological concept and learning ( development ) as an original psychological concept.

The central terms in educational science , the definition of which varies depending on the epistemological standpoint, include without claiming to be exhaustive:

The basic pedagogical attitude includes trust , openness (honesty, authenticity), empathy , appreciation ( security ).

Distribution: Germany

For the period from 1918 to 1965, there were a total of 280 educational science professors in Germany. In 1984 there were around 1000 professorships nationwide. Today, pedagogy / educational science is the sixth strongest subject in Germany.

Number of professors (excluding emeriti, non-scheduled, honorary and visiting professors) at the largest universities in the country:

university Professors for
pedagogy and
educational science
Professors in
Status and individual evidence
University of Munster 26th 593 2016/2017
Goethe University Frankfurt 23 584 2016/2017
LMU Munich 13 738 2016/2017
University of Cologne 07th 503 2016/2017

For comparison: At one of the largest teacher training institutions in the United States , the University of California, San Diego , where more than 1,000 young teachers graduate each year, a subject “pedagogy” is not offered at all.

Pedagogy is a separate educational subject in Germany.

See also



  • Dietrich Benner : General pedagogy. A systematic, problem-historical introduction to the basic structure of pedagogical thinking and acting. 5th, corrected edition. Juventa, Weinheim 2005, ISBN 3-7799-1518-9 .
  • Hermann J. Forneck, Daniel Wrana: A tangled field. An introduction to educational science. Bertelsmann, Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 3-7639-3164-3 .
  • Hermann Giesecke : Introduction to Pedagogy. 7th edition. Juventa, Weinheim u. a. 2004, ISBN 3-7799-0595-7 .
  • Herbert Gudjons : Basic pedagogical knowledge. Overview - compendium - study book (= UTB. Bd. 3092). 11th, fundamentally revised edition. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2012, ISBN 978-3-8252-3836-0 .
  • Dietrich Hoffmann: Heinrich Roth or the other side of education. Educational science in the epoch of educational reform. Deutscher Studien-Verlag, Weinheim 1995, ISBN 3-89271-570-X .
  • Friedrich W. Kron: Basic knowledge of pedagogy (= UTB for science. Large series: Pedagogy 8038). 6th, revised edition. Reinhardt, Munich a. a. 2001, ISBN 3-8252-8038-1 .
  • Hans-Christoph Koller : Basic concepts, theories and methods of educational science: an introduction . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3170329348 .
  • Jürgen Raithel , Bernd Dollinger , Georg Hörmann: Introduction to pedagogy. Terms, trends, classics, disciplines. VS, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14702-1 .


There is no doubt that in the German-speaking world, the classic pioneers of pedagogy include: Melanchthon , the Jesuit Ratio studiorum , Comenius , Locke , Rousseau , Kant , Pestalozzi , then Wilhelm von Humboldt , Schleiermacher , Herbart , Diesterweg , Froebel , Kerschensteiner from the common European early modern period . It is already difficult to choose from among the many authors of philanthropism in the 18th century or reform pedagogy in the early 20th century. The influential educators of the Weimar Republic Eduard Spranger , Hermann Nohl and Theodor Litt and, after 1945, Heinrich Roth , Wolfgang Klafki and Wolfgang Brezinka are not undisputed classics. In addition, there are other much-cited but controversial classics from other countries such as John Dewey , Anton Makarenko and Soviet Education , Maria Montessori , Jean Piaget , AS Neill ( Summerhill ), Célestin Freinet , Ellen Key , Grundtvig , Janusz Korczak , Tagore , Paulo Freire . Ancient authors such as Plato ( Politeia ) and Quintilian are also considered pedagogical classics.

Pedagogical classics can be defined differently. The criteria that the work has made an important contribution to research and still has to point the way for current research are often mentioned. However, this is countered by the fact that many works, which are now naturally referred to as classics, have made an important contribution to research, but are essentially irrelevant to current research.

Michael Winkler makes an attempt to find uniform criteria to define classics in education and defines six functions: Classics must 1) determine “the social community of a profession or discipline”, 2) create “an identity as a profession or discipline”, 3) delimit the subject area of ​​the discipline to which they belong, 4) paradigmatically point out facts, 5) break taboos in order to allow distancing from the current state of research in the discipline and to show alternatives and 6) the thinking style and cognitive habitus of the discipline to which they belong , shape.

Ulrich Herrmann finally makes an attempt to standardize the many definitions of classics . He postulates three conditions for an educational work to be considered a classic.

  1. It must be practically effective in justifying and testing successful solutions.
  2. It has to postulate new thinking models and questions resulting from its proposed solutions.
  3. It must postulate concrete maxims of upbringing and education, teaching and learning, etc., which are suitable for guiding pedagogical interaction and communication, which can be seen as the basis of educational theory formation.

As a result of this definition, a much wider range of works can be regarded as classics of pedagogy than would be possible with the definition given at the beginning. Nevertheless, the definition is more clearly circumscribed than the one given by Winkler and allows numerous works of pedagogy to be analyzed on the basis of precisely defined criteria and classified as classics or outsiders of pedagogy. Here is a tiny selection of classic works:

  • Johann Friedrich Herbart : General pedagogy derived from the purpose of education (= Kamps pedagogical pocket books. Blue series, Bd. 23). Published by Hermann Holstein. 6th, revised and improved edition. Kamp, Bochum 1983, ISBN 3-592-71230-6 .
  • Hans-Josef Wagner: Wilhelm von Humboldt : anthropology and theory of human knowledge (= work interpretations of pedagogical classics ). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2002, ISBN 3-534-15197-6 . (For Humboldt, several writings need to be evaluated beyond the Königsberg school plan .)
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher : Texts on pedagogy: annotated study edition . Ed. V. Jens Brachmann, 2 vol., Frankfurt / M. 2000, ISBN 978-3518290514
  • Maria Montessori : The Discovery of the Child. Edited and introduced by Paul Oswald and Günter Schulz-Benesch. 19th edition. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau a. a. 2007, ISBN 978-3-451-14795-1 .
  • Siegfried Bernfeld : Sisyphus or the limits of education. Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Leipzig / Vienna / Zurich 1925 (7th edition. (= Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 37). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-518-27637-9 ). ( Psychoanalysis is highly controversial in educational science.)
  • Wolfgang Brezinka : Metatheory of Education. An introduction to the basics of educational science, the philosophy of education and practical pedagogy. (4th, completely revised edition of the book “From Pedagogy to Educational Science” .). Reinhardt, Munich / Basel 1978, ISBN 3-497-00846-X .

