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Sigmund Freud , the founder of psychoanalysis, around 1900

The psychoanalysis (from ancient Greek ψυχή psyche , breath, breath, soul 'and ἀνάλυσις analysis , decomposition', meaning "investigation unraveling the soul ") is a psychological theory, cultural theory , psychotherapeutic treatment form and method for self-awareness , which around 1890 by the Viennese neurologist Sigmund Freud was founded. The various schools of depth psychology later developed from psychoanalysis .

The term psychoanalysis stands for the description and explanatory model of the human psyche based on Freud's theories about the psychodynamics of the unconscious , as well as for analytical psychotherapy and for psychoanalytic methodology , which also deals with the investigation of cultural phenomena. In all three aspects, psychoanalysis has been further developed and changed by clinicians and researchers to this day. Psychoanalysis as a medical-psychological discipline is now characterized by a theoretical, methodological and therapeutic pluralism.


According to the definitions that Freud formulated in the concise dictionary of sexology published by Max Marcuse in 1923 , a distinction is made between psychoanalysis as a theory with statements about the development, structure and function of the human psyche, as a method for investigating mental processes and diseases and as a therapeutic procedure.

Psychoanalysis as a theory

Psychoanalysis is mainly a theory about unconscious psychological processes. According to Freud, it is not limited to the individual, but also aims to develop a comprehensive conception of the mental and physical in the socio-cultural areas. To this end, he summarized the fundamental elements of psychoanalytic research in his metapsychology : the criterion of dynamics , that of topics and that of economics .

These criteria are based in particular on Freud's model of the psyche, since its three instances ( id , ego and superego) complement each other functionally as well as topically and the health of the entire organism is characterized by the impeccable economy of drive-energy dynamics. According to the author , the state of health cannot be described in any other way than metapsychologically, which means that the model of the psyche integrates the conditions mentioned both logically and empirically. Evolutionary considerations and research findings have the function of a foundation that, in addition to pure physiology and the ability to create cultures, also includes the developmental psychology (based on the hypothetically innate behavioral bases) of Homo sapiens as the socially and mentally most highly developed form of life in the order of Includes primates .

In metapsychology, Freud saw “the ultimate goal of psychoanalysis”, but as one that was not possible to achieve at the beginning of the 20th century: The attempts at that time remained “a torso, I broke after a few treatises (instincts and instinctual fates - repression - that Unconscious - sadness and melancholy etc.) and certainly did well because the time for such a theoretical determination had not yet come ”. This reason for breaking off metapsychology is based on the finding of important scientific developments that were still missing at the time. As Freud once again noted in The Man of Moses , there were no well-founded descriptions of the behavior of our primatic relatives, nor did contemporary neurology provide more precise information about the functions of the various areas of the human brain. The findings, for example, that personal ideas and planning of social behavior as the highest forms of conscious thinking develop in the frontal area of the neocortex, while the limbic brain area below is responsible, among other things, for the permanent impression of experiences (functional aspect of the superego ) represent scientific achievements not until the 21st century and a. integrated into Freud's model of the soul by neuropsychoanalysis . From the same post-Freudian research epoch comes the discovery that in the life form of our closest evolutionary relatives there is no overly powerful ancestor with his harem (as the author postulated for the first time in Totem and Taboo and subject to a re-evaluation in mass psychology and ego analysis ), but two groups of the adult sexes (See The Gombe Chimpanzee War ).

For theoretically central area of psychoanalysis finally heard the assumption that the functions of the three instances of it , I and superego ( seat of the innate needs of their stilling serving judging the environment and the expenses occasioned by the actions of experiences ) Never place the so-called un-, pre- and consciousness coincide. In this way, a need of the id that was once internally perceptible and conscious to the ego can be shifted into the unconscious or pushed back as a result of traumatic experiences. Freud called this energy-intensive process, which is therefore also covered by the criterion of economy , “repression”. The same phenomenon is often associated with the onset of neurotic suffering, so at this point in psychoanalytic theories there is a possible transition to their use as therapy. In the statement “ Where it was, I shall become ”, Freud summarized their actual intention: the lifting of repression, the reconsciousness of the affected parts of the id. He compared the efforts to be made to a major civilizational project that was famous at the time: the draining of the Zuidersee . (See also further development of the topic ),

Psychoanalysts of the generations that followed Freud developed psychoanalysis in many directions, partly in agreement with his basic views, partly deviating from them. This constant differentiation of psychoanalytic theory and methodology - supplemented by integrative efforts - has led to the emergence of a large number of psychoanalytic schools with different concepts and focuses. These include B. eg the ego psychology , the object relationship theory (among others Melanie Klein , Donald Winnicott , Wilfred Bion), the self psychology ( Heinz Kohut ), the relational and intersubjective school of psychoanalysis as well as the structuralistic or structural psychoanalysis ( Jacques Lacan ).

Psychoanalysis as a method

Psychoanalysis as a psychological theoretical structure has also produced methods for investigating human experience, thinking and behavior - both for individuals (e.g. developmental psychology , psychopathology ) and for groups ( mass psychology ) and cultures ( ethnopsychoanalysis ). The main idea is that behind the perceptible "surface" of behaviors (e.g. individual behavior), but also behind norms and values ​​of a cultural community, there are often unconscious contents and meanings that are not easily accessible to the ego and are concealed However, with the help of psychoanalytic concepts and methods, they can be discovered and understood.

In the decades after Freud, other psychoanalysts developed other methods such as: B. to analyze the personality structure (e.g. OPD working group ) or narrative structures (e.g. Boothe: Narrative analysis JAKOB ). Fairy tales, myths and works of the visual arts, literature and film were also interpreted psychoanalytically.

Psychoanalysis as therapy

In a narrower sense, psychoanalysis is a psychotherapeutic treatment process. In contrast to the practicing or training methods (such as behavior therapy ), it is one of the revealing therapies that try to give the patient a deeper understanding of the causal, mostly unconscious connections of his suffering. It would be a misunderstanding, however, to assume that gaining such insights is the real goal of psychoanalytic therapy. Rather, the client is advised to restructure his personality to a large extent, especially in those areas of his emotional life and interpersonal behavior that were symptomatically involved in the suffering and would continue to contribute to the psychopathology of everyday life without the diagnostically recommended changes in his lifestyle.

Classic psychoanalysis takes place in three to five sessions of 50 minutes each per week, often over several years. The patient - or in the case of self-awareness or a training analysis, the analysand  - lies on a couch and says, as uncensored as possible, everything that moves him or goes through his mind ( free association ). The analyst sits behind him, listens with an attitude of “ evenly suspended attention ” and, whenever he sees a suitable moment, provides the analysand with the assumptions developed during the psychoanalytic process (“interpretation”) so that he can check them in turn. In particular, the analyst tries to track down the transferences of typical emotional patterns or motives of the analysand that arise in relation to him , and to interpret their meaning within the psychodynamics of the analysand in order to make them accessible to change ("transference analysis"). The dream analysis is also used during the analytical treatment - according to Freud the ideal way to explore the unconscious.

In addition to the "large" psychoanalytic therapy with up to 300 sessions that can be financed by statutory health insurance , shorter-term depth psychological therapy forms are widespread today (see, among other things, analytical psychotherapy and deep psychological psychotherapy ), in which the analyst and the analysand sit opposite one another and meet twice a week. Also worth mentioning are the psychoanalytic focal therapies and short-term therapies, in which an attempt is made to treat a central, more or less clearly defined problem in a total of around 20 to 30 sessions, as well as the "low-frequency psychoanalytic psychotherapy", with one to two sessions a week.

Methods have been developed that are particularly suitable for the treatment of specific mental disorders .

Psychoanalysis is used in adults as well as children and adolescents. There is also psychoanalytic couple and family therapy , group analysis , inpatient psychodynamic therapy and psychoanalytically oriented supervision .

Basics of psychoanalytic theory

Basic assumptions

  1. A person's development can be determined by forgotten childhood memories and trauma.
  2. Human behavior can be unconscious and driven by instincts.
  3. Attempts to bring this unconscious material into consciousness can lead to resistance in the form of defense mechanisms , for example repression .
  4. Conflicts between conscious and unconscious material can lead to mental disorders.
  5. Unconscious material can appear in dreams, slips of the tongue, failed actions, and jokes.
  6. Relief and healing of symptoms within psychoanalysis can be achieved through awareness and working through unconscious material.

The basics of psychoanalysis as the first comprehensive theory of the mental with special consideration of unconscious processes were developed by the Viennese neurologist Sigmund Freud at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries - initially in close collaboration with the well-known Viennese doctor and founder of the cathartic method, Josef Breuer - developed. The examination of the human psyche and also the unconscious is of course older and can be traced back to ancient philosophy. The natural scientist Carl Gustav Carus (1789–1869), the philosophers Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1804), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900), but also in the works of important poets, are considered to be Freud's immediate predecessors like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Arthur Schnitzler , but especially Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski , literary analogies of psychoanalytic theories can be found. The term "unconscious" appears for the first time in a still vague form in Eduard von Hartmann's 1869 philosophy of the unconscious . Viewed in this way, Freud does not deserve the credit of having discovered the unconscious, but of being the first to find a method for its scientific investigation. For this he developed in particular the methods of free association , dream interpretation and the analysis of failures . After many years of dealing with the results of his treatments, he finally theorized a structural model of the psyche made up of three levels . Freud assumed that instincts in the psyche set a dynamic in motion from early childhood that is decisive for further life. On the basis of these concepts it was possible for him to find explanations for pathological deviations that he could use in his specific form of therapy, psychoanalysis, to treat patients.

Furthermore, Freud also examined everyday phenomena such as myths, customs, jokes and even the "Freudian mistakes" named after him, which - like dreams - had previously aroused little interest in science.

In any presentation of the foundations of Freud's theories - and especially with regard to the latter psychoanalytic assumptions - two things must be said in advance:

  1. that Freud's views and assumptions are not available in a closed form because he himself gradually revised, developed or even rejected almost all of his earlier theses when new insights were forced upon him, and the later ones remain incomprehensible without knowledge of the earlier ones.
  2. that the psychoanalysts of the following generations developed these theories further, supplemented them or introduced completely new concepts and theories, so that psychoanalysis in its contemporary form must by no means be equated with the work of Freud.

In the further development of psychoanalysis, an important theoretical step was that of a “one-body psychology”, as Michael Balint described classical Freudian psychoanalysis, to a multi-person psychology. Freud's drive theory was very much based on the mechanistic worldview of his time. Drives provide the energy that set a complex psychic apparatus in motion. Disturbances arise from the fixation of the drive energy at early stages of development.

Here the environment of the individual plays a rather subordinate role. After Freud's departure from his trauma theory, it was clear for a long time that unconscious fantasies rather than real experiences are the causes of pathological developments. The objects, i.e. the people in the outside world, are charged with instinctual energy, which is the actual reason for establishing any relationships.

