Alfred Adler (born February 7, 1870 in Rudolfsheim , † May 28, 1937 in Aberdeen ) was an Austrian doctor and psychotherapist . He came from a Jewish family and converted to Protestantism in 1904 . Adler is the founder of individual psychology .
Adler's teaching had a major, independent impact on the development of psychology and psychotherapy in the 20th century. She influenced the psychotherapy schools of Rollo May , Viktor Frankl , Abraham Maslow and Albert Ellis . His writings anticipated many insights from neo- psychoanalysis, which are found in harmony with individual psychology in the works of Karen Horney , Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm .
Childhood and youth
Alfred Adler was the second of seven children of the grain dealer Leopold Adler (born around 1833 in Köpcsény , Hungary - at that time Batthyány-Strattmann'scher estate -; died 1922 in Vienna) and Pauline Beer (born 1845 in Trebitsch , Moravia ; died 1906 in Vienna). As a child he tried to emulate his older brother Sigmund Adler (born in Fünfhaus near Vienna in 1868 ), who later became a successful businessman. He was the favorite child of his hardworking and courageous father, while the relationship with his mother was less intense. Adler suffered from rickets and a glottic spasm while crying. When he was four years old, he had pneumonia that almost cost him his life. This experience and the death of his younger brother are said to have determined his future career choice. Adler attended the Hernalser Gymnasium Kalvarienberggasse (today: Hernalser Gymnasium Geblergasse ), where he passed the high school diploma in 1888.
Study of Medicine - Medical Practice - Freud
Adler studied medicine at the University of Vienna and received his doctorate in 1895. During his studies he met Raissa Timofejewna Epstein , a Russian woman who studied in Zurich and Vienna, in a socialist student group . They married in Moscow in 1897 . From this marriage came the four children Valentina (1898–1942), Alexandra (1901–2001), Kurt and Cornelia.
He initially worked as an ophthalmologist and opened his practice around the turn of the century in the 9th district (Alsergrund) in Wilhelm-Exner-Gasse 22. Soon afterwards, he opened a practice for general medicine in the 2nd district, Leopoldstadt , near Vienna Prater - in an area in which some of his patients lived in poor conditions, which strengthened his views on the need for social medical care for the Viennese population. From 1902 Adler took part in the discussion rounds of Sigmund Freud's Wednesday evening company , but soon developed an independent teaching that deviated from Freud's psychoanalysis . He did not see man as determined by instincts, but as a free being who had to solve the cultural tasks that life posed to him. These opposites of views led to a break with Freud in 1911. In the same year he moved his practice to Dominikanerbastei 10 in the 1st district.
Development of Individual Psychology - Theoretical Basics
In his study on the inferiority of organs , published in 1907 , Adler presented his point of view and his new ideas, thereby establishing the school of individual psychology. He pointed out the connection between organ inferiority and its physical and psychological compensation and overcompensation . After the break with Freud, Adler founded his own society for free psychoanalysis in 1912 , the Society for Free Psychoanalytical Research , renamed the Society for Individual Psychology in 1913 . He called his teaching individual psychology because in his doctor's practice he came to the conclusion that every patient should be treated physically and psychologically as something unrepeatable, unique, as an individual and as a whole.
Adler formulated the main features of his teaching in his main theoretical work On the nervous character (1912), in which he combined normal psychology and psychopathology in one concept. With this book, individual psychology made the breakthrough in the specialist literature as an alternative to psychoanalysis . In the book Healing and Education - A Book of Waldorf Education for Doctors and Pedagogues , published in 1913 , Adler and his students presented the development of individual psychology in educational work. In 1914, the "International Journal for Individual Psychology " was founded.
The First World War brought an interruption in the development of individual psychology. Adler worked as a military doctor in Cracow , Brno and Vienna from 1914 to 1916 .