Web links

Commons : Pedagogy  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Pedagogy  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikibooks: shelf pedagogy  - learning and teaching materials
Wikisource: Journals (pedagogy)  - sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c Wilhelm Pape , Max Sengebusch (arrangement): Concise dictionary of the Greek language . 3rd edition, 6th impression. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1914 ( [accessed on January 9, 2020]).
  2. The pedagogues Herwig Blankertz (University of Münster), later Andreas Gruschka (initially also University of Münster, later Essen and Frankfurt / Main) were responsible.
  3. ^ Wilhelm Pape , Max Sengebusch (arrangement): Concise dictionary of the Greek language . 3rd edition, 6th impression. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1914 ( [accessed on January 9, 2020]).
  4. ^ Winfried Böhm: History of Pedagogy . From Plato to the present. 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 978-3-406-50853-0 , p. 13 .
  5. ^ Socialnet Lexicon: Educational Science | Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
  6. ^ Margit Stein: General Pedagogy . Ernst Reinhardt Verlag, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-8252-4791-1 , p. 11 f .
  7. Martin Fromm: Introduction to Pedagogy. Basic questions, access, performance options . Waxmann, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-8252-4459-0 , pp. 8 .
  8. Panos Xochellis: Pedagogy or Educational Science ? Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-442-85004-5 , p. 59 .
  9. Wolfgang Brezinka: From pedagogy to educational science . 3. Edition. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 1975, ISBN 3-407-18236-8 , p. 25th f .
  10. Panos Xochellis: Pedagogy or Educational Science ? Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-442-85004-5 , p. 61 .
  11. Panos Xochellis: Pedagogy or Educational Science ? Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-442-85004-5 , p. 8th ff .
  12. Wolfgang Brezinka: From pedagogy to educational science . 3. Edition. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 1973, ISBN 3-407-18236-8 , p. 25th f .
  13. Martin Fromm: Introduction to Pedagogy. Basic questions, access, performance options . Waxmann, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-8252-4459-0 , pp. 10 .
  14. Wolfgang Brezinka: From pedagogy to educational science . 3. Edition. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 1973, ISBN 3-407-18236-8 , p. 3-5 .
  15. Panos Xochellis: Pedagogy or Educational Science ? Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-442-85004-5 , p. 61-63 .
  16. Faulstich-Wieland, Hannelore [ed.]; Faulstich, Peter [ed.]: Educational science. A basic course . rororo, 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-55692-0 , p. 12–15 , urn : nbn: de: 0111-opus-93349 .
  17. ^ Dieter Lenzen: Educational Science - Pedagogy. History - Concepts - Subjects. In: Lenzen, Dieter / Rost, Friedrich (Hrsg.): Educational science. A basic course. 6th edition. rororo, Reinbek 1994, ISBN 978-3-499-55531-2 , p. 11-41 .
  18. Democratic school as a profession . In: Markus Gloe , Helmolt Rademacher (ed.): Yearbook Democracy Education . tape 6 . Newsreel, Frankfurt / M. 2020, ISBN 978-3-7344-0779-6 .
  19. Arno Combe, Werner Helsper (ed.): Pedagogical professionalism. Investigations on the type of pedagogical action. suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1996, ISBN 978-3-518-28830-6 .
  20. Professional field of education: where do educators work? Retrieved May 22, 2020 .
  21. ZfE - Profile of the magazine. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011 ; accessed on February 28, 2015 .
  23. See e.g. B. a study description for the Bachelor of Education for the teaching post for vocational school pedagogy,
  24. ^ Norbert Kühne : Early development and upbringing - The critical period , in: Teaching materials Pedagogy - Psychology , No. 694, Stark Verlag, Hallbergmoos.
  25. [1] .
  26. Koller, Hans-Christoph: Basic concepts, theories and methods of educational science. Stuttgart 2004, p. 177f ISBN 978-3-17-019604-9 .
  27. ^ So Wolfgang Brezinka (1990):
  28. ^ Socialnet Lexicon: Educational Science | Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
  29. ^ Klaus-Peter Horn: Educational Science in Germany in the 20th Century. To develop the social and professional structure of the discipline from initial institutionalization to expansion . Julius Klinghardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2003, ISBN 3-7815-1271-1 , p. 168 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  30. Flash cards: upbringing, education, socialization. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  31. ^ Institute for Educational Science: People. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  32. Education, Faculty 4. Accessed February 15, 2017 .
  33. Faculty of Psychology and Education: teaching and research units. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  34. ^ Faculty. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  35. ^ National University: Faculty & Salaries. Retrieved February 15, 2017 . National University Leads California in Preparing Credentialed Teachers. Retrieved February 15, 2017 . Program finder. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .
  36. ^ A b Ulrich Herrmann: Pedagogical classics and classics of pedagogy . In: Journal for Pedagogy . tape 41 , no. 2 , 1995, p. 161-165 .
  37. M. Winkler: Does social education have classics? In: New Practice . tape 23 , p. 171-185 .