The unconscious

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Psychoanalysis describes the unconscious as an area of ​​the human psyche that is not directly accessible to consciousness , but is the basis of it. There is both an unconscious in the individual as well as one of social collectives, whose origin Freud, as a proponent of the theory of evolution, basically sees in the biological incarnation ( phylogenesis ). The depth psychology assumes that thoughts and feelings of the people in every mental development are decisively influenced by unconscious processes. The awareness and recognition of these processes can support mentally healthy people in their personal development and is also an essential prerequisite for the success of psychotherapy and the like. a. of neuroses .

The name comes from philosophy , especially the German tradition according to Immanuel Kant . Following the psychoanalysis founded by Sigmund Freud , the existence of an unconscious as well as its exact definition are still controversially discussed today.

In some sciences, but also in everyday language, the term “unconscious” competes with that of the “subconscious” (also: “subconscious”). The philosopher Rudolf Eisler defines according to the Latin technical terms: “Subconscious (subconscious, subconscient) is that which is not apperceived , as it were in the 'background' of the experience, not conscious of itself, but only forming part of the individual total consciousness through its effects on the conscious and manifested through feelings ”. The physician Otto Dornbusch understands the subconscious as "spiritual processes that take place without consciousness". The writer and publicist Karl Kraus gave one of his satirical glosses the title The Subconscious in War .

The unconscious in Freud

According to Freud, the unconscious of the adult is a system that consists primarily of repressed or defended consciousness, whereby the phenomenon of repression results from traumatic experiences that occurred in connection with attempts to satisfy, in particular, biological needs. The id is considered to be the seat of these needs, while the super-ego becomes the entity that internalizes the traumatic experience (which often comes from the contexts of moral education).

Freud settles the unconscious consisting of id drives in the border area between the body (reservoir or source of libido energy) and the mental and spiritual representation of drives through dream symbols and ideas up to articulated words. These thus become “drive representations”, in contrast to the drives themselves (cf. Lacan's object small a ). According to Freud, many of the instinctual contents of the id are subject to a “primal repression”, which establishes the further repression process in the individual's soul. In the psychoanalytic model of the psyche, “repressed” contents and ideas determine the behavior, thinking and feeling of individuals. However, such unconscious contexts of meaning can be made conscious again on the way of dream interpretation; The so-called Freudian mistakes also allow conclusions to be drawn.

The founder of psychoanalysis set up two different and not entirely congruent models of the psychic apparatus: First the model conscious / preconscious / unconscious (topographical model), later the model I / id / superego (structural model of the psyche).

Conscious, preconscious and unconscious

Freud distinguished the following areas of the human soul :

  1. The consciousness or system W / Bw : Freud referred to that part of the psyche which corresponded to the subjective conscious experience or in which this experience takes place. It forms the core of the self. Everything that is not in consciousness is descriptively unconscious and breaks down into the preconscious and the dynamic unconscious, which in turn breaks down into the system Uc and the repressed.
  2. The preconscious or system Vbw : The psychic system, which consists of contents that can come into consciousness at any time, so can be made conscious. The preconscious functions according to the reality principle, i.e. This means that it works according to the same process rules that can be observed in conscious thinking and decision-making processes.
  3. The unconscious in the narrower sense or system Ubw: includes those parts of the psychic apparatus which by their nature cannot be made conscious, e.g. B. Drives or instincts. They can only be opened up and indirectly represented in consciousness through language. The pleasure principle and the so-called primary processes, i.e. psychological work processes, which are logically different from those that can be observed in consciousness, prevail in the Ubw system.
  4. The repressed : The repressed includes content that is similar in structure to the content of the Vbw system, but unconscious motivations resist becoming conscious (defense and resistance). This content can, for example, be brought back to consciousness with great attention or by means of psychoanalysis.