The heyday of individual psychology - practical application
The period between the two world wars was a heyday of individual psychology. As part of the Vienna school reform , Adler and his employees were able to open around thirty educational counseling centers in Vienna. The “parenting training” was understood as “neurosis prophylaxis”. Psychoanalytically oriented kindergartens for working class children were also established. In 1920 Adler became director of the first clinic for child psychology in Vienna and lecturer at the pedagogy of the city of Vienna. With the publication Praxis und Theory of Individual Psychology (1920), which included lectures on introductory psychotherapy for doctors, psychologists and teachers, Adler began to present his theory in more detail. His views, explained in numerous lectures at adult education centers , exerted a great influence on Otto Glöckel's school reform , the educational work of child friends and the municipal child and youth care in " Red Vienna ".
Adler wanted to create a realistic psychology that enables people to understand their fellow human beings based on their individual life stories. His books and lectures, deliberately kept in a simple style from 1920 on, were intended to make his psychology accessible to everyone and to make it commonplace. In the 1920s he gave a series of lectures at the Volkshochschule in Vienna, which he published in 1927 under the title Human Knowledge.
Persecution of depth psychology in Europe - relocation to the USA
From 1926 onwards, Adler regularly visited the United States , where his optimistic doctrine of the human being as a social being became extremely popular. In the early 1930s, Adler was one of the most famous psychologists in the western world. Over 2,000 people are said to have participated in the large and at the same time last, 5th, International Congress for Individual Psychology organized by Arthur Kronfeld in Berlin .
To strengthen and better understand the educational prophylaxis, Adler published Individual Psychology in Schools in 1929 and The Soul of the Difficult Schoolchild in 1930 . In 1933, Adler laid out his basic philosophical position in his late work The Meaning of Life . The meaning of life is a developed sense of community for solving life's questions, a striving for perfection towards an ideal society.
Emigration and death
In view of the threatening conditions in Europe, Adler moved to the USA in 1934. He had been visiting professor at Columbia University since 1926 and at Long Island College since 1932 . The International Journal of Individual Psychology , written in English, was published for the first time in 1935 . He still made lecture tours to Europe. On one such trip, Adler died of heart failure on May 28, 1937 in Aberdeen , Scotland , at the age of 67 .
Adler's body was cremated in Edinburgh , a form of burial common in the family. Although the family traveled to the funeral service, the urn remained in Scotland. A project group from the Association for Individual Psychology started the search in 2009. The urn was found in 2011 in the Warriston crematorium in Edinburgh with the help of the Austrian Honorary Consul John Clifford and brought to Vienna in April 2011. A few days before the 25th International Congress of Individual Psychology (July 14-17, 2011) at the University of Vienna, the burial took place on July 12, 2011 in an honorary grave in the central cemetery (group 33 G).
The sudden death of Alfred Adler dealt a severe blow to individual psychology, especially in Germany and Austria in the 1930s. Adler's students were persecuted by the new rulers. The blossoming depth psychology had to leave its center in German-speaking Europe and continue its educational work in other parts of the world. The dictatorships and the Second World War severely disrupted the development of psychological science as a whole.
In 2009 in Vienna- Favoriten (10th district) the Alfred-Adler-Strasse traffic route between Quartier Belvedere and Sonnwendviertel was named at the main train station .
On May 23, 2000 the asteroid (11519) eagle was named after him.
In 1985, a memorial plaque was placed on the house at 7 Czerningasse in Vienna, reminding of Alfred Adler's medical practice in this building.
The Association for Individual Psychology put a memorial plaque on Adler's birthplace at Mariahilferstrasse 208 in Vienna.
On May 28, 1957, a commemorative plaque was placed on Dominikanerbastei 10 in Vienna, where Adler practiced.
In 1930 Adler was honored as a “Citizen of the City of Vienna”.
Knowledge of human nature
As a practicing doctor and as an active participant in Sigmund Freud's new kind of psychoanalytic discussion rounds, Adler discovered that with every expression of human life, physical and mental processes are always effective together and form an indivisible unit (individual). This discovery forms the basis of psychosomatics today .