This attitude changed only gradually. Today psychoanalysis looks much more at the relationships in which a person is embedded. She always looks at its development and maturation in interaction with its environment. The focus here is on people's relationships with their closest caregivers from their earliest childhood. Psychoanalysis examines how he remembers these early relationships and represents them in his psyche. Psychoanalysis also emphasizes the real environmental conditions in which a person lives and grows up and looks at how he reacts to these conditions.

Today there are four main directions of psychoanalysis, which influence and complement one another, but sometimes also contradict one another. The drive theory founded by Sigmund Freud; the ego psychology , which goes back to Heinz Hartmann; the object relationship theory , which was introduced by different authors, and the self-psychology of Heinz Kohut. Some authors, especially self-psychologists, advocate abandoning drive theory for good, but other authors still find it useful.

Some theories have also emerged that do not correspond or did not correspond to the psychoanalytic, scientific-therapeutic mainstream. They are briefly outlined below.

Trauma theory

Until 1897, the so-called early phase of psychoanalysis, Freud was completely impressed by the treatment of hysterical patients who presented him with a wide range of symptoms and often reported sexual assaults in their childhood. Because of this, Freud emphasized the central role that traumas (primarily, but not only of a sexual nature) play in the development of mental illnesses. He later revised this view to a large extent in favor of other factors: the main focus is now on internal conflicts and the corresponding fantasies; Instead of the so-called " seduction " or " trauma theory " comes the instinct-theoretical foundation of psychopathological states. The described experiences of abuse - the scandalous frequency of which Freud's first draft theory suggests - unfold, provided that they are not only to be regarded as a production of phantasy (which conceals the fact of infantile masturbation as well as its primarily incestuous conceptual content), accordingly their pathogenic ones only in the context of the oedipal drive dynamics Effect. The theory of trauma, i.e. the exploration of the real, individual childhood history, is replaced by the supra-individual, drive-theoretic Oedipus model, due to the fact that it cannot be proven. The trauma theory is not completely discarded, but gets out of the focus of analytical reasoning strategies. In practice, this so-called “turn” in Freud's thinking means a theoretical turn from passive to active: “Innocent” victims of traumatizing attacks now become active (instinct) perpetrators of the imagination, controlled by infantile sexuality and oedipal desire. The analytically provoked truth, which is supposed to set free, no longer consists in remembering and making conscious of the traumatizing assault ( what did the father / mother / etc. Do there? ), But in the recognition of infantile sexuality as an oedipal desire ( What did the daughter, the son, the analysand, the analysand do? ). Freud's departure from trauma theory has become a scandal in later psychoanalysis criticism.

Object relationship theory oriented psychoanalysts such as René A. Spitz and Massud Khan have emphasized the importance of so-called cumulative traumatizations or microtraumatizations in contrast to one-off extreme traumas. These are shocks of the child's personality that are repeated innumerable times due to a constantly inadequate milieu. The fatal effects of such a lack of acceptance of the child to the top in creation of self were of Heinz Kohut identified. In particular, psychoanalysts who treated the children of concentration camp survivors were able to determine that severely traumatized people who were unable to process their catastrophic experiences passed their trauma on to the next generation in a modified form ( transgenerational trauma ).

Today there is a whole domain of its own which is dedicated to the analysis and treatment of traumatic experiences and tries to integrate different psychoanalytic approaches: psychotraumatology . Many main representatives of this direction, such as B. Gottfried Fischer and Luise Reddemann , are representatives of psychoanalysis or psychodynamics.

Drive theory

According to Freud, the drive arises from a physical state of tension. It serves the preservation of life, species and self. These include in particular the need for nutrition and the sex drive . The instinctual urge, which, starting from the physical, forms a mental precipitate, the so-called drive representations, occurs constantly anew (even after satisfaction) and independently of the will of the I / consciousness; However, this is able to direct the realization of the wishes in an environmentally appropriate manner and even push them back towards the source. Freud called the instinctual energy itself the libido , its regularity the pleasure principle .

Topographic model and structural model of the psyche

Schematic representation of the structural model of the psyche according to Freud

The topographical model tries to classify psychological contents with regard to the degree of their awareness and to combine them into systems, the relations of which are regulated by a censor. The system Bw ( consciousness ) can be compared with a psychic space, which is responsible for capturing stimulus configurations of the inner world and outer reality. It is a sense organ for the perception of psychic qualities. The system Vbw ( preconscious ) contains those psychological contents that are not present in the conscious mind at the moment, but can be called up by means of willful or sometimes involuntary attention alignment. The Ubw ( unconscious ) system consists of psychological content that cannot be brought into consciousness even through targeted concentration. There are different types of unconscious processes, of which Freud gave the most theoretical place to the repressed. These are impulses and ideas that are ostracized by the individual and / or culture and that are repulsed or repressed in the Ubw. The therapeutic experience taught Freud that the repressed contents gain access to the Bw again in a distorted way ( return of the repressed ).

Developmental psychology

Psychoanalysis assumes that the human personality is in development throughout life and goes through different phases, each with a special thematic focus. The early phases of development have a particularly formative influence on the adult form of the psyche, the disruption of which due to increased vulnerability and / or an inadequate milieu can lead to pathological derailments. In psychoanalytic development research, information from adults about their childhood as well as direct observations of individuals in the corresponding developmental phases are used to form theories. Freud concentrated his theoretical attention on psychosexual development .

Development of Infantile Sexuality

The infantile sexuality is considered by Freud as polymorphous-perverse, which is to be expressed that the child still has no stable sexual identity and practiced different ways of gaining pleasure, remember that some adult to sexual deviances patients. Freud postulated an oral (1st year of life), an anal (approx. 2nd and 3rd year of life), a phallic (4th to 5th year), latency phase, puberty and adolescence in the development of libido. The development of the child's phallic phase (approx. Four to five years of age within elastic limits) should culminate in the so-called Oedipus complex , in which the child directs his love to the opposite-sex parent and rivals the same-sex parent for their favor, also in conflict with the parent Guessing the affection that it has for both parents. The form and explosiveness of the conflict show considerable intercultural and interfamily differences. The downfall (also repression) of the Oedipus conflict introduces the latency phase and is characterized by the renunciation of the parent of the opposite sex and the establishment of a stable superego with incest taboo . In adolescence, the various partial drives are finally placed under the primacy of genitality .

These thoughts of Freud were substantially expanded and expanded by Erik H. Erikson , who divided human development into eight phases from birth to old age. In his step model of psychosocial development he assumes that the individual solution to each of these phases determines the outcome of an inherent conflict between two antagonistic virtues. The type of solution in the preceding phases, which is largely determined by the environmental experiences that people make, has an impact on the design and management of the following phase-typical crises. So z. B. the fundamental acceptance of the child by his / her caregivers in the very earliest time of life about whether a person goes through life with a healthy basic trust or basic distrust.

DW Winnicott and Margaret Mahler have focused their attention on the close relationship between mother and child at the beginning of life and described the gradual development towards greater autonomy. René A. Spitz has examined the development of the object relationship and the preverbal dialogue between the baby and his caregiver. His research in nursing homes, in which the children received medical care and had enough food available, but still suffered from mysterious psychosomatic illnesses and a high mortality rate, could prove - which at the time was anything but self-evident - that the Deprivation of human contact, the social deprivation , was responsible. An important contribution to this was made by John Bowlby , whose theoretical focus was interpersonal bonding. The development of individual ego functions was a. themed by Anna Freud .

The most important contemporary psychoanalytic development researchers include Daniel N. Stern , an internationally renowned infant researcher who has described the development of self-awareness, Robert N. Emde , a student of René Spitz who deals with the development of affect , among other things , and Peter Fonagy who strives to integrate attachment theory and psychoanalysis and researches the development of mentalization and affect regulation. Martin Dornes has made a name for himself in the field of psychoanalytic infant research in the German-speaking world . As far as the derivation of certain mental disorders from complications in certain development phases is concerned, according to Freud's concept of the supplementary series, it is assumed that physical, psychological and social factors are involved in the genesis. A complex interplay of risk factors and protective factors is decisive for the outbreak of a mental illness or resilience.

Infant research

Since its inception, psychoanalysis has seen particular importance in the first years of development. Since the beginning of the empirical observation of toddlers by psychoanalytic researchers such as René A. Spitz , Margaret Mahler or attachment researchers, a modern approach in toddler observation or neonatology has been developed using new methods . Since the 1970s, psychoanalysts have been studying interpersonal interactions between mother and child in particular . To this end, they use new possibilities of video technology to make the mutual behavioral adaptations in facial expressions and gestures between mother and child, which often take place in microseconds , explorable.

Above all, the “baby-watchers” should be mentioned here: Daniel Stern , who researches the development of self -awareness , Robert N. Emde, who observed the fundamental affects of humans, Joseph D. Lichtenberg , who investigated the needs of small children, W. Ernest Freud and Beatrice Beebe, who studied the interaction between infants and their caregivers. The neonatal research approach was mainly known in the German-speaking area through Martin Dornes .

The results of infant research have had a major impact on psychological and psychoanalytic developmental psychology. This also were cognitivist research for the foundation of new psychoanalytic theories included. The results of the research now lead developmental psychology to the assumption that an infant is by no means, as is often assumed, an uninvolved recipient of the care of the caregiver . Today psychology assumes that the baby is an active, competent, contact-seeking and interaction-stimulating being from just a few weeks. The decisive factor here is the addition of the observations of object relations theory from the 1950s and 1960s. The interaction between child and mother, which can affect the later therapeutic interaction, is no longer viewed as a one-sided process determined by the caregiver. Today it must be assumed that a complicated reciprocal , i.e. mutual, communication strongly influences the affects of the child and its well-being as well as the possibility of their regulation.

This fact is of great importance for the formation of psychoanalytic theories, since pathological conditions in adult patients were often inferred from similar conditions in childhood. Today we assume a competent baby who does not have to go through pathogenic phases. Pathologically relevant lapses in the mother-child dialogue in contemporary psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in early childhood are accessible to a differentiated methodology, also due to psychoanalytic and attachment research.

Scientists who are engaged in research into neuropsychology and neurophysiology and who make use of modern methods for studying the functioning of the brain, such as new imaging methods, can also be counted on this development . These attempt to establish a connection between psychoanalytic theories and findings that have grown out of the neurosciences and relate their findings in part to the changes in psychoanalytic theory.

Affect theory

The affect theory, like the drive theory, has undergone various transformations. Freud himself developed three models of affect, and in the course of this he always focused on the affect of fear , which according to him plays a key role in every pathology. In Freud's first affect model, the role of affect in traumatic events is primarily examined. Freud assumed that the affect released by trauma and blocked in its discharge is responsible for the formation of symptoms. Freud later added to these assumptions to the effect that the anxiety affect can also be the result of a conflict between the libido , which urges satisfaction, and its inhibition (for example, in the case of anxiety neurosis ). With the development of the structural model of the psyche, there is a renewed modification of the affect theory: the theory of signal anxiety. This emphasizes the adaptive value of affect as a signal to the ego to avert an impending internal (drive) or external (trauma) danger with the available means (defense mechanisms). This signal aspect of the affect is later applied to other differential affects such as ego psychology . B. Sadness, disgust, anger, or guilt extended. The relationship between affect and imagination, i.e. of the emotional and the more cognitive-imaginative modes of experience, as well as unconscious affects, which are not consciously experienced as such, but are etiologically relevant for psychological and psychosomatic symptom formation, was also researched in more detail by this school can.