It, me and superego

Freud later combined the three above-mentioned areas (conscious, preconscious and unconscious) of his original soul model with a further, but not entirely congruent structural model of the psyche , which distinguishes three psychological “instances”: id , ego and superego. In this model of the psyche, the unconscious is largely - but not entirely - identical with the id , the realm of natural, that is, innate drives and instincts stored in the genome . The superego, in contrast to this species-specific content of the psyche, is considered to be the internalized parental authority, the seat of experiences that individuals acquire themselves from birth or are internalized by means of imprinting in the responsible psychic authority. Freud differentiates between these experiences in principle in two directions: a) those that expand the instincts and respectively the id without coming into conflict with it. And b) conversely, those experiences that run counter to the instincts, so that the id with many of its contents can finally be repressed into the unconscious, especially the ideals , morals and conscience .

The ego is above all the instance of consciousness and can reflectively deal with its own content as well as those of the two other psychic instances and, if necessary - should a conflict exist [see b)] - mediate between them. In addition, the ego is the authority in which the decision is made about a defense mechanism assumed by Freud in preconsciousness . This defense mechanism is directed against the contents of the id, which contains a number of innate basic needs. The defense can lead to the complete suppression of these needs into the unconscious, accompanied by their frustration and, under certain circumstances, neurotic suffering. It is one of the main concerns of psychoanalytic treatment to gradually make these repressed contents conscious again and thus to make it possible to revise the decision made against them. As a neurologist , Freud saw the needs of the id, which also provided the individual's psychic energy ( libido ), as somatic , that is, physically conditioned, and tried to back up his psychological theses by means of findings from biological research.

Unconscious and neurosis

The main concern of psychoanalysis according to Freud is the abolition of interpersonal illusions and the reconsciousness of those psychological contents that have been repressed into the unconscious due to moral upbringing and / or suffered trauma . According to Freud, this is accompanied by the elimination of the neurotic suffering associated with repression and the senseless destructiveness of the compulsion to repeat . Because the repressed continues to work invisibly in the unconscious and thus leads to undesirable behavior, interpersonal relationship disorders and psychological suffering. Only by becoming aware of what has been repressed can a person free himself from the power of his unconscious. Freud therefore summarized the goal of psychoanalysis in the well-known catchphrase: “Where it was, I shall become.” In another famous formulation, according to Freud, psychoanalysis is about helping people “to become master in their own home ". Here he attributed a prominent role to the psychoanalytic dream interpretation . The unconscious itself is a natural component of the psychic organization and must be distinguished from the pathological forms of repression .

The unconscious in Jung

The " analytical psychology " founded by Carl Gustav Jung has in some cases similar basic assumptions, methods and goals to Freudian psychoanalysis. Both seek the possibility of (re) becoming conscious of unconscious content in depth psychological therapy or in general in personal development. In both cases the dream is an essential bridge to the unconscious. In addition to the work of “uncovering” unconscious drives and ideas, which is very important according to Freud, according to Jung it is of central importance in therapy (including dream analysis) to promote the development of a dialogical relationship with the unconscious , so that it can act as a creative source of new possibilities and Insights come into play: “Just as conscious content can disappear into the unconscious, so content can also arise from the unconscious. In addition to a multitude of mere memories, really new thoughts and creative ideas can also emerge that were never conscious before. They grow out of the dark depths like a lotus and form an important part of the subliminal psyche. ”So the unconscious strives to become conscious in people:“ A symbol does not obscure, it reveals at the right time ”; and it is the task of dream interpretation that “the message of the dream, that is, the unconscious contribution to the actual conscious situation, is understood as precisely as possible”, for which the personal as well as the archetypal context of the dream images is to be examined.

In his theory, CG Jung distinguished two layers of the unconscious :

“While the personal unconscious consists essentially of contents that were conscious at one time, but disappeared from consciousness by either being forgotten or repressed, the contents of the collective unconscious were never in the conscious and were therefore never acquired individually, but owed their existence exclusively of heredity. "

With the collective unconscious, Jung describes primarily the unconscious of non-individual origin, with the personal unconscious secondarily unconscious of individual origin. Whereby he also assigned the "preconscious", that is, slightly capable of consciousness, but repressed, that is, wishes and the like, to the personal unconscious. In contrast to the collective unconscious, the personal is to a large extent fully capable of consciousness: "The personal unconscious is something very relative; its range can be reduced and eventually become so small that it approaches zero."