When observing organ inferiority , Adler was able to determine that the body and mind have a tendency to compensate for them in some way. Adler found this situation of inferiority or inferiority in the psychological area above all in the three life tasks work - love - community (baby, sibling series, school, job, marriage, exam situations , etc.). It triggers an emotional state in humans that Adler called inferiority . Similar to the compensation of an organ inferiority, the human psyche strives to overcome this state of inferiority through what Adler called it - striving for validity . According to Adler, how well a person is able to cope with such challenges in life depends primarily on how he was able to cope with the first situation of inferiority, his helplessness as an infant. Adler found that this positive drive in the growth and development process forms the basis for educability, because in this situation he is absolutely dependent on the help of his relationships. In this early interrelationship between mother and child , a feeling of being cared for among people develops, which Adler called a sense of community and which becomes an unconscious part of his personality. The sense of community is at the center of Adler's teaching because it is the yardstick for the mental health of the individual and community. In Adler's concept of man , the individual has a social nature that is guided by a sense of community. Adler also assumed that a lack of development of the female personality, especially in the social order prevailing at the time, leads to the destruction of her self-esteem and that this can have negative consequences for the upbringing of children. He considered the development of the female personality to be absolutely necessary for the spiritual development of women.
In addition to describing the normal psyche to understand the human personality - or, as Adler called it, to acquire knowledge of human nature - the doctor Adler also examined the deviating and pathological psychological phenomena. According to his principle of the unity of mental processes, he saw these as erroneous answers to the demands of life. An intensely experienced feeling of inferiority, to which Adler gave the term inferiority complex , could lead to overcompensation in the form of an excessive striving for validity or the so-called will to power . Adler described the nervous character as a transition between normal and neurotic psychology. He understood psychosis as merely a sharper form of neurosis , which is why, from his point of view, both are accessible to psychological analysis.
Teaching of healing and education - the art of education for doctors and teachers
From his theory of neuroses , which shows the causes of unpleasant childhood influences, Adler developed his teaching of healing and education, individual psychological psychotherapy and educational prophylaxis. According to the motto “prevention is better than cure”, Adler placed the emphasis of the practical application of individual psychology on educational prophylaxis and psychological education, which is reflected in his publications and in terms he has coined, such as pampering education . In the case of children and adolescents, it was still relatively easy to make corrections to errors in lifestyle, and educational counseling enabled the psychological knowledge of human nature to have a broad impact. The successes of the individual psychological educational counseling centers and school trials within the framework of the Vienna school reform soon became internationally known and imitated.
“Individual psychology sees its task in the fact that its teachings (...) go beyond the limits of patient treatment and individual upbringing, that they become prophylaxis and worldview. Under the spell of the cosmos, arrested on this earth's crust, which is not in abundance, linked by the weakness of its organism, and even more by its membership of the community in language, reason, ethics, aesthetics and eroticism, life forces people to answer inevitably developed questions. (...) His courage, his optimism and his trained performance are necessary answers to a real need, which also maintains a constant feeling of inferiority as an essential part of his soul life. "
In his late work Der Sinn des Lebens (1933), Adler summarized his philosophical tenor on which individual psychology is based. The expression “meaning of life” has two different meanings at Adler: On the one hand it describes the meaning that a certain person seeks and finds in his life and which is closely related to the opinion he has of himself, his fellow human beings and the world Has. On the other hand, it is understood to mean the “true” meaning of life, that meaning that lies outside of our experience and that can also be missed by someone who is firmly convinced that they know what is important in life. “Asking about a meaning in life is only valuable and meaningful if one has the human-cosmos reference system in mind”. The constant demand from the cosmos is called “development”, which pushes out of the native feeling of inferiority for self-preservation, reproduction, contact with the outside world and striving for an “ideal community of the future” in the sense of Immanuel Kant . For this goal of the development movement, Adler uses terms such as “completion” and “perfection”; he thinks that the pursuit of perfection is an "innate fact that is present in every human being". Adler refers to Charles Darwin , Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck's theory of descent and the holistic theory of Jan Christiaan Smuts . A term that is often used for getting closer to this perfection is Adler's "overcoming" the inferiority of people. The term is based closely on Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche . Adler sees Schopenhauer's intention to consciously overcome suffering as a fundamentally positive aspect in human development. Schopenhauer's pessimistic will to the world (with the consequence of trying to negate this - as already laid out in Buddhism) - in Adler's follow-up to Friedrich Nietzsche's “Will to Power” emphatically value-free - as the originally creative element in everyone Interpreted living beings.