The object relations theory ultimately has emphasized the interactive feature of the affects. Affects also play a role in the initiation of interpersonal relationships and the regulation of subject-object interactions. Today, largely component models put the affectivity by which regard the relatively holistic affect events as composed of ingredients. Such an affect model based on six components comes from Rainer Krause. It divides the affect system into:

  1. Expressive component (facial and gestural expression of affect)
  2. Physiological component (endocrine and neural level of affect)
  3. Motivational component (innervation of the skeletal muscles)
  4. Perception / conscious experience of affect
  5. Linguistic naming of the experience
  6. Conscious perception of affect as an inner image and as a specific situational meaning of the world and objects

These six components do not develop ontogenetically synchronously and are prone to failure in several ways.

Since affects operate at a higher speed than rational thought processes, they can be understood as a phylogenetically older and more holistic assessment of all our experiences. They are a special type of information in the context of psychological regulation processes such as B. Drive claims, interpersonal relationships or values. Seen in this way, affects can best be understood as a kind of interface that links the psychological level, including its various system areas, with the biological and social levels. That is also the reason why the theory of affect has a central position in the entire psychoanalytic theory and therapy. The close mutual connection between affect and cognition meant that Piaget's ideas on cognitive development were also widely received in psychoanalysis and linked to affective development (Ulrich Moser).

Defense Mechanisms

The concept of defense mechanisms is one of the most thoroughly researched and widely accepted parts of psychoanalytic theory. Defense mechanisms are unconsciously occurring psychological processes that have the "task" of fending off unpleasant and fear-inducing content. This means keeping them out of your own consciousness, especially those contents that arise from a neurotic conflict. Feelings and affects such as shame, feelings of guilt, emotional pain, anger and, above all, fear can be kept unconscious in various ways with the help of defense mechanisms. The defense mechanism is the attempt to resolve and avoid the actual conflict, but contributes to its consolidation and fixation. A distinction can be made between immature and more mature defense mechanisms.

Representatives and directions

Representative of psychoanalysis

The most important psychoanalysts of the first generation include Freud, Karl Abraham , Alfred Adler , Siegfried Bernfeld , Helene Deutsch , Paul Federn , Otto Fenichel , Sándor Ferenczi , Ernest Jones , Carl Gustav Jung , Sandor Rado , Otto Rank , Theodor Reik and Wilhelm Reich .

Important representatives of psychoanalytic ego psychology are Erik H. Erikson , Anna Freud and Heinz Hartmann .

René A. Spitz and Margaret Mahler founded the psychoanalytically oriented empirical infant and toddler research .

The attachment theory , which found widespread use both inside and outside psychoanalysis, was developed by the English psychoanalyst John Bowlby and the North American psychologist Mary Ainsworth .

Exponent of object relations theory are Michael Balint , Wilfred Bion , Melanie Klein , William Fairbairn and Donald Winnicott .

The self psychology was developed by Heinz Kohut founded. Many contemporary psychoanalysts belong to this school, e. B. Joseph D. Lichtenberg .

Important representatives of psychoanalysis in France are Françoise Dolto , Jacques Lacan , Jean Laplanche , André Green and Lucien Israël .

Important representatives of psychoanalysis in Switzerland are Gaetano Benedetti , Paul Parin , Fritz Morgenthaler and Marguerite Sechehaye

The Neo-Freudianism is with the name Karen Horney , Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm connected.

Other important contemporary psychoanalysts are Michael B. Buchholz , Françoise Dolto , Ricardo Horacio Etchegoyen , Mario Erdheim , Peter Fonagy , Otto Kernberg , Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber , Falk Leichsenring , Horst Kächele , Christa Rohde-Dachser and Daniel Stern .

Directions of psychoanalytic theory formation

Psychoanalytic ego psychology

The ego psychology complements the classical psychoanalysis to aspects of the I Development, the defense mechanisms as well as the functions of the ego. Anna Freud ( The ego and defense mechanisms , 1936) and in particular Heinz Hartmann ( ego psychology and adjustment problem , 1939) are often cited as the founders of ego psychology . But Sigmund Freud already anticipated some aspects of ego psychology.

Psychoanalytic Object Relations Theory

The object relationship theory is a further development of psychoanalytic theory, originally based on Melanie Klein's work. The term object relationship theory summarizes different approaches which have in common that they emphasize the central importance of the early mother-child interaction and the child's ideas about himself and his caregivers for the later formation of relationships and personal development. Another common feature is the emphasis on transference and countertransference in the design of the psychotherapeutic concept.

Attachment theory

In psychology, attachment theory describes the human need to build up close relationships with others that are characterized by intense feelings. It was developed by the British child psychiatrist John Bowlby and the North American psychologist Mary Ainsworth . Its purpose is to build and change close relationships over the course of life. It is based on the model of the bond of the early mother-child relationship . It combines ethological , developmental , psychoanalytic and systemic thinking.

One of Bowlby's great concerns was to create a scientific basis for the psychoanalytic approach of object relationship theories and to make psychoanalytic assumptions empirically verifiable. In the course of his research he moved away from psychoanalysis: The attachment theory became an independent discipline .

Psychoanalytic Self Psychology

The self psychology is a psychoanalytic theory of Heinz Kohut was established in the 1970s. It deals with the organization and maintenance of the self in relation to the objects of the environment. A central theme is, among other things, narcissism and the ego's ability to develop realistic ideas about oneself (“self-representations”).

Jacques Lacan and Structural Psychoanalysis

Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) was a French psychoanalyst who reinterpreted and radicalized the writings of Sigmund Freud. This included both the postulate of a “return to Freud” and the goal of reading “Freud versus Freud”, that is, to develop it further where it fell short of his own assumptions for Lacan. In doing so, he resorted to approaches and methods from structuralism and linguistics , and later also to graphic models of topology . The theoretician, who is not undisputed within psychoanalysis, has, among other things, had a formative influence on poststructuralism .

Then to Lacan, but it from feminist criticizing sight, theorists like facing Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray more the pre-oedipal and vorsymbolischen to operations. In their theorizing, they focused on the physical and the infantile relationship with the mother. Lacan had worked out the patriarchal structure of language and the symbolic order, but at the same time also fixed it and thus continued a unisexual - phallocentric - model of thought. According to Irigaray, there is no real sexual difference in patriarchal society; it is built on the mother's sacrifice. The aim must be to develop a separate female subject position.

Neopsychoanalysis and Interpersonal Psychoanalysis

The neo -psychoanalysis (English: Neo-Freudianism) is the further development of the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud. She has approached individual psychology and integrated concepts from Alfred Adler . The neo-psychoanalysts did not form a school. Everyone had their own theories, step models and concepts that deviated from certain basic ideas of Freud.

Relational and Intersubjective Psychoanalysis

The intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis is based on the work of Robert D. Stolorow, B. Brandchaft and GE Atwood, which, together with the self psychology of Heinz Kohut formulated a erlebensnah oriented form of psychoanalytic theory and treatment practices, resulting in material respects from the classical conception Sigmund Freud's distinguishes.

According to Stolorow and others, experience arises and occurs in the mutual exchange of subjectivities, e.g. That of the patient and that of the analyst. The observation position is always within the common context, i.e. H. the analyst tries to understand the patient from his perspective ( empathy ) and includes his own biographical background in reflecting on his attitude towards the patient ( introspection ). This has significant consequences for psychoanalytic theory and practice, which become clear in the central concepts of psychoanalysis.


When neuropsychoanalysis is a direction that neuroscientific and psychoanalytic concepts will join together and make each other fruitful, where one refers to Freud, who began his career as a neurologist and wanted to create a "scientific psychology". The basics of psychoanalysis should be established through neuroscientific results. Exponents are Mark Solms , Mauro Mancia, Allen Schore and Daniel Siegel. The Neuro-Psychoanalysis Society and the journal Neuro-Psychoanalysis were founded a few years ago . International congresses take place every year and some specialist literature has already been written. The idea of ​​combining neuropsychology and psychoanalysis has also been criticized in part by psychoanalytic theorists.

Psychological morphology

The psychological morphology extends the Freudian psychoanalysis to shape theoretical aspects . On the basis of psychological morphology, W. Ernest Freud and Wilhelm Salber finally conceived the “analytical intensive treatment” in the early to mid-1980s .

Methods of therapeutic psychoanalysis

Freud, Breuer and Hypnosis

Together with the Viennese family doctor Josef Breuer , who was 14 years his senior , Freud used hypnosis in addition to electrotherapy in the neurological practice he opened in 1886 . For him this was a bridge to the unconscious, which was supposed to make repressed and forgotten things accessible as the cause of later disturbances. The case of Anna O. became famous - in which Josef Breuer first used the cathartic method.

Development of psychoanalysis from hypnosis:

  1. Hypnosis with target suggestions (with hypnotic mandate) (1887 [1950], letters to Fliess, letter no. 2. In From the beginnings of psychoanalysis )
  2. Hypnosis with the Analytical Approach: Awakening Memories with Catharsis (1889).
  3. Hypnosis with Insight through Interpretation (1892).
  4. Free association and dream interpretation with insight through interpretation and analysis of transference and resistance (1912). (after Frank & Frank, 1977, p. 63). (For a brief description of the beginning of a dream analysis, see Dream Interpretation .)

However, hypnosis as a form of treatment was gradually abandoned for the following reasons:

  • Only a part of people can be hypnotized.
  • Healing successes were limited.
  • Traumatizing experiences accessible under hypnosis could not be revived by patients outside of hypnosis.

General introduction

In general, psychoanalysis assumes that difficult, unprocessable experiences in childhood must be repressed, because otherwise the child's personality would collapse. For example, no child can endure for long periods of time not being loved or even partially hated by their parents. Psychoanalysis hopes to be cured by becoming aware of what has been repressed, or as Freud put it: “Where it was, I shall become.” Repressed experiences cannot be processed and processed by the consciousness and cannot be integrated into the personality. This should be made up for in the analysis gradually and with simultaneous personal growth and personal strengthening, supported by the human help of the analyst. Sometimes grief work has to be made up for, old patterns of perception and behavior have to be replaced or supplemented by new ones after they have been recognized as part of personal history. In some cases, psychoanalysis also heals by having new, corrective experiences in the relationship with the analyst, for example by having the experience of a constant, unbreakable and lasting interpersonal relationship for the first time in analysis. Or in the person of the analyst it is experienced that tendencies towards independence and demarcation tendencies do not lead to negative reactions or that the person of the psychoanalyst represents someone who can deal with erotic parts of a relationship, etc.