Complexes in the unconscious

Jung's ideas of the unconscious initially developed primarily on the basis of his association experiments in psychiatric practice: conspicuous reactions to certain stimulus words led him to accept the underlying " complexes " in the unconscious. Based on experiments by Wilhelm Wundt and others, Jung had developed what he called the "association experiment ", in which the spontaneous reactions are noted on a list of (later always 100) stimulus words (see also the section on discovery of the unconscious ). From semantically, emotionally or otherwise (especially due to strongly delayed reaction times) conspicuous reactions, Jung deduced the underlying (emotional) complexes as structural elements of the unconscious psyche. Jung saw the complexes developed in the association experiment as the cause of the resistance and repression mechanisms in psychoanalysis according to Freud. The "complex constellations" of people showed the structure of their unconscious, which, however, according to Jung's later theoretical differentiation, partly from biographically acquired complexes (e.g. due to certain family situations, love stories, injuries), partly due to archetypal backgrounds (e.g. . Father / mother complex or religious ideas) in personal expression.

Collective unconscious with archetypal structures

Jung's concept of the “ collective unconscious ” has an intersection with Freud's assumption of the content of the ES, which humanity, because innate, would be general or even collective - see below. a. the famous “phallic symbols” in Freud and the discussions of the lingam symbol in Jung. Even more consequently than Freud saw the “archaic inheritance”, Jung saw the collective unconscious as the essence of experiences that humanity internalized during its evolution - and which at the same time acted as the structural basis for today's psychological experience and behavioral patterns (references in the main article on the collective unconscious). Jung therefore saw the process of becoming conscious of the contents of the collective unconscious as a culturally relevant process: “The symbolic function of our dreams represents an attempt to bring our original mind to consciousness where it has never been before and has never exposed itself to critical self-examination. You may have been this spirit, but you never knew it . "

According to Jung's thesis, the collective unconscious contains the archetypes he described in 1919 as structural dominants . Archetypes show up in formal structures of perception and experience as well as in the associated emotions and they can be found interculturally. Archetypes, however, are not recognizable per se, but can only be deduced hypothetically from typical patterns of archetypal images and experiences. The human personality structure also has archetypal foundations , which include: animus and anima (male in women or female in men appearing content of the unconscious), shadow (personality traits that contradict the self-image of the self, often socially undesirable and therefore suppressed) and the old sage and the old sage as one of many groups of symbols of the self , expression of wholeness and the 'center' of the psyche. Archetypes are pre-existing unconscious psychological structural bases of every individual, which shape the development of the personality and its ideas as well as external influences. A human consciousness emerges from the (collective) unconscious and its subjectivity arises through a process of progressive integration of unconscious content into its consciousness and its ego personality, which Jung referred to as the process of individuation .

Jung's conception of the collective unconscious with the associated concept of archetypes as the structures contained in it expand the content of the unconscious to include elements that traditionally appear mythological or religious. Because of this theoretical assimilation of beliefs by the psychology of the unconscious , he always considered it necessary to point out that he did not intend to make any statements of a religious nature, but only to express himself as a psychologist.

While Freud tends to justify the constitution of the unconscious more biographically, through primal repression in the ontogenesis of the individual, and is rather skeptical about the acceptance of inherited content, according to Jung it is almost shaped by phylogenetic experience. A significant middle link between the two conceptions offer - in addition to the above-mentioned primal repression and the Oedipus complex - Freudian terms such as primal fantasy or primal scene , in which central experiences of psychosexual development are explained as supra-individual, phylogenetically anchored constants of the unconscious within the framework of drive theory . As such, their effectiveness is based on the (inherited) instinctual life and must therefore be considered primarily and independently of specific events in the history of life. In contrast to Freud, however, the unconscious in Jung also includes contents of a non-instinctual (repressed or repulsed ) nature.