Association for Individual Psychology
Because of its goal of making the psychological knowledge of human nature a prophylactic part of the common good, Adler's association was open to everyone. His aim was to integrate everyone, if only they suggested the same basic tendency. For this reason, he demanded political neutrality for the club. But already at the Berlin Congress of 1925, political movements tried to get hold of the ideas of individual psychology. Adler's goal failed due to the economic crisis, ideological bias and National Socialism. The communist Die Rote Fahne wrote in a gloss for the day that Adler's attempt to replace socialism with his psychology had failed. After the National Socialists marched into Austria, the association was officially dissolved on January 26, 1939.
- The unconscious
- List of banned authors during the National Socialist era
- Schönbrunn Educational School
Alfred Adler study edition. 7 volumes. Publishing house Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2007–2010:
- Volume 1: Personality and Neurotic Development - Early Writings (1904–1912). Published by Almuth Bruder-Bezzel, ISBN 978-3-525-46051-1 .
- Volume 2: On the nervous character (1912). Edited by Karl Heinz Witte, Almuth Bruder-Bezzel and Rolf Kühn. 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-525-46053-5 .
- Volume 3: Personality Theory, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy (1913–1937). Edited by Gisela Eife, ISBN 978-3-525-46054-2 .
- Volume 4: Writings on education and educational advice (1913–1937). Edited by Wilfried Datler, Johannes Gstach and Michael Wininger, ISBN 978-3-525-40106-4 .
- Volume 5: Knowledge of human nature (1927). Edited by Jürg Rüedi, ISBN 978-3-525-46052-8 .
- Volume 6: The Meaning of Life (1933). Edited by Reinhard Brunner (= Ronald Wiegand (Hrsg.): Religion and Individualpsychologie 1933), ISBN 978-3-525-40554-3 .
- Volume 7: Culture and Society (1897-1937). Published by Almuth Bruder-Bezzel, ISBN 978-3-525-46055-9 .
- Alfred Adler's individual psychology. A systematic presentation of his teaching in excerpts from his writings. Edited and edited by Heinz Ludwig Ansbacher and Rowena R. Ansbacher 1956. (Reinhardt Verlag Munich / Basel 1982).
- Health book for the tailoring trade. Carl Heymanns Verlag, Berlin 1898.
- Study of the inferiority of organs . Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin / Vienna 1907.
- On the Critique of Freud's Sexual Theory of Mental Life. 1911.
- About the nervous character . Basics of a comparative individual psychology and psychotherapy. (Main work). JF Bergmann, Wiesbaden 1912. (Also: unabridged edition; Fischer-Taschenbücher, Volume 6174, ISSN 0173-5438 ; Fischer Bücherei, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-436-01588-1 ).
- Healing and Education. 1914. (Fischer paperback 1973)
- The other side. A mass psychological study of the guilt of the people . Verlag Leopold Heidrich, Vienna 1919 (full text digital.wienbibliothek.at ).
- Practice and theory of individual psychology. Lectures to introduce psychotherapy for doctors, psychologists and teachers. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1974, ISBN 3-596-26236-4 (first edition: JF Bergmann, Munich / Wiesbaden 1920 - archive.org ).
- Knowledge of human nature. 1927. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1966, ISBN 3-596-26080-9 ).
- The technique of individual psychology. First part: The art of reading a life and medical history. 1928/1930. (Fischer Taschenbuch, ISBN 3-596-26260-7 )
- Individual psychology in schools - lectures for teachers and students. 1929. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1973).
- Knowledge of life. 1929. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1978, ISBN 3-596-26392-1 ).
- Neuroses. Case studies. For diagnosis and treatment. 1929. (Fischer Taschenbuch, ISBN 3-596-26735-8 ).
- Raising children. 1930. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1976, ISBN 3-596-26311-5 ).
- The technique of individual psychology. Second part: The soul of the difficult to educate school child. 1930. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1974).