Unprocessed parts of a life story or deficits in closeness and warmth limit personality and / or lead to inappropriate behavioral patterns. Often there is also an obligation to repeat . Freud recognized that we unconsciously always restore (stage) some critical and unworkable situations, in the equally unconscious hope of still solving this problem. A woman who suffered from her cold, unapproachable father as a child often unconsciously chooses such a husband again and repeats the old struggles and conflicts with him. Sometimes she only projects these traits onto her husband and subliminally causes him to behave as insensibly as her father used to do with her. In couples, such patterns often complement each other in ominous ways and lead to a dynamic that the couples can no longer find out on their own.

Another way such experiences can manifest itself is, for example, depression. In the understanding of psychoanalysis, depression is the result of relationship losses or breakups in childhood, which, however, could not be felt or mourned in the severity of the loss, i.e. H. in other words, be partially denied. This can happen, for example, at the birth of a younger sibling, when the parents turned away from the older child partially or completely and no one had an eye for their grief and anger and helped them deal with this situation through understanding and affection. Sometimes such depressions can only break out after a loss had to be experienced in the current life situation, in which the 'old wound' unconsciously opened again.

The diagnostic interview

The diagnostic, psychoanalytically oriented conversation is designed as an unstructured, spontaneous interview. The focus is on the relationship aspect, less on the content aspect. The basis of what happens is the therapist's friendly, waiting and non-directing attitude. The spontaneous behavior of the client gives clues to his unconscious motivations and psychodynamic relationships. Likewise, typical recurring behavioral patterns for the client can be seen in connection with his interpersonal contacts. The open attitude of the analyst encourages the client to develop an initial readiness for transference. It is essential that the anamnesis of interests, strokes of fate and current life situation does not interrupt the dynamics of the initial interview.

The setting

The so-called classical psychoanalysis takes place lying down, with the analyst sitting outside the field of vision of the analysand. (In other forms, e.g. focal therapy, the two of them sit opposite each other.) The basic idea of ​​psychoanalysis is that the analyst as a personality remains in the background as much as possible, a kind of white wall on which the patient shows all his early relationship figures, such as father , Mother and siblings, can project. As a rule, the patient does not do this on purpose or voluntarily, but unconsciously and automatically. For example, the analyst appears to be unfocused and thus becomes a father who has never listened to you and was not interested in you anyway. The original anger against the father is now directed against the analyst (father) and can thus perhaps be really experienced and felt for the first time, because the threatening aggressiveness of the actual father may have made this impossible earlier. Another example would be that by insisting that the class end on time, the analyst is experienced as a failing mother. Or the patient experiences a stormy fall in love with his analyst, which revives an oedipal situation, etc. Psychoanalysis calls this process of shifting onto the analyst transference .

The transfer

Freud called the process of putting previous relationship partners and early relationship experiences into the analyst the transference . This transference is central to any analysis and an important part of the analyst-analysand relationship. An example: An analysand's early experiences of sibling rivalry can possibly be awakened by another patient whom he meets in the waiting room or who impatiently knocks on the door of the treatment room when the class is about to end and thus disturbs the analysand's lesson. The fellow patient may then be experienced as a repressing sibling and the analyst as an unfaithful relationship partner. This can manifest itself, for example, in violent attacks against the analyst who does not sufficiently stop such behavior on the part of the fellow patient. Such and everyday situations in general that are discussed in the lessons often allow early experiences to be revived and reprocessed in cooperation with the analyst.

A distinction is made between positive and negative transmission . In the positive transference, positive parts of previous relationships are projected onto the analyst; in the negative transference, negative parts are projected.

The feelings and ideas that the analyst gets in response to the patient's behavior are called the analyst's countertransference . In our example, our analyst may feel completely inadequate, careless, and faithless for a moment, just as the patient used to experience his parents. The analyst should have learned in his own analysis or training analysis to distinguish his own feelings and ideas from feelings and ideas generated by the patient in order to be able to deal with them appropriately instead of acting unconsciously with the patient.

If the patient currently sees mainly traits of himself in the analyst, one speaks of a mirror transference. One speaks of complementary countertransference when the analyst sees himself in the role of the analysand's former relationship partner, for example in the role of father or mother. One speaks of concordant countertransference or mirror countertransference when the therapist identifies himself with the role and experience of the patient in a therapy situation, puts himself in the position of the patient and empathizes with the patient's experience as it actually is. Thus, countertransference has an important therapeutic meaning. Today it is an important source of information on the patient's past and present relationship constellations in the object relationship theory school and the self-psychology school. There it is also seen as the basis for real empathy .

The basic psychoanalytic rule and free association

Freud set up a so-called basic rule that should be communicated to the patient at the beginning of treatment, namely that he should communicate everything that occurs to him during the lessons, even if he thinks it is meaningless or is ashamed of his thoughts. He should not inhibit his thoughts, but let them run free in any direction, which Freud called free association. Freud assumed that unconscious material disguised in this form could appear and could be made usable for treatment. Since unconscious contents are initially perceived as threatening, embarrassing or painful, the unconscious of this content is the patient uncovering a resistance contrary, another important concept in psychoanalysis. At the beginning of the treatment, the therapist enters into a so-called working alliance with the patient . H. the patient places his wish for recovery, his healthy personality parts and his willingness to cooperate with the analyst at the service of the common task.

To put it bluntly, the repressed is viewed by the patient and the therapist as an “unknown landscape” that can be discovered together with united forces. The mutual relationship in particular is jeopardized again and again by unconscious conflicts, which is why the alliance between patient and therapist is always only partially reliable and at the same time this relationship is the point where the tools of psychoanalysis can be used effectively and where the original conflicts are exemplarily processed can.

The transferring of old conflicts to the therapeutic relationship is also called transference neuroses in relation to individual disorders. H. the neuroses of life become transference neuroses during treatment. This process can sometimes improve everyday sensitivities because the pressure of the disturbance can be kept out of everyday life and instead finds its place in the relationship with the therapist. The problem is by no means solved with this first step.

Operationalized psychodynamic diagnostics

This diagnostic manual was introduced as a psychodynamic supplement to the existing diagnostic systems of the DSM IV and the ICD-10 . It includes the most important psychodynamic-psychoanalytic variables of psychoanalytic theory, which enable an accurate assessment of the patient's problems. This enables a more concentrated and more predictable psychotherapy. The operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis comprises five axes on which the individual problems of the patient can be described:

  • Axis I

records the experience of illness and the prerequisites for treatment.

  • Axis II

records the relationship diagnosis, whereby the transference and countertransference between therapist and patient is analyzed.

  • Axis III

records conscious and unconscious internal conflicts of the patient.

  • Axis IV

records the structural level , i.e. the degree of ability to cope with conflicts.

  • Axis V

records mental and psychosomatic disorders in relation to the established descriptive-phenomenological diagnostics ( ICD-10 , DSM-IV ).

History of Psychoanalysis

The history of psychoanalysis began at the end of the 19th century with the work of Sigmund Freud. Its roots go back to the 18th century, for example to Franz Anton Mesmer . In the 20th century, psychoanalysis was developed into a modern psychotherapy .

The central media of the psychoanalytic specialist discussions are the psychoanalytic journals and yearbooks, which have been and are published in several languages ​​and countries and for the various forms and schools.

Persecution and Adaptation under National Socialism

The National Socialists strongly rejected the teachings of the Freudian school and used the term "nobility of the soul" against the basic psychoanalytic assumptions. Because his teachings had pulled this term in the mud, Freud's books were publicly burned on May 10, 1933 on the Berlin Opernplatz by National Socialist students on the occasion of the rally of the German student body “against the un-German spirit” (accompanied by the so-called fire spell : “Against Soul-tearing overestimation of instinctual life, for the nobility of the human soul! I hand over the writings of Sigmund Freud to the flame. " ). Most of the analysts working at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute were Jews and emigrated . The remaining Jewish analysts were asked to 'voluntarily' resign from the German Psychoanalytic Society in 1935 . The remaining non-Jewish analysts joined the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy in 1936 . Well-known representatives of the psychoanalysts who remained in Germany included Harald Schultz-Hencke , Felix Boehm and Carl Müller-Braunschweig .

Oppression in the Soviet Union

In the Soviet Union , with the establishment of Stalinism, Pavlovian reflex psychology was established as the only “politically correct” subspecies of psychology. Psychoanalysis, previously partially accepted by Trotsky , came under increasing criticism , also because of its exclusion from the inner circle of the CPSU . The “bourgeois individualism ” and the essential importance of sexuality in Freud's theories were felt to be incompatible with socialist ideology, socialist “Freudo Marxists” were marginalized and the State Institute for Psychoanalysis was closed in 1925. In 1936, the distribution and quoting of Freud's works was banned entirely by Stalin . All of this was not without consequences for the GDR , as the East German Heike Bernhard and the West German Regine Lockot report in their joint book on the history of psychoanalysis in East Germany .

Importance and effectiveness

Importance of psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis as therapy and clinical theory plays a role at universities mainly in the field of psychotherapy, psychosomatic medicine, psychiatry, developmental psychology and, to a lesser extent, clinical psychology. It is accepted as the theory and methodology of literary studies, sociology, philosophy, pedagogy, film and theater studies, cultural and social studies. From the interdisciplinary connections that she has entered into in the course of her history, a number of fruitful collaborations have emerged. So z. B. psychoanalytic pedagogy , ethnopsychoanalysis , neuropsychoanalysis , psychohistory , primitivism and psychogeography . Some of their terms such as B. repression , failure , unconscious , trauma have entered everyday language, but are rarely used in the correct definition of the word.

As a psychotherapy method, psychoanalysis plays an important role in outpatient psychotherapeutic care for the population alongside behavior therapy. In some countries such as B. the Federal Republic of Germany a limited quota is financed by the health insurance, while in other countries such. B. Austria psychotherapy generally has to be financed largely privately. Psychoanalytic therapy is often understood to mean high-frequency and long-term therapy in the couch setting. However, the classical psychoanalyses only make up a negligible percentage of all psychoanalytic therapies carried out and in most cases, work is carried out in a low-frequency setting of medium duration or with psychoanalytic short-term therapy ( analytical psychotherapy , psychotherapy based on depth psychology , focal therapy , psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy ). With reference to the empirical evidence available, the Medical University of Vienna issued a statement on the indications for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

In addition, the forms of counseling in supervision have developed from teaching-analytical practice. Trigant Burrow and, in his successor, Wilfred Bion and SH Foulkes, adapted Freud's treatment technique for group setting and established group psychoanalysis . Also Ruth Cohn transferred the analytical work groups and developed the TCI . Apart from that, psychoanalytic theory and therapy have had an impact on the development of many other psychotherapy methods. These include transactional analysis , catathymic imaginative psychotherapy and logotherapy and existential analysis .