The unconscious in Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre , as a philosopher of the 20th century and as the main exponent of existentialism, questioned Freudian psychoanalysis. In his main work, Being and Nothing , which can be seen as existential psychoanalysis, he criticizes Freud's findings about the unconscious and rates them as at least inadequate:

“And where would consciousness 'come' from if it could 'come' from anything? From the dark zones of the unconscious? How can these dark zones exist and from what do they gain their existence? We can absolutely no longer understand how these non-conscious facts, which do not gain their existence from themselves, continue to exist and at the same time do not find the strength to produce consciousness. "

For Sartre, therefore, the psychological fact extends completely to consciousness:

"[...] The basic design [is] fully lived by the subject [...] and [is] totally conscious as such [...]", which does not mean, according to Sartre, "that it must be recognized by him at the same time, entirely in the Opposite"

Finally, the difference between consciousness and knowledge is explicitly pointed out:

“As we have seen, reflection can be understood as a quasi-knowledge. But what it grasps at every moment is not the pure design of the for-itself, as it is expressed symbolically - and often in different ways at the same time - through the concrete behavior it perceives: it is the concrete behavior itself [...]. "

For the unconscious there is no gap in Sartre's existential argument, insofar as:

"[...] the relationship of consciousness to the body [an] existential relationship [is] [and] [...] the consciousness of its body can only exist as consciousness."

Discovery of the unconscious

“Hypnotic Séance ”, painting by Richard Bergh, 1887

The historical and anthropological research shows that (partly also for the treatment already in archaic societies methods of mental disorders were) used, in which suggestion so forth influencing or unconscious processes, plays a crucial role. Examples of this are shamanism , exorcism , " spiritual healing " and religious rites .

What these “ magical ” forms of treatment have in common is usually the assumption of an “invisible world” behind the visible everyday world, which is viewed as the source of a secret power. Such an assumption can - in a certain sense - be regarded as the earliest form of the unconscious later assumed by Freud among others. The healers considered the access to this - often regarded as life-giving - source again to be essential for the success of a treatment they carried out. It was not until the 18th and 19th centuries that the first systematic preoccupation with the unconscious developed from these practices:

  • The German doctor Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) was the founder of the first "dynamic psychiatry " (from 1775). Like the healers of non-European cultures, he assumed healing powers ( magnetic currents, fluid , rapport ) that the doctor could stimulate in the patient. He called these forces - in analogy to the contemporary discoveries in the field of electricity - "animal magnetism ".
  • His student, the French artillery officer Marquis de Puységur (1751–1825), developed Mesmer's form of treatment further to administer a so-called "magnetic sleep" or "magnetic hypnosis ".
  • The German doctor and natural philosopher Carl Gustav Carus (1789–1869), a friend of Goethe , published the book Psyche in 1846 . The history of the development of the soul . There he developed the designation of the "unconscious" as well as the "unconscious", whereby he interpreted this spiritualist - romantic as "divine nature".
  • In 1869 Eduard von Hartmann (1842–1906) published his book on the philosophy of the unconscious , which contributed significantly to the spread and popularization of the term.
  • The French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) examined the "traumatic paralysis" at the Hôpital Salpêtrière in Paris and recognized with the help of hypnosis that there could be no underlying organic disorders: the paralysis could be remedied under hypnotic suggestion. Sigmund Freud worked at this famous French clinic for four months from 1885–1886.
  • The French philosophy professor, physician and psychotherapist Pierre Janet (1859-1947) was the founder of a "new system of dynamic psychiatry" (1900). His work became one of the main sources for Freud, Alfred Adler and CG Jung.
  • Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) saw the fact that the phenomenon of hysterical paralysis, with which Charcot had experimented in Paris, can be temporarily remedied in many of those affected by hypnotically suggested commands without, as the first strong evidence for the existence of the unconscious that the test persons would be able to provide an explanation for this. Purely physiologically conditioned causes of the paralysis were thus excluded; there are processes at work that are not easily communicated to conscious thinking. After initial experiments with the hypnosis technique he had learned from Charcot, he distanced himself from it, since the suggestive elimination of psychosomatic symptoms is not permanent, and instead founded his own school, " Psychoanalysis ". According to Freud, their success is based on the one hand on the reasonable insight that the patient gains in the course of treatment about the cause of his illness, and on the other hand on the possibility of changing the neurotic behavior on the basis of the diagnosis in a therapeutically effective way on his own. Freud's writings and insights into the psychological dynamics of both individuals and entire cultures have fundamentally shaped our present-day view of man. The “ Freudian slip of the tongue ”, which Freud - along with other types of failures - also regarded as good evidence of the existence of unconscious motives and processes, achieved great popularity .
  • The “ individual psychology ” developed by Alfred Adler (1870–1937) differs fundamentally from psychoanalysis in its pragmatic theory, which emphasizes the indivisibility of the individual and the teleological and social orientation of people. However, with Freud, Adler assumed that the situations experienced in early childhood unconsciously influence the adult's lifestyle. Adler's teaching has had a major impact on neo- psychoanalysis.
  • The " analytical psychology " founded by Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961) differs from Freud's psychoanalysis primarily in the great importance that Jung attaches to the archetypal dimensions of the unconscious. Here, influences from previous reference persons (“imago”), such as those portraying personal “mother” or “father complexes”, can be linked to general conceptual structures that are not individual acquisitions but rather come from the “ collective unconscious ”. Jung found general evidence for the assumption of an unconscious in his association experiments . He called out a few precisely defined words to test subjects. The subjects should respond as quickly as possible with the first idea that came to their mind. In these experiments, Jung noticed that some of the words he had given always led to conspicuous linguistic or non-verbal reactions, specifically for the subject. The associations to certain words were 'disturbed', were too slow or contained content that suggested a conflicting relationship. (For example: doctor: “cloud” - subject: “air”. But: doctor: “mother” - subject very late: “cemetery” ). From this context, Jung concluded that there were unconscious, often conflictual, contexts apart from consciousness, which he termed “ complexes ”.
  • The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901–1981), who played a central role in the development of psychoanalysis in France, devoted himself to a renewed reading of Freud's writings in the light of the structuralist method. Lacan emphasized, also against the background of Freud's theory of failure and the joke, that the unconscious is structured "like a language". The work of the unconscious takes place according to linguistic laws such as metaphor and metonymy , substitution and displacement. He called the corresponding elements of psychic events signifiers , but in addition to the linguistically structured field of the symbolic , the imaginary and the real also play a central role in the psychic apparatus. The actual structuring work, and also the psychoanalytic cure, take place in the field of speaking . Lacan's further development was particularly important for post-structuralism .

The unconscious in today's depth psychology

Freud's basic assumption that through automatic, mostly unconscious defense mechanisms, thoughts or impulses that trigger fear are suppressed from consciousness and can continue to act unconsciously and express themselves as symptoms of illness, is supported by all depth psychology schools. The Freudian structural model of the psyche with the assumption of ego, id and superego as different parts of the personality is also current. Freud's theories have repeatedly been questioned and fundamentally questioned, modified, expanded and confirmed.

At the time, Freud recognized and studied somatic aspects of the unconscious even less than the more obviously traceable links to character and behavior. Today's psychosomatic medicine assumes that content that has been repressed from consciousness can be expressed in physical and psychological symptoms of illness. In body psychotherapy it is assumed that the unconscious can have a physical effect and that physical manipulation of somatic symptoms could directly affect the opposite ends of the sensory nerves. An example of the application of this basic assumption is the foot reflexology theory . Alfred Adler took the opposite approach, presenting the connections between physical defects and the resulting psychological complexes as a result of overcompensation for physical weaknesses. The reverse conclusion that quasi thoughts would be able to heal bodies can be found in specialist articles in pharmaceutical science as invalid.

The assumptions about the content of the unconscious in psychodynamic theories have changed considerably. The repression of sexual impulses is no longer as important as it was in the first half of the 20th century . It influences itself with feedback from social developments (such as the attempted removal of taboos on sexuality) and its subsequent counter-movements. The psychodynamic theories have received their greatest expansion through research in developmental psychology and through psychotraumatology . Today psychoanalysis still works with a multi-person model of psychological development.