- Shaping life - dealing with problem children. 1939. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1979).
- The problem of homosexuality. Erotic training and erotic withdrawal. 1930. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1977, ISBN 3-596-26337-9 ).
- What do we live for? 1931. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1979, ISBN 3-596-26708-0 ).
- The sense of life. 1933. (Fischer Taschenbuch, ISBN 3-596-26179-1 ).
- with Ernst Jahn: Religion and Individual Psychology - A fundamental discussion about leadership. 1933. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1975, ISBN 3-436-02112-1 ).
- Life problems. Lectures and essays. 1937. (Fischer Taschenbuch 1994, ISBN 3-596-11718-6 ).
- Ernst Aeppli : The dream and its interpretation. Knaur, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-426-87459-2 , pp. 147-151.
- Heinz L. Ansbacher: Alfred Adler's sex theories. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-596-26793-5 .
- Hannes Böhringer : Compensation and Common Sense: On Alfred Adler's philosophy of life. Athenaeum, Königstein im Taunus 1985, ISBN 3-445-02351-4 .
- Phyllis Bottome : Alfred Adler: Apostle of Freedom. Faber and Faber Ltd., London 1939; 3. Edition. 1957.
- Phyllis Bottome: Alfred Adler portrayed up close. First German translation, VTA - Verlag für Tiefenpsychologie und Anthropologie, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-00-040056-8 ( book project ).
- Almuth Bruder-Bezzel: History of individual psychology. 2nd, revised edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, ISBN 3-525-45834-7 (full text digital-sammlungen.de ).
- Sigmund Freud et al: About suicide, especially student suicide. Contributions by: Alfred Adler, S (igmund) Freud (…) . JF Bergmann, Wiesbaden 1910 (full text digital-sammlungen.de ).
- Madelaine Ganz: La psychologie d'Alfred Adler et le développement de l'enfant . Delachaux et Niestlé, Paris 1934.
- Madelaine Ganz: The Psychology of Alfred Adler and the Development of the Child. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd, London 1953, reprints 1999, 2000, 2001
- Bernhard Handlbauer: The history of the development of the individual psychology of Alfred Adler (= publications of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for the history of the social sciences . Volume 12). Geyer, Vienna / Salzburg 1984.
- Josef Hanslmeier: Adler, Alfred. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , p. 68 ( digitized version ).
- Edward Hoffman: Alfred Adler: A Life for Individual Psychology. Ernst Reinhardt Verlag Munich / Basel 1997, ISBN 3-497-01418-4 (Original: The Drive for Self: Alfred Adler and the Founding of Individual Psychology. Addison-Wesley, New York 1994).
- Detlef Horster : Alfred Adler as an introduction. SOAK, Hanover 1984, ISBN 3-88209-060-X .
- Henry Jacoby : Alfred Adler's individual psychology and dialectical character studies. Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-596-26773-0 .
- Russell Jacoby: Social Amnesia: A Critique of Conformist Psychology from Adler to Laing (= Edition Suhrkamp. Volume 859). Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-518-10859-X .
- Clara Kenner: Alfred Adler . In: Der Zerrissene Himmel - Emigration and Exile of the Viennese Individual Psychology. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-45320-9 , pp. 62-67.
- Hertha Orgler: Alfred Adler, the man and his work: Triumph over the inferiority complex. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Vienna 1956; 3rd, unchanged edition: Psychologie Verlags Union, Munich 1971, ISBN 3-621-27089-2 .
- Josef Rattner : Alfred Adler with self-testimonials and picture documents (= Rowohlt's monographs. Volume 189). Rowohlt Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1972, ISBN 3-499-50189-9 .
- Josef Rattner: Alfred Adler - Man and his teaching. Verlag für Tiefenpsychologie, 2013, ISBN 978-3-921836-45-3 .
- Josef Rattner: Alfred Adler in honor: On the 50th year of his death (1937). (= Yearbook for Understanding Depth Psychology and Cultural Analysis Volume 6/7). Verlag für Tiefenpsychologie, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-921836-07-7 .