In addition, psychoanalysts, as teachers, also had an influence on the founders of psychotherapy methods that are more distinct from psychoanalysis than those just mentioned. So was z. B. Carl Rogers , the founder of client-centered conversation psychotherapy , was strongly influenced by the psychoanalyst Otto Rank . The most important exponents of cognitive behavioral therapy, Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis, were also psychoanalysts themselves. Some of the methods that are now part of the standard repertoire of behavior therapy were recommended for the first time by first-generation psychoanalysts. Sigmund Freud (1919a) considered the confrontation with the phobic object inevitable in anxiety patients and Wilhelm Stekel experimented with the technique of overstimulation .

In the 2013/2014 winter semester, a lecture series given by the literary scholar Peter-André Alt at the Free University of Berlin under the title Who is afraid of Sigmund Freud? Was devoted to the question of current perspectives in psychoanalysis . was designed. Fifteen university lecturers from psychology, medicine, philosophy, literature, culture and film took part.

Effectiveness of psychoanalysis as psychotherapy

Many different forms of psychotherapy have been developed on the basis of psychoanalytic theories. These types of therapies are divided into different groups based on length and broad methodological approach. The main groups are short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) with a duration of - mostly - a maximum of 30 sessions and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (LTPP). Sometimes more specific subgroups, such as psychodynamic supportive therapy (pst) or psychodynamic group psychotherapy (psychoanalytic group psychotherapy) are also described. A meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of long- or short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy compared with cognitive behavioral therapy. The same effects are seen in personality disorders. The results of follow-up studies in some meta-analyzes show that the effects of short- and long-term psychotherapy are stable and often increase after treatment, “in contrast, the advantages of other (non-psychodynamic) empirically supported therapies tend to be beneficial for the most common disorders subside over time ”.

Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy

Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy has been well evaluated. Many studies show that the effectiveness and efficiency is comparable to other psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the best evaluated therapy. However, psychoanalytic researchers have long neglected empirical psychotherapy research. For this reason there are many more and more differentiated studies for the CBT. In particular, the evaluation of specific diagnoses was neglected. Some meta-analyzes showed the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the results of which were comparable to or higher than those of other types of psychotherapy and antidepressants.

Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, personality disorders, substance abuse and addiction, and others.

Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy

It is almost impossible to review long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in randomizing studies and to compare it with short-term psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapies, as they are used in practice worldwide, often require 100 hours or more, often several hours a week. A classic psychoanalysis, for example, is unlimited in duration at three to five hours per week. It is impossible to maintain plausible comparative conditions or even just the control conditions, such as the manualization of therapeutic methods, in multi-year therapies. Other attempts at randomization failed because the participants refused to agree to a random assignment. For this reason, RCTs are rare in long-term psychotherapy. In particular, longer treatments with over 100 sessions seem impossible to evaluate with randomized controlled trials. That is why psychoanalytic psychotherapy researchers use prospective and / or naturalistic studies. These studies measure the effectiveness of the therapy, not the experimental effectiveness.

Only a few meta-analyzes have been published for longer psychodynamic psychotherapies. These show different results, ranging from very large effects to small effects compared to shorter psychotherapies. However, there are great effects in complex mental disorders.

Longer psychodynamic psychotherapies, such as “classical” psychoanalysis or analytical psychotherapy (with 300 sessions, two to three times a week) were only examined with naturalistic and catamnestic studies. These studies show stable and high effects. There is also a significant reduction in sick leave and consultations with the health system in follow-up examinations.


Ethnopsychoanalysis is a special branch of psychology and ethnology that takes into account and complements both disciplines. By dealing with two complementary disciplines, the ethno-psychoanalyst can improve the practice of both and gain deeper insights into phenomena relevant to behavioral science. The focus of consideration is not the observed subject, but rather the intersubjective interactions between transference and countertransference events in ethno-psychoanalytical field research.


Since Freud's first writings, psychoanalysis has been and is confronted with social, philosophical and psychological criticism, also from within its own ranks. The respective chronological order of the criticism must be taken into account, since psychoanalysis itself has gone through a development of its theory and practice.

Social criticism

For a long time, homosexuals were excluded from psychoanalytic training because homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder that required treatment. However, this view does not go back to Sigmund Freud, who explicitly did not regard homosexuality as a disease. On the contrary, he wrote in 1935: "Homosexuality is certainly not an advantage, but it is no reason to be ashamed, no vice, no blemish, no degradation, it cannot be counted as a disease". Johannes Cremerius named the pathologization of homosexuality and the refusal to admit homosexuals to analytical training in 1992 as one of the main reasons for the crisis in psychoanalysis. In 1973, against the opposition of psychoanalysts, US psychiatrists deleted homosexuality from their diagnostic manual. In 1991 the American Psychoanalytical Association distanced itself from its previously discriminatory stance. Since then, gays and lesbians in the USA have been able to become psychoanalysts. This is in line with the gay affirmative psychotherapy approach.

From the churches, psychoanalysis was mainly accused of justifying fornication and pansexualism ; The experimental psychologist and Franciscan A. Gemelli, former rector of the Catholic University in Milan and president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences , declared Freud's teaching in Psicoanalisi e Cattolicismo (1950) to be unacceptable to Catholics.

The Austrian writer, publicist and publisher of the Fackel Karl Kraus called psychoanalysis " useless " and described it as a mental illness, the therapy of which she believed . The playwright Bert Brecht found, after an initial extraordinary interest, that the practice of psychoanalysis primarily fulfilled the function of relieving members of the ruling class of their guilty conscience. The philosopher Ernst Bloch accused psychoanalysis in The Principle of Hope that concentrating on uncovering the past turned it backwards instead of looking forward.

Philosophical Criticism

Epistemological criticism is directed against both the methodological foundations and the experimental safeguards. One of the early reviews comes from Arthur Kronfeld . This criticism was put forward again and again in the following years, for example by Karl Jaspers . He feared that psychoanalytic thinking merely reflected a questionable ideology and criticized e.g. B. the concept formation of the unconscious as ideal-typical and thus as not objectifiable in the strict sense. It follows from this that it is also not falsifiable .

Karl Popper , who had worked for a while for Alfred Adler in his educational counseling centers and homes , criticized Sigmund Freud's theories as double entrenched dogmatism : “Freud himself found it very strange that his patients had Freudian dreams, while Adler's had Adlerian dreams . And he asked himself whether this should not be seen as a refutation of his theory. But he has reached a conclusion that negates the question: the patient is only trying to make himself comfortable with his psychoanalyst, which leads him to have suitable dreams, since the transference phenomenon comes into play. Everything is then all right again ... “Popper's criticism that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience was repeatedly voiced, e. B. by the science theorist Anthony A. Derksen .

The science historian Thomas Samuel Kuhn criticized psychoanalysis as unscientific, based on a different methodological basis than Popper, and viewed the foundations of psychoanalytic knowledge acquisition as dubious. This criticism was repeated in particular by Adolf Grünbaum . In the Forum of Psychoanalysis in 2000 , Grünbaum confirmed his criticism of Freud's psychoanalysis. However, he also expressly referred the criticism to post-Freudian psychoanalysis. He quoted the psychoanalyst Morris Eagle approvingly as saying: “The different forms of so-called contemporary psychoanalysis ... do not have any more secure epistemological foundation than the most important teachings and assertions of Freud's theory. ... There is no evidence that current psychoanalytic theories have overcome the epistemological and methodological difficulties associated with Freud's theory. ”Grünbaum assumed that Popper had looked at the problem in too undifferentiated fashion, and took the position that some of Freud's claims about the psychoanalysis, in particular the so-called “Necessary Condition Thesis”, had been falsified by clinical findings. He classified it as bad science. Grünbaum also criticized the fact that the acquisition of knowledge in psychoanalysis is problematic, since in the treatment situation the observation is falsified by suggestion and thus also the theory is falsified.

The existential philosopher and writer Jean-Paul Sartre exercised a fundamental criticism of psychoanalysis in his main scientific work Das Sein und das Nothing , by attacking the basic structure of this doctrine, the assertion of unconscious mental states and processes. Sartre's argumentation was mainly ontological . In order to be able to refute the being of the unconscious logically, he chose the example of a pleasure unknown to the conscious mind. What, asked Sartre, now distinguishes the consciousness of pleasure from pleasure itself? The answer is that there is no difference. You would be one. For the existence of pleasure would only be sustained by the consciousness of that same pleasure itself. Sartre wrote: “Pleasure cannot be distinguished - not even logically - from consciousness (of) pleasure. The consciousness of (of) pleasure is constitutive for pleasure as the mode of its existence, as the material from which it is made, and not as a form that was subsequently imprinted on a hedonistic material. Pleasure cannot exist 'before' consciousness - not even in the form of virtuality, of potency. ”This leads to the conclusion that there can be no unconscious pleasure, as, for example, the Oedipus complex hypothesis demands.

Psychological criticism

Behavioral psychologists such as Hans Jürgen Eysenck postulated the unrecognizability ( black box ) of internal psychological processes and accused psychoanalysis of hindering the spontaneous healing of mental illnesses rather than contributing to the healing with its long-term therapies, some of which lasted several years . Eysenck later revised this view by pointing out that proof of effectiveness had not yet been provided at the time.

The attachment researcher Klaus Grossmann sums up his criticism of the theory formation of classical psychoanalysis as follows: “Mythological influences such as Elektra , Oedipus and questionable metaphors such as autism , symbiosis , introject [...] etc. bear witness to many speculative tendencies with the urge for ideological consolidation without any need for empirical verification nourished from curiosity, skepticism and scientific necessity. "

Emanuel Peterfreund accused psychoanalysis of scientific adultomorphism , which refers to concepts such as that of early childhood narcissism or the omnipotence fantasies of toddlers: the behavior of babies and toddlers is reconstructed from the perspective of the adult self. Peterfreund spoke of a psychoanalytic "adultomorphization of infancy" that led to the formation of myths . Jean Piaget and Bärbel Inhelder took similar positions .

Jens Asendorpf criticizes psychoanalysis for its tendency towards self-reference ( immunization ). For example, if a client does not want to accept the analyst's interpretation, this is interpreted by psychoanalysis as a defense and resistance . Furthermore, Asendorpf does not count the classical psychoanalysis, due to its suggestive power and the tendency towards self-fulfilling prophecies , to the empirical sciences. A character formation of the individual according to Freud's hypothesis of an early childhood instinct regulation is either not verifiable or is today largely disproved.

Carl Rogers and the Client-Centered Psychotherapy criticized above all that the method of interpretation hindered the “self-realization” of the individual.

For Viktor Frankl and logotherapy , psychoanalysis has a "tendency towards reification (i.e. the reification of human beings) and, above all, towards manipulating everything human."