Empirical research on infants and toddlers and their interactions with mothers suggested that early attachment experiences develop a self-image that arises from a connection between sensory memories and physical and emotional experiences. Such sensory memories are later hardly accessible by cognitive consciousness and therefore influence experience and behavior.

The Entwicklungspsychologie meant that Freudian assumptions repressed drive pulses should be replaced with new assumptions or supplemented with labels which attach to the displacement painful illusions, such as a failed quest for satisfying needs (as-forming lernstrategischem failure), and more important. At the time, Freud attributed even less effort to analytical processing to determine the effects of a one-sided upbringing or excessive demands on the parents .

The Psychotraumatology assumes that repressed traumatic events can have a dramatic effect on self-image and worldview. As a result, early childhood traumatic experiences can trigger panic and helplessness in a moment similar to the traumatic situation .

The term “unconscious” is also used in psychological generational research. Here he means a concealed, usually drastic and traumatic experience that can be passed on across generations through subliminal behavioral influencing without the event itself being generally openly discussed. This can affect any size of social structure from individual families to global communities. The affects brought about by repressed thoughts and experiences contemplate, where possible, genetically predisposed strategies of the unconditional satisfaction of needs ( instinct ) - in exceptional cases up to the pathological, complete superimposition of the instinct by the culturally transferred complex (original sin). The memetics assumes that this would be between unrelated individuals possible. This justifies a theorem of factual metaphysical communication that disregards the purely pathologizing approach.

In 2018 Ralf Zwiebel referred to Werner Bohleber at a lecture , who a year earlier presented four “conceptualizations of the unconscious”: “the dynamic unconscious (which is usually equated with the repressed), the non-repressed unconscious (such as the implicit Relationship patterns from early childhood, as coded in procedural memory), the traumatic-dissociated unconscious (in which split-off, traumatic experiences can be reactivated with appropriate triggers) and the creative unconscious (which is primarily seen in its creative potential) ".

The unconscious in cognitive psychology

The cognitive psychology uses the term unconscious , "Many cognitive psychologists now confirm Freud's view that a large part of human behavior is determined by unconscious processes." However, most cognitive psychologists assume only that us many cognitive processes or perceptions are unaware of. As a rule, they reject Freud's conception of an id as an instance for repressed instincts and needs, just as it was already the case in Gestalt psychology .

Unconscious Processes in Neuroscience

The scientific discussion about unconscious processes in the brain has been further developed since the turn of the millennium, especially by the empirical neuroscientific studies by Antonio Damasio and by neurobiological research results made possible by the new imaging methods in brain research . In the process, assumptions about the importance of unconscious processes for human experience and behavior were greatly enhanced.

The biological access to unconscious processes in the brain originally striven for by Freud is now partially made possible by the imaging processes. Leading neuroscientists put it in a joint manifesto : "We have found that neuronal processes and consciously experienced mental and psychological states are closely related in the human brain and that unconscious processes consciously precede them in a certain way."


The term "unconscious" was first used in writing by Goethe in 1777 in the last stanza of the older version of the poem To the Moon : "What people unconsciously / Or despise / Through the labyrinth of the chest / Walks in the night." but it already existed in oral language beforehand.

  • Carl Gustav Jung : Archetypes , dtv 1993: “Whether I believe in a demon of the air realm or in a factor in the unconscious that is playing a diabolical trick on me is completely irrelevant. The fact that man is threatened by foreign powers in his imagined unity remains the same. "
  • Jean Paul : Preschool of Aesthetics . First division, III. Program, § 11-13: "If you have the boldness to speak about the unconscious and unfathomable: you can only want to determine its existence, not its depth."
  • Jean Paul, ibid .: "The most powerful thing in the poet, which blows the good and the bad soul into his works, is precisely the unconscious."