- Josef Rattner: Alfred Adler. In: Ders .: Classics of Psychoanalysis. 2nd Edition. Beltz, Weinheim 1995, ISBN 3-621-27285-2 , pp. 28-66.
- Josef Rattner: Alfred Adler or striving for self-worth, search for meaning and social anchoring of people. In: J. Rattner / G. Danzer: European Austria - literary and intellectual history essays over the period 1800–1980. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2004, ISBN 3-8260-3026-5 , pp. 141-164.
- Bernd Rieken (Hrsg.): Alfred Adler today: To the topicality of the individual psychology. Waxmann, Münster 2011, ISBN 978-3-8309-2405-0 .
- Paul Rom : Alfred Adler and the scientific knowledge of human nature. Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1966.
- Jürg Rüedi: The Significance of Alfred Adler for Education: A Historical Review of Individual Psychology from an Educational Perspective. Paul Haupt, Bern / Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-258-03975-5 .
- H. Ruediger Schiferer: Alfred Adler: A pictorial biography with previously unknown original documents and mostly unpublished images. E. Reinhardt, Munich / Basel 1995, ISBN 3-497-01322-6 .
- Manès Sperber : Alfred Adler: Man and his teaching. An essay. JF Bergmann, Munich 1926.
- Manès Sperber: Alfred Adler or The Misery of Psychology. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-548-39074-9 .
- Michaela Zykan: Adler, Alfred. In: Werner E. Gerabek u. a. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of medical history. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 8.
- Eva Novotny, Die Presse of July 1, 2011: With someone else's ears
- Ichiro Kishimi, Fumitake Koma: You don't have to be liked by everyone. The courage not to bend . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-499-63405-5 (Japanese: kirawareru yuki . Tokyo 2013. Translated by Renate Graßtat from the English edition). Reading sample preliminary remarks by the authors, introduction and the first evening
- Alexander Kluy: Alfred Adler. The measurement of the human psyche . Biography, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-421-04796-0 .
- Literature by and about Alfred Adler in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Alfred Adler in the German Digital Library
- Newspaper article about Alfred Adler in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Literature by and about Alfred Adler in the bibliographic database WorldCat
- Works (as digitized and full text) by Alfred Adler in the German Text Archive .
- Alfred Adler Biography. In: International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis . Thomson Gale, Detroit 2005.
- Joseph Rattner : Alfred Adler - a biographical sketch (from: Katharina Kaminski, Gerald Mackenthun (Hrsg.): Individual psychology on new paths. Basic concepts - individual psychology as applied ethics - psychotherapy - character studies. Würzburg 1997).
- ^ Henri F. Ellenberger : The discovery of the unconscious. History and development of dynamic psychiatry from its beginnings to Janet, Freud, Adler and Jung. From the American (1970) by Gudrun Theusner-Stampa. 2 volumes. Huber, Bern 1973, ISBN 3-456-30577-X . (New edition: Diogenes, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-257-06503-5 ).
- ↑ Adler used the term organ inferiority for insufficiently developed (morphological organ inferiority) organs or for those whose functioning did not meet the requirements (functional organ inferiority).
- ↑ a b Sonia Horn: Alfred Adler , in: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (eds.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the present , 3rd edition 2006, Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin, New York p. 4f. doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-540-29585-3 .
- ^ Alfred Adler's ashes discovered after 74 years. In: orf.at , news. April 10, 2011, accessed July 13, 2011; Ashes from Adler come back after 74 years. In: orf.at , Vienna. April 11, 2011, accessed July 13, 2011; Late homecoming. In: Profile . No. 26/2001 (June 27, 2011), p. 84; Individual psychologist Adler returns home to Vienna in Urne. In: Die Presse.com . July 12, 2011, accessed July 13, 2011.
- ^ Alfred-Adler-Strasse in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
- ↑ Minor Planet Circ. 40707 (PDF).
- ^ Alfred Adler in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
- ↑ NZZ from January 15, 2020: There would be a lot to learn from this psychologist today
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian doctor and psychotherapist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 7, 1870|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 28, 1937|
|Place of death||Aberdeen|