Often the criticism also comes from within the ranks of psychoanalysis itself; it is not infrequently presented by prominent psychoanalysts: Johannes Cremerius, for example, criticized many structural aspects of psychoanalytic training. Other famous examples of these "dissidents" include: a. Wilhelm Stekel , Sándor Ferenczi , Otto Rank , but also Alice Miller and John Bowlby , who criticized certain orthodox theories within psychoanalysis and, in part, withdrew from psychoanalytic societies. In today's theory and practice of psychoanalysis, these previously discarded theories are partly up to date and serve as a basis for the formation of theories.

Further criticism comes from other schools of depth psychology. Thus, according to Carl Gustav Jung, analytical psychology criticizes the libido theory of psychoanalysis as well as many special assumptions and methods of psychoanalysis.

Wrong developments and scandals

In the history of psychoanalysis there have been a number of documented attacks, abuses and transgressions against patients. Some authors even speak of a chronique scandaleuse . So did Carl Gustav Jung , a sexual relationship with a number of patients is well documented, especially his relationship with Sabina Spielrein in the year 1905/1906. A current study on sexual assault in psychotherapy and psychiatry shows that this is not a special problem in psychoanalysis, but rather that cases of abuse are largely evenly distributed across all therapeutic directions.

See also


Psychoanalysts and depth psychologists:

Precursors of psychoanalysis:

Influenced by psychoanalysis:

Areas with interdisciplinary relevance:


Sigmund Freud

  • 1905: Fragment of a hysteria analysis. Study edition Volume VI
  • 1905: Three essays on the theory of sex. Study edition volume 5. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • 1909: Analysis of the phobia of a five-year-old boy ("Little Hans"). Study edition Volume VIII Stuttgart (Schattauer)
  • 1912: totem and taboo . Study edition Volume 9. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • 1913: To initiate treatment (further advice on the technique of psychoanalysis I).
  • 1914: Remembering, repeating and working through (further advice on the technique of psychoanalysis II).
  • 1915: instincts and instinctual fates. Study edition volume 3. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • 1923: The I and the It . Study edition volume 3. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • 1930: The discomfort in culture . Study edition Volume 9. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • 1933: New series of lectures introducing psychoanalysis. Study edition volume 1. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Frankfurt am Main 1982.

Introductory literature


  • Wolfgang Mertens, Bruno Waldvogel (ed.): Handbook of basic psychoanalytic concepts. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-17-018844-0 .


  • Jean Laplanche , Jean-Bertrand Pontalis : The vocabulary of psychoanalysis. Translated by Emma Moersch. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-518-07607-8 . (numerous unchanged editions) (Freud Lexicon with a detailed description of the development of the individual terms and with page references to the Collected Works and the Standard Edition ; first in French; Paris 1967).
  • Alain de Mijolla (Ed.): Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. 2 volumes. Calmann-Lévy, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-7021-2530-1 . (Extended English translation: International dictionary of psychoanalysis. 3 volumes. Thomson / Gale, Detroit 2005, ISBN 0-02-865924-4 ; the English translation on the Internet at and ( Memento of March 30, 2015 in Web archive ))
  • Humberto Nagera (Ed.): Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts. An introduction to Sigmund Freud's terminology and theory building. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 3-596-42288-4 . (first in English 1969 and 1970)
  • Elisabeth Roudinesco , Michel Plon: Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Fayard, Paris 1997. Translation: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Names, countries, works, terms. Springer, Heidelberg / New York 2004, ISBN 3-211-83748-5 .
  • Ross M. Skelton: The Edinburgh international encyclopaedia of psychoanalysis. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2006, ISBN 0-7486-1265-3 .

Further literature

  • Wilfried Daim : Revaluation of psychoanalysis. Herold, Vienna 1951, online
  • Johanna J. Danis : The discourse of psychoanalysis. In: Fractional parts. Lectures held at the Institut für Psychosymbolik e. V., Munich, October 2003 – June 2006. Edition Psychosymbolik, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-925350-80-2 .
  • Sibylle Drews, Karen Brecht: Psychoanalytic ego psychology. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • Henri F. Ellenberger : The discovery of the unconscious. 2 volumes. Huber, Bern 1973.
  • Peter Fonagy : Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003.
  • Sven Olaf Hoffmann , Gerd Hochapfel: Neurotic disorders and psychosomatic medicine: With an introduction to psychodiagnostics and psychotherapy. 8th, completely revised and expanded edition. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2009.
  • Karen Kaplan-Solms, Mark Solms : Neuro-Psychoanalysis. An introduction with case studies. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-95989-0 .
  • Otto F. Kernberg: Object relationships and the practice of psychoanalysis. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1981.
  • Melanie Klein: The soul life of the toddler and other contributions to psychoanalysis. Rowohlt Taschenbuch, Reinbek near Hamburg 1972.
  • Thomas Köhler: Anti-Freud literature from its beginnings until today. For the scientific foundation of psychoanalysis criticism. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-17-014207-0 .
  • Heinz Kohut : The healing of the self. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1979.
  • Peter Kutter : Modern Psychoanalysis. Verlag Internationale Psychoanalyse, Munich 1988.
  • Margaret Mahler: Studies over the First Three Years of Life. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1985.
  • George J. Makari: Revolution of the Soul. The birth of psychoanalysis. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8379-2039-0 .
  • Ludwig Nagl , Helmuth Vetter , Harald Leupold-Löwenthal (eds.): Philosophy and psychoanalysis. (= Library of psychoanalysis). 2nd Edition. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 1997, ISBN 3-930096-68-4 .
  • Antonello Sciacchitano. Infinite subversion. The Scientific Origins of Psychoanalysis and the Psychoanalytic Resistance to Science. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-85132-508-9 .
  • Daniel N. Stern: The Infant's Life Experience. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1992.
  • Brigitte Verlic, Adam Budak, Peter Pakesch (eds.): Signs of the psyche. Psychoanalysis and art. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-85132-509-6 .
  • Helmuth Vetter, Ludwig Nagl (ed.): The philosophers and Freud. An open debate. (= Vienna Series. Topics of Philosophy. Volume 3). Oldenbourg Verlag, Vienna / Munich. 1988, ISBN 3-486-54481-0 . (contains contributions by, among others, Jean Laplanche, Patrizia Giampieri, Hans Strotzka, Adolf Grünbaum , Stanley Cavell , Hubert L. Dreyfus and Alfred Lorenzer )
  • Donald W. Winnicott : Maturation Processes and Enhancing Environment. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1974. (New edition: Psychosozial-Verlag, Gießen 2002, ISBN 3-89806-091-8 ).
  • Gerhard Wittenberger: How the soul got into science. A historical sketch of the development of psychoanalysis. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2018, ISBN 978-3-8379-2741-2 .
  • Eli Zaretsky: Freud's Century. The history of psychoanalysis. Zsolnay, Vienna 2006. (Licensed edition: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-423-34552-1 ).
  • Mechthild Zeul: Images of the Unconscious. On the history of psychoanalytic film theory. In: Psyche . Vol. 48, Issue 11, 1994, pp. 975-1003.

Critical literature

  • Annemarie Dührssen (1994): A Century of Psychoanalytic Movement in Germany. Psychotherapy under the influence of Freud. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen.
  • Christof T. Eschenröder (1989): Freud was wrong here. On the critique of psychoanalytic theory and practice . Piper Verlag, Munich, ISBN 3-492-11021-5 .
  • Hans Jürgen Eysenck (1985): Sigmund Freud: Decline and End of Psychoanalysis. List Verlag, Munich, ISBN 3-471-77418-1 . (Original: The Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. 1985)
  • Otto F. Gmelin (1975): Anti-Freud. Freud's consequences in the visual arts and advertising. DuMont, Cologne.
  • Adolf Grünbaum (1984): The basics of psychoanalysis. A philosophical criticism. Reclam, Stuttgart 1988. (Original: The Foundations of Psychoanalysis. A Philosophical Critique. 1984)
  • Adolf Grünbaum (Ed.) (1991): Critical considerations on psychoanalysis. Adolf Grünbaum's “Basics” in the discussion. Springer, Berlin.
  • Karl Jaspers (1951): On the Critique of Psychoanalysis. In: The neurologist . Vol. 21 (11), pp. 465-468. ( Available online )
    • In addition: Matthias Bormuth (2002): Karl Jaspers and psychoanalysis (= medicine and philosophy. Contributions from research. 7). Fromann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, ISBN 3-7728-2201-0 .
  • Jürgen Kind (2017): The taboo. What psychoanalysts shouldn't think, but should trust themselves. Klett-Cotta, Göttingen, ISBN 978-3-608-96131-7 .
  • Alice Miller : The Drama of the Gifted Child and the Search for the True Self. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1983.
  • Theodor Schwarz: On the Critique of Psychoanalysis. The structure, Zurich / New York 1947.
  • Dieter E. Zimmer : Deep dizziness. The endless and the terminable psychoanalysis. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-498-07653-1 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Psychoanalysis  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Institutions and organizations