  • Antonio R. Damasio : I feel, therefore I am. The decryption of consciousness. Munich: List 2000, ISBN 3-548-60164-2 .
  • Eleven leading neuroscientists on the present and future of brain research. In: Brain & Mind , 6/2004.
  • Henri F. Ellenberger : The discovery of the unconscious. History and development of dynamic psychiatry from its beginnings to Janet, Freud, Adler and Jung. (1970) From the American by Gudrun Theusner-Stampa. 2 volumes. Huber, Bern 1973.
  • Sigmund Freud : study edition , 10 volumes, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer 1975 ff., Therein a. a .: Vol. III: Psychology of the Unconscious , ISBN 3-10-822723-8 .
  • Carl Gustav Jung : The relationship between the ego and the unconscious (1928) as well as: About the psychology of the unconscious (1943), both in: Collected works , Vol. 7: Two writings on analytical psychology , Walter, Olten / Freiburg 1995, ISBN 3-530-40082-3 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rudolf Eisler: Dictionary of Philosophical Terms , 2nd edition, Berlin 1904
  2. Otto Dornbusch: Clinical Dictionary , 14th edition, Berlin 1927, keyword "subconscious"
  3. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 18/1: § 449 (translation from the English original).
  4. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 18/1: § 483; see. ibid .: 585-590 (translation from the English original).
  5. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 7: § 449
  6. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 9/1: § 88
  7. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 7: § 449
  8. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 18/1: § 91
  9. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 2: § 1351
  10. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 2: § 730
  11. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 2: § 733 ff.
  12. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 8: § 196
  13. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 8: § 219
  14. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 2: § 859 f.
  15. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 2: § 818 f.
  16. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 8: § 198, 200
  17. U. a. Carl Gustav Jung, GW 7: § 205, 218-220
  18. For phallic symbols of the “son-lover” see z. B. Jung GW 9/1, § 193 (Hermes, Bes, Lingam); on the symbolism of female-male two-unity GW 5: § 306 (-332) (Rama-Sita, Shiva-Parvati, Lingam basin, etc.).
  19. Sigmund Freud, GW 17, p. 89. Originally published in 1938 in von Traum und Traumdeutung .
  20. ^ Carl Gustav Jung, GW 18/1: § 591 (translation from the English original).
  21. ^ Elisabeth Roudinesco and Michel Plon: Jung, Carl Gustav in: Dictionnaire de la Psychanalyse , 1997. From the French by Christoph Eissing-Christophersen a. a. Dictionary of Psychoanalysis . Springer Wien, 2004, pp. 510–515, ISBN 3-211-83748-5 - For primary sources, see the article Archetyp (Psychology) .
  22. Jean-Paul Sartre: Being and Nothing, Chapter 1
  23. a b Jean-Paul Sartre: Being and Nothing, p. 978
  24. Jean-Paul Sartre: Being and Nothing, p. 583
  25. ^ Henri F. Ellenberger: The discovery of the unconscious. Bern: Huber 1973, ISBN 3-456-30577-X , new edition: Zurich: Diogenes 2005, ISBN 3-257-06503-5
  26. Ralf Zwiebel: With and without a couch. On the clinical and extra-clinical significance of psychoanalysis . Lecture at the FiS Supervision Days on April 14/15, 2018 in Münster. In: FIS newsletter . No. 12 , 2018, p. 6 ( [PDF; 445 kB ; accessed on December 26, 2019]).
  27. Gerald C. Davison / John M. Neale / Martin Hautzinger: Klinische Psychologie , Weinheim: Belz 2002 (6th, fully revised edition), ISBN 3-621-27458-8 , pp. 205 f.
  28. See G. Stemberger (2014), The Gestalt Theory and the Unconscious, see web links.
  29. Antonio R. Damasio : I feel, therefore I am. The decryption of consciousness , Munich: List 2000, ISBN 3-548-60164-2
  30. Cf. Christian Gottwald, in: Gustl Marlock / Halko Weiss: Handbuch der Körperpsychotherapie , Schattauer Verlag 2006, pp. 119 ff.
  31. ^ " Eleven leading neuroscientists on the present and future of brain research ", in: Brain & Mind , 6/2004.