Psychoanalysis Podcasts

Texts on psychoanalysis


Individual evidence

  1. Michael Laier: Psychoanalysis. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1193–1195.
  2. Max Marcuse (Ed.): Concise Dictionary of Sexual Science. Encyclopedia of the natural and cultural science of human sex education . De Gruyter, Berlin, Boston 1923, ISBN 978-3-11-151305-8 (Reprint 2012).
  3. Sigmund Freud: The Unconscious . In: Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape III , 1915.
  4. Sigmund Freud: The finite and the infinite analysis. (1937) In: Collected Works. S. Fischer, Vol. XVI, pp. 57-99.
  5. Sigmund Freud: The man Moses and the monotheistic religion . Ed .: . Project Gutenberg, ISBN 978-3-15-018721-0 , Chapter 3, Section C, p. 180 .
  6. ^ Sigmund Freud: Collected works . In: Collected Works . tape XIV , 1924, p. 33-96 .
  7. Sigmund Freud: The man Moses and the monotheistic religion . ISBN 978-3-15-018721-0 , Chapter 3, Section C, p. 180 ( ).
  8. The short path to action - functional neuroanatomy of the frontal lobe (article by the Max Planck Institute for Cognitive and Neurosciences in Leipzig)
  9. Where psychoanalysis and brain research agree. ( Memento of October 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) at:
  10. limbic system. In: Lexicon of Neuroscience. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, accessed on September 20, 2019 .
  11. Sigmund Freud: X. The mass and the primal horde . In: mass psychology and ego analysis . Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  12. Sigmund Freud: The repression. In: The Unconscious. Writings on psychoanalysis. S. Fischer Verlag, 1963, p. 69, first published in: Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse. 1915, Volume III; Collected Works. S. Fischer, Volume X.
  13. ^ Sigmund Freud: New series of lectures for the introduction to psychoanalysis . In: Lecture 31 . S. 516 .
  14. ^ E.g. Bruno Bettelheim : The Uses of Enchantment, The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York 1976. (German: Children need fairy tales. ISBN 3-423-08495-2 )
  15. ^ Siegfried Zepf, Florian D. Zepf: Trauma and traumatic neurosis: Freud's concepts revisited . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 89 , no. 2 , April 1, 2008, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 331-353 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1745-8315.2008.00038.x .
  16. Yoram Yovell: From Hysteria to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Psychoanalysis and the Neurobiology of Traumatic Memories . In: Neuropsychoanalysis . tape 2 , no. 2 , January 1, 2000, ISSN  1529-4145 , p. 171-181 , doi : 10.1080 / 15294145.2000.10773303 .
  17. Elliott, Anthony, 1964-: Psychoanalytic theory: an introduction . Third ed. London, ISBN 978-1-137-30082-9 , pp. 2-3 .
  18. Mentzos, Stavros .: Textbook of Psychodynamics: The Function of the Dysfunctionality of Mental Disorders; with 3 tables . 2nd edition Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-40123-1 , p. 24 .
  19. ^ Pontalis, Jean-Bertrand .: The vocabulary of psychoanalysis . 7th edition Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1986, ISBN 3-518-27607-7 , pp. 562-565 .
  20. a b Hiller, Wolfgang., Leibing, Eric., Leichsenring, Falk., Sulz, Serge KD: The great textbook of psychotherapy - psychoanalytical and depth psychologically founded therapy . 3rd edition volume 2 . CIP-Medien, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-932096-32-0 .
  21. Freud, Anna, 1895-1982 .: The I and the defense mechanisms . Unabridged edition. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main [West Germany] 1984, ISBN 3-596-42001-6 .
  22. Marie Rudden, Fredric N. Busch, Barbara Milrod, Meriamne Singer, Andrew Aronson: depression Panic disorder and: A psychodynamic exploration of comorbidity . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 84 , no. 4 , August 1, 2003, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 997-1015 , doi : 10.1516 / VCKY-5EWM-7PT4-LRWJ , PMID 13678503 .
  23. ^ Lester Luborsky : The only clinical and quantitative study since Freud of the preconditions for recurrent symptoms during psychotherapy and psychoanalysis . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 82 , no. 6 , December 1, 2001, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 1133-1154 , doi : 10.1516 / XBXL-7WWX-4MUF-38F5 .
  24. ^ Jacobson, Edith .: Depression; comparative studies of normal, neurotic, and psychotic conditions. International Universities Press, New York 1972, ISBN 0-8236-1195-7 (© 1971).
  25. Mentzos, Stavros .: Neurotic Conflict Processing: Introduction to the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses, taking into account new perspectives . Orig.-issued, 32nd - 37th thousand edition. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verl, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-596-42239-6 .
  26. Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret 1957-, Heuft, Gereon 1954-, Hochapfel, Gerd 1940-, Hoffmann, Sven Olaf 1939-: Neurotic disorders and psychosomatic medicine with an introduction to psychodiagnostics and psychotherapy . 8th, completely revised and expanded edition [2009, monochrome modified reprint 2019]. Stuttgart, ISBN 978-3-608-42619-9 .
  27. Michael cheap: The dialogic unconscious: Psychoanalysis, discursive psychology and the nature of repression . In: British Journal of Social Psychology . tape 36 , no. 2 , 1997, ISSN  2044-8309 , p. 139–159 , doi : 10.1111 / j.2044-8309.1997.tb01124.x ( [accessed July 17, 2020]).
  28. ^ John A. Schneider: From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: The changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 91 , no. 3 , June 1, 2010, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 521-540 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1745-8315.2010.00263.x .
  29. Lee Rather: Collaborating with the unconscious Other . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 82 , no. 3 , June 1, 2001, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 515-531 , doi : 10.1516 / 3MEM-TUJ5-4J6L-XW6X .
  30. ^ René Roussillon: Working through and its various models . In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis . tape 91 , no. 6 , December 1, 2010, ISSN  0020-7578 , p. 1405-1417 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1745-8315.2010.00338.x .
  31. Kernberg, Otto F., 1928- Severe personality disorders: psychotherapeutic strategies . Yale University Press, New Haven 1984, ISBN 0-300-03273-0 .
  32. Élisabeth Roudinesco , Michel Plon: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Springer, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-211-83748-5 , pp. 1075-1076 Title of the original edition: Dictionnaire de la Psychanalyse , 1997.
  33. Annegret Boll-Klatt, Mathias Kohrs: Practice of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Basics - models - concepts . Schattauer, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-7945-2899-8 , I: The four classical psychologies of psychoanalysis, p. 11 ff . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  34. This is the German title of Jeffrey Masson's critical study on this “turn” (based on Goethe's Wilhelm Meister ): “ What have you been done, you poor child? ". Along with Alice Miller, Masson is one of the most prominent recent renegades of psychoanalysis, whose turn away is justified by the trauma-denying implications of drive theory.
  35. The reversal of the perpetrator and victim position by the drive theory induces a moral outrage potential, which is laid out in Freud's here antithetically advancing theoretical development as it is not intended by him ; Freud thinks less in moral categories of guilt and innocence than in an aiological sense : he is always on the (albeit extremely ambitious) search for the first, uniform cause of a psychopathological phenomenon. Sexuality is the all-founding constant of his thinking, be it in the context of the so-called "seduction theory" as the premature sexualization of the (innocent) child, be it as the "Oedipus complex" or in the context of his early reflections on the "actual neuroses" as permanently frustrated, current adult sexuality, for which a real pacification - with toxic consequences - remains denied. See the historical reconstruction of the development of Freud's theory by FJ Sulloway: Freud. Biologist of the soul. Beyond the psychoanalytic legend. Cologne-Lövenich 1982, as well as: Bernd Nitzschke: The debate on sexual abuse in Sigmund Freud's lecture “On the Aitiology of Hysteria” (1896) - and the abuse of this debate a hundred years later. In: Herta Richter Appelt (Ed.): Seduction and Trauma (1896–1996). Giessen 1997, pp. 25-38.
  36. This finding is not entirely new, however: Freud already observed that small children who are scolded for their uncleanliness react to this humiliating experience in a compensatory way on their dolls, younger siblings and defenseless small animals, alternately beating and loving them.
  37. Sigmund Freud: Three treatises on the theory of sex, II. Die Infantile Sexualität . Study edition, Volume V, Fischer Verlag, special edition, Frankfurt 2000, ISBN 3-596-50360-4 , p. 105, (cf. the footnote added in 1924)
  38. ^ Jean Laplanche, J. B Pontalis: The vocabulary of psychoanalysis . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main, 1972, Art. “Genitalestufe”, p. 167 and Art. “Phallischestufe”, ISBN 3-518-27607-7 , p. 383.
  39. W. Mertens: Introduction to psychoanalytic therapy. Volume 1. 3rd edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2000.
  40. M. Dornes: The competent infant. The preverbal development of man. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1993.
  41. Where psychoanalysis and brain research agree. ( Memento of October 11, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) at:
  42. Kai Hammermeister : Jacques Lacan (= Beck series. 578). CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57374-3 , pp. 111-113.
  43. ^ Sarah K. Donovan - Luce Irigaray:  Entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy . .
  44. Biology of the Unconscious. In: WoZ . No. 39/2005.
  45. The brain on the couch. In: The time . No. 38/2009.
  46. BBC interview with Freud , "I started my professional activity as a neurologist"
  47. Plea against neuropsychoanalysis. In: International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 3/2008.
  48. ^ J. Lönneker: Morphology. The effect of qualities - design in change. In: G. Naderer, K. Mruck (eds.): Qualitative market research in theory and practice. Basics - Methods - Applications. 2nd, revised edition. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2011, pp. 83-110.
  49. ^ WE Freud: Shortening and intensifying factors in analysis from a clinical and psychoanalytic point of view. In: Y. Ahren, W. Wagner (Ed.): Analytical intensive advice. Morphological Psychology Working Group V., Cologne 1984.
  50. ^ W. Salber: Psychological treatment. 2nd, revised edition. Bouvier, Bonn 2001.
  51. ^ S. Freud: New series of lectures for the introduction to psychoanalysis. Study edition. Volume 1, 5th edition. Frankfurt am Main 1974, p. 516.
  52. Stavros Mentzos: Neurotic Conflict Processing. Fischer Taschenbuchverlag, ISBN 3-596-42239-6 , p. 270 f.
  53. ^ History of psychoanalysis in Russia. accessed on November 16, 2014.
  54. Heike Bernhardt, Regine Lockot (ed.): With without Freud. On the history of psychoanalysis in East Germany (=  library of psychoanalysis ). Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2000, ISBN 3-89806-000-4 .
  55. Indication for psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy - statement of the University Clinic for Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy. Medical University of Vienna 2011. Retrieved on August 14, 2019.
  56. Lecture series: Who is afraid of Sigmund Freud? Perspectives of Psychoanalysis Today. Freie Universität Berlin, 2013, accessed on May 24, 2020 .
  57. Who is afraid of Sigmund Freud? Perspectives of Psychoanalysis Today. (PDF; 1,685 kB) Flyer. Freie Universität Berlin, 2013, accessed on May 24, 2020 .
  58. ^ Raymond A. Levy, J. Stuart Ablon, Horst Kächele: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research: Evidence-Based Practice and Practice Based Evidence. Springer, New York 2010.
  59. Falk Leichsenring, Eric Leibing: The Effectiveness of Psychodynamic Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in the Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. In: Am J Psychiatry. Volume 160, 2003, pp. 1223-1232. doi: 10.1176 / appi .ajp.160.7.1223
  60. ^ A b Jonathan Shedler: The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy. In: American Psychologist. Volume 65, No. 2, February-March 2010, pp. 98-109. doi: 10.1037 / a0018378 .
  61. Jonathan Shedler: The Effectiveness of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. In: Psychotherapist. Volume 56, 2011, pp. 265-277. doi: 10.1007 / s00278-011-0819-2
  62. ^ A b A. J. Gerber, JH Kocsis, BL Milrod, SP Roose, JP Barber, ME Thase, P. Perkins, AC Leon: A quality-based review of randomized controlled trials of psychodynamic psychotherapy. In: American Journal of Psychiatry. Volume, 168, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 19-28. Epub 2010, Sep 15.
  63. Jump up National Institute for health and medical research Canceil, Olivier Cottraux, Jean Falissard, Bruno Flament, Martine Miermont, Jacques Swendsen, Joel Teherani, Mardjane Thurin, Jean-Michel: Psychotherapy: Three approaches evaluated . INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, 2004. PMID 21348158
  64. ^ Edward M. Anderson, Michael J. Lambert: Short-term dynamically oriented psychotherapy: A review and meta-analysis. In: Clinical Psychology Review. Volume 15, No. 6, 1995, pp. 503-514.
  65. Allan Abbass, Stephen Kisely, Kurt Kroenke: Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Somatic Disorders. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. In: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. Volume 78, No. 5, 2009.
  66. ^ Allen A. Abass et al .: The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression: A meta-analysis. In: Clinical Psychology Review. Volume 30, Issue 1, February 2010, pp. 25-36.
  67. AA Abbass, JT Hancock, J. Henderson, SR Kisely: Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. No. 4, 2006, item no .: CD004687. doi: 10.1002 / 14651858.CD004687.pub3 (Less than 40 hours in total)
  68. Falk Leichsenring, Sven Rabung, Eric Leibing: The Efficacy of Short-term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Specific Psychiatric Disorders. A meta-analysis. In: Arch Gen Psychiatry . 61 (12), 2004, pp. 1208-1216. doi: 10.1001 / archpsyc.61.12.1208 .
  69. Allan Abbass, Joel Town DClin Psych, Ellen Driessen: Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Outcome Research. In: Harvard Review of Psychiatry. Volume 20, No. 2, 2012, pp. 97-108. doi: 10.3109 / 10673229.2012.677347
  70. a b c F. Leichsenring: Proof of effectiveness of psychoanalytic and depth psychologically founded therapy. In: G. Poscheschnik (Ed.): Empirical research in psychoanalysis. Basics - Applications - Results. Psychosozialverlag, Giessen 2005.
  71. ^ Martin EP Seligman: The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. In: American Psychologist. Volume 50 (12), December 1995, pp. 965-974. doi: 10.1037 / 0003-066X.50.12.965
  72. ^ Martin EP Seligman: Science as an ally of practice. In: American Psychologist. Volume 51 (10), October 1996, pp. 1072-1079. doi: 10.1037 / 0003-066X.51.10.1072
  73. Rolf Sandell, Johan Blomberg, Anna Lazar, Jan Carlsson, Jeanette Broberg, Johan Schubert: Varieties of Long-Term Outcome Among Patients in Psychoanalysis and Long-Term Psychotherapy: A Review of Findings in the Stockholm Outcome of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy Project (Stoppp ). In: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 81, 2000, pp. 921-942.
  74. ^ R. Sandell, J. Blomberg, A. Lazar, J. Schubert: How time flies. Forum of Psychoanalysis. Volume 15, Issue 4, December 1999, pp. 327-347.
  75. Falk Leichsenring: Are psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies effective ?: A review of empirical data. In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Volume 86, No. 3, June 2005, pp. 841-868. doi: 10.1516 / RFEE-LKPN-B7TF-KPDU
  76. ^ S. de Maat, F. de Jonger, R. Schoevers, J. Dekker: The Effectiveness of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Therapy: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies . In: Harvard review of Psychiatry . tape 17 , no. 1 , 2009, p. 1-23 , doi : 10.1080 / 10673220902742476 , PMID 19205963 .
  77. ^ Y. Smit, J. Huibers, J. Ioannidis, R. van Dyck, W. van Tilburg, A. Arntz: The effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy - A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . In: Clinical Psychology Review . tape 32 , no. 2 , 2012, p. 81-92 , doi : 10.1016 / j.cpr.2011.11.003 , PMID 22227111 .
  78. Falk Leichsenring, Sven Rabung: Effectiveness of Long-term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. A meta-analysis. In: JAMA. 300 (13), 2008, pp. 1551-1565. doi: 10.1001 / jama.300.13.1551 .
  79. Falk Leichsenring, Sven Rabung: Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: update of a meta-analysis. In: The British Journal of Psychiatry. 199, 2011, pp. 15-22 doi: 10.1192 / bjp.bp.110.082776 .
  80. ^ F. Leichsenring, J. Biskup, R. Kreische, H. Staats: The Gottingen study of psychoanalytic therapy: first results. In: Int J Psychoanal. 86 (Pt 2), 2005, pp. 433-455.
  81. J. Brockmann, T. Schlueter, J. Eckert: Long-term effects of psychoanalytic and behavioral long-term therapies. A comparative study from the practice of practicing psychotherapists. In: Psychother. 51, 2006, pp. 15-25.
  82. a b M. Leuzinger-Bohleber, U. Stuhr, B. Rüger, M. Beutel: Long-term effects of psychoanalyses and psychotherapies: a multi-perspective, representative catamnesis study. In: Psyche. 55, 2001, pp. 193-276.
  83. G. Rudolf, T. Grande, R. Dilg, T. Jakobsen, W. Keller, B. Krawietz, M. Langer, S. Stehle, C. Oberbracht: Effectiveness and efficiency of psychoanalytic long-term therapy: The practical study of analytical long-term therapy. In: A. Gerlach, A. Schlösser, A. Springer (eds.): Psychoanalysis of faith. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2004, pp. 515-528.
  84. T. Grande, R. Dilg, T. Jakobsen, W. Keller, B. Krawietz, M. Langer, C. Oberbracht, S. Stehle, M. Stennes, G. Rudolf: Differential effects of two forms of psychoanalytic therapy: Results of the Heidelberg-Berlin study. In: Psychother Research. 16, 2006, pp. 470-485.
  85. T. Jacobsen, G. Rudolf, J. Brockmann, J. Eckert, D. Huber, G. Klug, T. Grande, W. Keller, H. Staats, F. Leichsenring: Results of analytical long-term psychotherapies for specific mental disorders: improvements in symptoms and in interpersonal relationships. In: Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 53 (2), 2007, pp. 87-110.
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  89. Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber, Ulrich Stuhr, Bernhard Rüger, Manfred Beutel: How to study the 'quality of psychoanalytic treatments' and their long-term effects on patients' well-being: A representative, multi-perspective follow-up study. In: The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. Volume 84, No. 2, 2003, pp. 263-290. doi: 10.1516 / C387-0AFM-4P34-M4BT .
  90. Annemarie Dührssen, Eberhard Jorswiek: An empirical-statistical investigation into the performance of psychoanalytic treatment (An empirical and statistical inquiry into the therapeutic potential of psychoanalytic treatment) In: Der Nervenarzt. 36 (4), 1965, pp. 166-169. (Reprint in Zsch psychosom Med. 44, 1998, pp. 311-318.)
  91. ^ S. Freud: Letter to Mrs. NN April 19, 1935.
  92. Wolfgang Hegener: How threatened is psychoanalysis by its own institution? Note on the problem of psychoanalytic and depth psychological training. Lecture given at the opening of the depth psychological focus of the training to become a psychological psychotherapist at the Berlin Academy for Psychotherapy on January 29, 2000.
  93. U. Rauchfleisch: Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals. Lifestyles, prejudices, insights. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996.
  94. Johannes Cremerius: The future of psychoanalysis. In: Kuster: Distant Truth. On the finiteness of psychoanalysis. Tübingen 1992, quoted here from August Ruhs
  95. See Journal of gay & lesbian psychotherapy. 6, Number 1, 2002.
  96. See the German website: Les Etats Généraux de la Psychanalyse. Psychoanalysis on the brink of a new millennium. Estates General of Psychoanalysis.
  97. ^ Karl Kraus: Aphorisms, sayings and contradictions pro domo et mundo, Nachts. (= Writings. Volume 8). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1986, p. 351.
  98. Cf. on this: Thomas Anz : Bertolt Brecht and the psychoanalysis. Looking back on the occasion of the Brecht and Freud years 2006 (see web links)
  99. Ernst Bloch: The principle of hope. Volume 1, p. 11.
  100. Arthur Kronfeld: About the psychological theories of Freud and related views. 1912.
  101. Karl Jaspers: On the Critique of Psychoanalysis. 1950.
  102. See also Heinz Hector (ed.): Three reviews of psychoanalysis ( Hoche , Gruhle , Jaspers). Coburg 1975.
  103. Reinhard Platzek: on Matthias Bormuth : Karl Jaspers and the psychoanalysis (= medicine and philosophy. Contributions from research. 7), Fromann-Holzboog, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 2002. In: Würzburger medical historical reports. 23, 2004, pp. 601-603.
  104. Karl Jaspers : General Psychopathology. 9th edition. Springer, Berlin 1973, ISBN 3-540-03340-8 , Part 2: Understanding Psychology , pp. 252-255.
  105. Philip G. Zimbardo , Richard J. Gerrig: Psychology. Pearson, Munich / Hallbergmoos 2008, ISBN 978-3-8273-7275-8 , p. 520.
  106. ^ Karl Popper: Conjectures and Refutations. Routledge and Keagan Paul, London 1963, pp. 33-39; from: Theodore Schick (Ed.): Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View CA 2000, pp. 9-13.
  107. The Ways of Truth. ( Memento from June 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) on the death of Karl Popper from: Enlightenment and criticism. 2/1994, p. 38 ff.
  108. ^ Anthony A. Derksen: The seven sins of pseudo-science. In: Journal for General Philosophy of Science. 24, March 1, 1993, pp. 17-42.
  109. The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical Critique. 1984.
  110. A Century of Psychoanalysis - A Critical Review - A Critical Outlook. In: Forum of Psychoanalysis. 16, December 4, 2000.
  111. ^ Morris Eagle: The dynamics of theory change in psychoanalysis. In: Earman et al: Philosophical problems of the internal and external worlds. 1993, p. 404.
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  113. Jean-Paul Sartre: Being and Nothing. Attempt a phenomenological ontology. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1993, p. 24.
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  115. ^ HJ Eysenck: Grawe and the effectiveness of psychotherapy: some comments. In: Psychol. Rundschau. 44, 1993, pp. 177-180.
  116. K. Grossmann: The attachment theory: model and developmental research. In: H. Keller (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Kleinkindforschung. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York / Tokyo 1989, pp. 31–55.
  117. Emanuel Peterfreund: Some critical comments on psychoanalytic conceptualizations on infancy. In: The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 59 (1978), pp. 427-441.
  118. Jean Piaget, Bärbel Inhelder: The psychology of the child. Olten 1972, p. 30 ff.
  119. Jens B. Asendorpf: Psychology of Personality. Heidelberg 2004, p. 22 f.
  120. Jens B. Asendorpf: Psychology of Personality. Heidelberg 2004, p. 24.
  121. ^ Viktor Frankl : Medical pastoral care. Basics of logotherapy and existential analysis. Last edition. Status: 2005. In: Viktor Frankl : Gesammelte Werke. Volume IV.Böhlau Verlag, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2011, ISBN 978-3-205-78619-1 , p. 311 (531)
  122. A. Dührssen: A Century of Psychoanalytic Movement in Germany. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen / Zurich 1994.
  123. A. Miller: The Drama of the Gifted Child and the Search for the True Self. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1979.
  124. SA Mitchell: Attachment and Relationship. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2003.
  125. HS Krutzenbichler, H. Essers: Must love be a sin? About the analyst's desire. Kore, Freiburg 1991.
  126. ^ Sabina Spielrein: Diary of a secret symmetry. Sabina Spielrein between young and freud . Ed .: Aldo Carotenuto. Kore, Freiburg i. Br. 1986, ISBN 978-3-926023-01-8 (Italian: Diario di una segreta simmetria . Translated by Dorothea Agerer).
  127. M. Becker-Fischer, G. Fischer: Sexual attacks in psychotherapy and psychiatry. 3. Edition. Asanger, Kröning 2008.